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Encyclopedia > English Channel
Satellite view of the English Channel
Satellite view of the English Channel

The English Channel (French: La Manche, "the sleeve") is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. It is about 562 km (350 miles) long and varies in width from 240 km (150 miles) at its widest to only 34 km (21 miles) in the Strait of Dover.[1] It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of only some 75,000 km² (29,000 square miles).[2] English Channel (foaled April 10, 2002 in Kentucky) is an American Thoroughbred racehorse. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1133x677, 234 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: English Channel ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1133x677, 234 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: English Channel ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ...

Contents

Geography

Map of the English Channel

The length of the Channel is most often defined as the line between Land's End and Ushant at the (arbitrarily defined) western end, and the Strait of Dover at the eastern end. The Strait is also the Channel's narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo near the midpoint of the waterway.[1] It is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to about 45 m between Dover and Calais. From there eastwards the sea continues to shallow to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the former land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a maximum depth of 180 m (590 ft) in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep, 30 km (19 miles) northwest of Guernsey.[3] from http://www. ... from http://www. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... Ushant (in French Ouessant, in Breton Enez Eusa) is an island in the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of European France. ... Lyme Bay shown within Great Britain Lyme Bay is an area of the English Channel situated in the southwest of England between Torbay in the west and Portland in the east. ... Saint-Malo is a walled port city in Brittany in northern France on the English Channel. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Broad Fourteens is an area of the southern North Sea that is fairly consistently fourteen fathoms (26 meters) deep (thus, on a nautical map showing depth, a broad area with many 14 notations). ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... Hurds Deep or Hurd Deep is a deep underwater valley in the English channel. ...


A number of major islands are situated in the Channel, of which the most notable are the Isle of Wight off the English coast and the British crown dependencies the Channel Islands off the coast of France. The Isles of Scilly off the far south-west coast of England are not generally counted as being in the Channel. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is deeply indented; the Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, and the Isle of Wight creates a small parallel channel known as the Solent. For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... St Martins taken from the helicopter to Penzance View from Tresco, the second largest member of the Isles of Scilly For the area of Surrey, see Scilly Isles, Surrey. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ...


The Channel is of geologically recent origins, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. It is thought to have been created between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago by two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods caused by the breaching of the Weald-Artois Anticline, a ridge which held back a large proglacial lake in the Doggerland region, now submerged under the North Sea. The flood would have lasted several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The cause of the breach is not known but may have been caused by an earthquake or simply the build-up of water pressure in the lake. As well as destroying the isthmus that connected Britain to continental Europe, the flood carved a large bedrock-floored valley down the length of the English Channel, leaving behind streamlined islands and longitudinal erosional grooves characteristic of catastrophic megaflood events.[4] The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Hubbard Glacier, Alaska squeezes towards Gibert Point on May 20, 2002. ... The Weald-Artois Anticline was a chalk ridge running between what are now the regions of the Weald in southern England and Artois in western France, roughly between the towns of Dover and Calais. ... In geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine or ice dam during the retreat of a melting glacier, or one formed by meltwater trapped against a ice sheet due to isostatic depression of the crust around the ice. ... // Doggerland is the former landmass in the southern North Sea which connected the island of Great Britain to mainland Europe during the last ice age. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Water pressure is the pressure in any system for supplying water, usually a domestic water system, although the term is used in other contexts as well, such as a municipal water system. ...


At its west end, it is narrowly separated from the Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay by the peninsulas of Cornwall and Brittany respectively. Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


For the UK Shipping Forecast the English Channel is divided into the areas of (from the West): The Shipping Forecast is a four-times-daily BBC radio broadcast of weather reports and forecasts for the seas around the coasts of Britain and Ireland. ...

This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... The Isle of Portland is a long by wide limestone island in the English Channel. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ...

Name

Map with French nomenclature
Map with French nomenclature

The name "English Channel" has been widely used since the early 18th century, possibly originating from the designation Engelse Kanaal in Dutch sea maps from the 16th century onwards. Prior to then it was known as the British Sea, and it was called the Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450 which gives the alternative name of "canalites Anglie" - possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation.[5] The French name "La Manche", referring to the Channel's sleevelike shape, has been in use since at least the 17th century.[2] Though, detractors of this origin claim its true meaning is 'the channel', from a Celtic word that gave the name of The Minch in Scotland.[6]In Spain and most Spanish speaking countries the Channel is referred to as "El Canal de la Mancha"(Channel of the Mancha). Also, in most of the portuguese speaking coutries, it is known as "O Canal da Mancha". It is interesting to note that that the word was incorrectly translated because the word "mancha" means "stain". The correct translation would be "manga" Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 447 pixelsFull resolution (832 × 465 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/png) Carte de la Manche avec la situation des caps principaux, des îles et des villes importantes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 447 pixelsFull resolution (832 × 465 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/png) Carte de la Manche avec la situation des caps principaux, des îles et des villes importantes. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Minch is a body of water separating north-west mainland Scotland from the Isle of Lewis (the northern Outer Hebrides). ... This article is about the country. ...


In Breton it is known as "Mor Breizh" (the Sea of Brittany). Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Archaeology

The geology and geography of the Channel make it a productive site for Maritime Archaeologists and it has thousands of shipwrecks[7] Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ...


In August of 2007, artifacts including wood and hazel nuts from the 8000-year-old Bouldnor Cliff Mesolithic Village were presented by the Underwater Archaeology Centre based in the Isle of Wight. The preservation of organic material from the stone age is unique to the UK and already the site is of international importance. In August 2007, the Underwater Archaeology Centre on the Isle of Wight announced they had collected Mesolithic flints, wood, hazelnuts and other organic material from a submerged site at the foot of Bouldnor Cliff. ... The Underwater Archaeology Centre is a museum and educational facility located in the Maritime Heritage Centre at Fort Victoria on the Isle of Wight. ...


The most famous shipwreck is Henry VIII's flagship the Mary Rose.
“Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 The Mary Rose was an English Tudor warship of the carrack type and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. ...


History

This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands.
William Shakespeare, Richard II (Act II, Scene 2)

The channel has been the key natural defence for Britain, halting invading armies whilst in conjunction with control of the North Sea allowing her to blockade the continent. The most significant failed invasion threats came when the Dutch and Belgian ports were held by a major continental power, e.g from the Spanish Armada in 1588, Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars, and Nazi Germany during World War II. Successful invasions including the Roman conquest of Britain and the Norman Conquest in 1066 whilst the concentration of excellent harbours in the Western Channel on Britain's south coast made possible the largest invasion of all times: the Normandy landings in 1944. Channel naval battles include the Battle of Goodwin Sands (1652), the Battle of Portland (1653), the Battle of La Hougue (1692) and the engagement between USS Kearsarge and CSS Alabama (1864). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel... This is a chronological list of naval fleet battles: If a battles name isnt known its just referred to as Action of (date). // 456 - Romans under Flavius Ricimer defeat Vandals near Corsica 468 Cape Bon - Vandals defeat East and West Romans 551 - East Roman Byzantines under Artabanes... The Battle of Goodwin Sands (also known as the Battle of Dover), fought on 29 May 1652, was the first engagement of the First Anglo-Dutch War between the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. ... The Battle of Portland, also known as the Three Days Battle, was a naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The Battle of Barfleur, 29 May 1692 by Richard Paton, painted 18th century. ... Painting depicting the sinking of the CSS Alabama by the USS Kearsarge during the Civil War USS Kearsarge, a Mohican-class sloop-of-war, was the only ship of the United States Navy named for Mount Kearsarge in New Hampshire (subsequent ships were named Kearsarge in honor of this one... For other ships named Alabama, see USS Alabama. ...


In more peaceful times the channel served as a link joining shared cultures and political structures, particularly the huge Angevin Empire from 1135-1217. For nearly a thousand years, the Channel also provided a link between the Modern Celtic regions and languages of Cornwall and Brittany. Brittany was founded by Britons who fled Cornwall and Devon after Anglo-Saxon encroachment. In Brittany, there is a region known as "Cornouaille" (Cornwall) in French and "Kernev" in Breton (cf "Kernow", the Cornish for Cornwall). Anciently there was also a "Domnonia" (Devon) in Brittany as well. The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Cornouailles location within Brittany. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... La Domnonée (lat. ...


The way to the British Isles

This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century around the North Sea. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse, the orange area is the spread of the dialect Old East Norse and the green area is the extent of the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
This is the approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century around the North Sea. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse, the orange area is the spread of the dialect Old East Norse and the green area is the extent of the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

Diodorus Siculus and Pliny[8] both suggest trade between the rebel celtic tribes of Armorica and Iron Age Britain flourished. In 55 BC Julius Caesar invaded claiming that the Britons had aided the Veneti against him the previous year. He was more successful in 54 but Britain wasn't fully established as part of the Roman Empire until completion of the invasion by Aulus Plautius in 43 AD. A brisk and regular trade began between ports in Roman Gaul and those in Britain. This traffic continued until the Roman departure from Britain in 410 AD after which we enter early Anglo-Saxon times and historical records are generally far less clear. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Veneti may mean: The Adriatic Veneti, Enetoi in Greek, a bygone people of north-eastern Italy who spoke an Italic language. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... Events The Roman conquest of Britain begins with the Battle of Medway. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Roman departure from Britain was nearly completed by 400. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ...


In the power vacuum left by the retreating Romans, the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea. Having already been used as mercenaries in Britain by the Romans, many people from these tribes migrated across the North Sea during the Migration Period, conquering and perhaps displacing the native Celtic populations.[9] White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Norsemen and Normans

The Hermitage of Saint Helier lies in the bay off St. Helier and is accessible on foot at low tide
The Hermitage of Saint Helier lies in the bay off St. Helier and is accessible on foot at low tide

The attack on Lindisfarne in 793 is generally considered the beginning of the Viking Age. For the next 250 years the Scandinavian raiders of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark dominated the North Sea, raiding monasteries, homes, and towns along the coast and along the rivers that ran inland. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle they began to settle in Britain in 851. They continued to settle in the British Isles and the continent until around 1050.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1041x1290, 981 KB)Hermitage of Saint Helier in Saint Helier, Jersey Image created by User:Man vyi on 1st May 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1041x1290, 981 KB)Hermitage of Saint Helier in Saint Helier, Jersey Image created by User:Man vyi on 1st May 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The face of Saint Helier is sculpted on the 1978 monument La Croix de la Reine in St. ... Saint Helier is one of the twelve parishes and the largest town on Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Viking leader Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy). Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks Charles the Simple through the Treaty of St.-Claire-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory he and his Viking allies had previously conquered. The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking (i.e. "Northman") origins. The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 8th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D.. For the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Frankish Empire after the treaties of Verdun and Meerssen. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romantic language and intermarried with the area’s previous inhabitants and became the Normans – a Norman French-speaking mixture of Scandinavians, Hiberno-Norse, Orcadians, Anglo-Danish, and indigenous Franks and Gauls. The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Hiberno-Norse were a mix of Irish and Norwegians who inhabited certain settlements in Ireland in the 900s. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy became king of England in 1066 in the Norman Conquest culminating at the Battle of Hastings while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. In 1204, during the reign of King John, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under Philip II while insular Normandy (the Channel Islands) remained under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris. His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland French Normandy. William I of England (c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4,000, but... This article is about the King of England. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259. ...


With the rise of William the Conqueror the North Sea and Channel began to lose some of its importance. The new order oriented most of England and Scandinavia's trade south, toward the Mediterranean and the Orient. William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands (except for Chausey) remain a Crown dependency of the British Crown in the present era. Thus the Loyal Toast in the Channel Islands is La Reine, notre Duc ("The Queen, our Duke"). The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of 1259, the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1346-1360 and again in 1415-1450. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Chausey forms part of the Channel Islands from a geographical point of view, but because it is under French jurisdiction it is almost never mentioned in the context of the other Channel Islands. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... The Loyal Toast is the first toast to be given at a formal gathering to the presiding person. ... The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on December 4, 1259. ... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ...


Britain: the naval superpower

From the reign of Elizabeth I, English foreign policy concentrated on preventing invasion across the Channel by ensuring no major European power controlled the potential Dutch and Flemish invasion ports. Her climb to the pre-eminent sea power of the world began in 1588 as the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was defeated by the combination of outstanding naval tactics by the English under command of Sir Francis Drake and the breaking of the bad weather. The strengthened English Navy waged several wars with their continental neighbours and by the end of the 18th century had erased the Dutch's previously world-spanning empire.[11] 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ...


The building of the British Empire was possible only because the British navy exercised unquestioned control over the seas around Europe, especially the Channel and the North Sea. The only significant challenge to British domination of the seas came during the Napoleonic Wars. The Battle of Trafalgar took place off the coast of Spain against a combined French and Spanish fleet and was won by Admiral Horatio Nelson, ending Napoleon's plans for a cross-Channel invasion and securing British dominance of the seas for over a century. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


The First World War

The exceptional strategic importance of the Channel as a tool for blockade was recognised by the First Sea Lord Admiral Fisher in the years before WW1. John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher (January 25, 1841 – July 10, 1920), commonly known as Jackie Fisher, was a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform. ...


"Five keys lock up the world! Singapore, the Cape, Alexandria, Gibraltar, Dover."[12]


Because the Kaiserliche Marine surface fleet could not match the British Grand Fleet, the Germans developed submarine warfare which was to become a far greater threat to Britain. The Dover Patrol was set up just before war started to escort cross-Channel troopships and to prevent submarines from accessing the Channel, thereby obliging them to travel to the Atlantic via the much longer route around Scotland. Dover Patrol was a very important Royal Navy command of the First World War. ...


On January 31st 1917 the Germans restarted unrestricted submarine warfare leading to dire Admiralty predictions that submarines would defeat Britain by November,[13] the most dangerous situation Britain faced in either World War.


The Battle of Passchendaele in 1917, was fought to reduce the threat by capturing the submarine bases on the Belgian coast though it was the introduction of convoys and not capture of the bases that averted defeat. In April 1918 the Dover patrol carried out the famous Zeebrugge Raid against the U boat bases. The Naval blockade effected via the Channel and North Sea was one of the decisive factors in the German defeat in 1918.[14] Passchendaele village, before and after the Battle of Passchendaele The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres ( Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ...


The Second World War

British radar facilities during the Battle for Britain 1940
British radar facilities during the Battle for Britain 1940

The Second World War was, in naval terms, again mostly a submarine v Allied escort war fought in the Atlantic. The early stages of the Battle of Britain[2] featured air attacks on Channel shipping and ports and until the Normandy landings with the exception of the Channel Dash the narrow waters were too dangerous for major warships. However, despite these early successes against shipping, the Germans did not win the air supremacy necessary for a cross Channel invasion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1670 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The map (topographic background derived from a German article about Great Britain taken from German wikipedia) gives a quick overview about British radar facilities during the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1670 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The map (topographic background derived from a German article about Great Britain taken from German wikipedia) gives a quick overview about British radar facilities during the... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel... Operation Cerberus (German: Zerberus after Cerberus the three-headed dog of Greek mythology who guards the gate to Hades) was the name given to the break-out during World War II of the Kriegsmarines ships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Prinz Eugen and a number of smaller ships from Brest to their...


The Channel subsequently became the stage for an intensive coastal war, featuring submarines, minesweepers, and Fast Attack Craft.[15] USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... S71 Gepard, Gepard class fast attack craft A Fast Attack Craft (FAC) (German: Schnellboot) is a small (150 to 400 tonnes), fast (up to ca. ...

150mm World War II German gun emplacement in Normandy.
150mm World War II German gun emplacement in Normandy.

The town of Dieppe was the site of the ill-fated Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces. More successful was the later Operation Overlord (also known as D-Day), a massive invasion of German-occupied France by Allied troops. Caen, Cherbourg, Carentan, Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the fight for the province, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Montormel, then liberation of Le Havre. Image File history File links NormandyCourcelles2JM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Image File history File links NormandyCourcelles2JM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen. ... Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy), France. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured wounded or not; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Carentan is a town and commune of the Manche département in Normandy, France. ... Falaise is the name of several communes in France: Falaise, in the Ardennes département Falaise, in the Calvados département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants North:  United Kingdom  Canada Polish forces South:  United States  Free French Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Harry Crerar Philippe Leclerc StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Bernard Montgomery George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength ~at least 500,000 Casualties Canadian: 1,470 killed Polish: 325 killed ~50,000 killed... Chambois is a city in France, and was part of the Falaise pocket. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ...

As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey
As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey

The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Commonwealth occupied by Germany (excepting the part of Egypt occupied by the Afrika Korps at the time of the Second Battle of El Alamein). The German occupation 1940–1945 was harsh, with some island residents being taken for slave labour on the Continent; native Jews sent to concentration camps; partisan resistance and retribution; accusations of collaboration; and slave labour (primarily Russians and eastern Europeans) being brought to the islands to build fortifications. The Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly following the liberation of mainland Normandy in 1944. Intense negotiations resulted in some Red Cross humanitarian aid, but there was considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German occupation particularly in the final months when the population were close to starvation. The German troops on the islands surrendered on 9 May 1945 only a few days after the final surrender in mainland Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1513x1089, 1047 KB) Part of the Atlantic Wall built by the Germans during World War II. This observation tower is situated at Les Landes in St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1513x1089, 1047 KB) Part of the Atlantic Wall built by the Germans during World War II. This observation tower is situated at Les Landes in St. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Organisation Todt Flag Organisation Todt (OT) was a Nazi construction and engineering group during the years of the Third Reich, which enslaved over 1. ... As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... This article is about the British dependencies. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... For the Battle of Alam Halfa, which is also often termed the Second Battle of El Alamein, see Battle of Alam Halfa Combatants British Eighth Army: United Kingdom Australia New Zealand South Africa India Panzer Army Africa: Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 220,000 men... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...




Population

The English Channel is densely populated on both shores, on which are situated a number of major ports and resorts possessing a combined population of over 3.5 million people. The most significant towns and cities along the Channel (each with more than 20,000 inhabitants, ranked in descending order; populations are the urban area populations from the 1999 French census, 2001 UK census, and 2001 Jersey census) are as follows: Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


English side

The walled city of Saint-Malo was a former stronghold of corsairs
The Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth at night, showing the Tower's uplighting.
The Spinnaker Tower, Portsmouth at night, showing the Tower's uplighting.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x882, 284 KB) Description Vue de la ville de Saint Malo en France Source Image:Saintmalo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x882, 284 KB) Description Vue de la ville de Saint Malo en France Source Image:Saintmalo. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (310x788, 47 KB) Summary The Spinnaker Tower in Portsmouth, UK, at night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (310x788, 47 KB) Summary The Spinnaker Tower in Portsmouth, UK, at night. ... The Spinnaker Tower in June 2005. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Worthing (disambiguation). ... , Littlehampton also known as chavhmpton is a seaside resort town in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... , Bournemouth is a large town and tourist resort, situated on the south coast of England. ... Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination, situated on the shores of the English Channel, in the ceremonial county of Dorset in southern England. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ... Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... This article is about the English town. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... Bexhill-on-Sea is a town and seaside resort in the county of East Sussex, in the south of England. ... For other places with the same name, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ... , Bognor Regis is a seaside resort town and civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. ... , Folkestone (IPA: ) is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... Hythe (pronounced ) is a small coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the District of Shepway (derived from Sheep Way) on the south coast of Kent. ... , Weymouth is a town in Dorset, England, United Kingdom, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Map sources for Exmouth at grid reference SY004809 Exmouth is a town in Devon, England, at the east side of the mouth of the River Exe. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... Penryn (Cornish: Pennrynn, from Pen-ryn meaning promontory) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK on the Penryn river. ... Ryde, seen from Ryde Pier and showing the twin spires. ... , Seaford is a coastal town in the county of East Sussex, England, on the south coast, east of Newhaven, Brighton and west of Eastbourne. ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and...

French side

Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg) is a commune France, situated in Côtes-dArmor and in the Brittany région. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Lannion (Breton: Lannuon) is a commune of the Côtes-dArmor département, in Brittany, France. ... Perros-Guirec is a commune of the Côtes-dArmor département, in France. ... Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy), France. ... Morlaix is a commune, or municipality, in the département of Finistère in Brittany, North-West France. ... Vilaine]] département. ... Étaples is a commune and the chief town of a canton, in the arrondissement of Montreuil-sur-Mer, in the Pas-de-Calais département of northern France. ... Le Touquet Paris-Plage Golf Le Touquet-Paris-Plage, commonly referred to as Le Touquet, is a coastal town and commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France. ... Palais de la Bénédictine Fécamp is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, in France. ... Le Tréport is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, in northwestern France. ... Trouville-sur-Mer, commonly referred to as Trouville, is a commune and a canton of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in northern France. ... Deauville is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Berck is a commune of north France, in the département of Pas-de-Calais. ...

Channel Islands


Saint Helier (Jèrriais: St Hélyi) is one of the twelve parishes and the largest town on Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ...


Shipping

The Channel, with the North sea-Atlantic traffic along the Channel crossing the path of the UK-Europe traffic, is one of the World's busiest seaways carrying over 400 ships per day. Following an accident in January 1971 and a series of disastrous collisions with wreckage in February[3], the Dover Traffic Separation system (TSS) the World's first Radar controlled TSS was set up by the International Maritime Organization. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to...


In December 2002 the MV Tricolor, carrying £30m of luxury cars sank 32 km (20 m) north west of Dunkirk after collision in fog with the container ship Kariba. The cargo ship Nicola ran into the wreckage the next day. However, there was no loss of life. The system was updated in 2003 and is one of the most advanced systems in the World. Though long range shore based systems are inherently not capable of reaching the levels of safety obtainable from aviation systems such as the Traffic Collision Avoidance System, it has reduced accidents to one or two a year. MV Tricolor was a 50,000 tonne Norwegian-flagged vehicle carrier, built in 1987. ... TCAS and IVSI Indicator The Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (or TCAS) is a computerised avionics device which is designed to reduce the danger of mid-air collisions between aircraft. ...


Marine GPS systems allow ships to be preprogrammed to accurately and automatically follow navigational channels, further avoiding risk of running aground but, following the fatal collision between Dutch Aquamarine and Ash in October 2001, Britain's Marine Accident Investigation Branch, MAIB issued a safety bulletin saying it believed GPS actually contributed and ships tended to maintain a very precise course, one behind the other rather than use the full width of the traffic lanes. GPS redirects here. ...


Accidents will happen. A combination of radar difficulties in monitoring areas near cliffs, a failure of a CCTV system, incorrect operation of the anchor, the inability of the crew to follow standard procedures of using a GPS to provide early warning of the ship dragging the anchor and reluctance to admit the mistake and start the engine led to the MV Willy running aground in Cawsand bay, Cornwall in January 2002. The Marine Accident Investigation Branch report makes it clear that the harbour controllers were actually informed of impending disaster by shore observers even before the crew were themselves aware! The village of Kingsand was evacuated for 3 days due to very serious risk of explosion and the ship was stranded for 11 days. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Kingsand-Cawsand village. ...


Because of the risk to life, unorthodox crossings of the Dover Straits is banned under French Law, the only exception being for Cross Channel swimming attempts organised and approved by the Channel Swimming Association (CSA) and (CS&PF).




Ecology

As a busy shipping lane, the English Channel experiences environmental problems following accidents involving ships with toxic cargo[4] and oil spills. Indeed over 40% of the UK incidents threatening pollution, occur in or very near the Channel. [5] One of the best known and least loved was the Napoli which with nearly 1700 tonnes of dangerous cargo was controversially beached in Lyme bay, a protected World Heritage Site coastline. The ship had been damaged and was en route to Portland when much nearer harbours were available. Origin A neologism created in reaction to comments made by State Senator Bill Napoli (R-SD). ...


The Channel Islands is important for protected wetland species and includes a number of Ramsar sites.
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ... Off Alderney Burhou Ortac Pierres de Lecq Les Dirouilles Minquiers and Ecréhous Écréhous Minquiers Ramsar Convention Categories: | ...


Transport links

View of the beach of Le Havre and a part of the rebuilt city
View of the beach of Le Havre and a part of the rebuilt city

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1570x435, 183 KB) Le Havre, 14 juillet 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1570x435, 183 KB) Le Havre, 14 juillet 2005. ...

Ferry

Important ferry routes are:

  • Dover-Calais
  • Newhaven-Dieppe
  • Portsmouth-Caen (Ouistreham)
  • Portsmouth-Cherbourg
  • Portsmouth-Le Havre
  • Poole-Saint Malo
  • Poole-Cherbourg
  • Weymouth-Saint Malo
  • Plymouth-Roscoff

Channel Tunnel

Many travellers cross beneath the English Channel using the Channel Tunnel. This engineering feat, first proposed in the early 19th century and finally realised in 1994, connects the UK and France by rail. It is now routine to travel between Paris, Brussels and London on the Eurostar train. The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... “railroads” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A Eurostar train running through London suburbs on the third-rail electric supply Eurostar is a train service that connects London with Paris and Brussels. ...


Economy

Tourism

The coastal resorts of the channel, such as Brighton and Deauville, inaugurated an era of aristocratic tourism in the early 19th century, which developed into the seaside tourism that has shaped resorts around the world. Short trips across the channel for leisure purposes are often referred to as Channel Hopping. For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... Deauville is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Channel hopping is a slang term used by British citizens making short trips across the English Channel. ...


Culture and languages

Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779), dealing with England's Law French, a cross channel relic
Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779), dealing with England's Law French, a cross channel relic
A streetsign in Merck-Saint-Liévin, Pas-de-Calais, showing Germanic influence in local toponyms. The name Picquendal corresponds to the modern Dutch Pikkendal.
A streetsign in Merck-Saint-Liévin, Pas-de-Calais, showing Germanic influence in local toponyms. The name Picquendal corresponds to the modern Dutch Pikkendal.

The two dominant cultures are English on the north shore of the Channel, and French on the south shore. However, there are also a number of minority languages that are/were found on the shores and islands of the English Channel, which are listed here, with the Channel's name following them. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1638 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 332 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 1638 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1531 × 1149 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) de en File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1531 × 1149 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) de en File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ...


Celtic Languages

Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...

Germanic languages

Flemish previously had a larger range, and extended into parts of the modern day French state. For more information, please see French Flemish. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Flemish language can designate: the official language of Flanders, which is Dutch with only very small variations; any of the regional dialects of Dutch spoken in Belgium; these are more different from Dutch than the official language of Flanders; one of these dialects, the West Flemish. ... Frans-Vlaams (French Flemish) is a dialect of the Dutch language. ...


Romance Languages

The English Channel has a variety of names in these languages. In Breton, it is known as Mor Breizh meaning the Sea of Brittany; in Norman, the Channel Island dialects use forms of "channel", e.g. Ch'nal, whereas the Mainland dialects tend more towards the French as in Maunche. In Flemish and Dutch it is Het Kanaal (the channel). French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Map of Cotentin peninsula Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula. ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (Lé Sèrtchais) is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ...


Most other languages tend towards variants of the French and English forms, but notably Welsh has "Môr Udd" Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Notable channel crossings

As one of the narrowest but most famous international waterways lacking dangerous currents, crossing the Channel has been the first objective of a number of innovative sea, air and human powered technologies. Some of these are given below.

Date Crossing Participant(s) Notes
7 January 1785 First crossing by air (in balloon, from Dover to Calais) Jean-Pierre Blanchard (France)
John Jeffries (U.S.)
15 June 1785 First air crash
(in combination hydrogen / hot-air balloon)
Pilâtre de Rozier (France) Pierre Romain (France) Attempted crossing similar to Blanchard/Jeffries
25 August 1875 First known person to swim the channel (Dover to Calais, 21 hrs, 45 min) Matthew Webb (UK) Attempted crossing on 12 August the same year; forced to abandon swim due to strong winds/rough sea conditions
27 March 1899 First radio transmission across the Channel (from (Wimereux to South Foreland Lighthouse) Guglielmo Marconi (Italy)
25 July 1909 First person to cross the channel in a heavier-than-air aircraft (the Blériot XI) (Calais to Dover, 37 minutes) Louis Blériot (France) Encouraged by £1000 prize being offered by the Daily Mail for first successful flight across the channel
23 August 1910 First aircraft flight with passengers John Bevins Moisant (U.S.) Passengers were mechanic Albert Fileux and Moisant's cat.
25 July 1959 Hovercraft crossing (Calais to Dover, 2 hours 3 minutes) SR-N1 Sir Christopher Cockerell was on board
August 22, 1972 First solo hovercraft crossing (same route as SR-N1; 2 hours 20 minutes[16]) Nigel Beale (UK)
12 June 1979 First human-powered aircraft to fly over the channel
(in 70-pound (32-kg) Gossamer Albatross)
Bryan Allen (U.S.) Won a £100,000 Kremer Prize; Allen pedaled for three hours
14 September 1995 Fastest crossing by hovercraft, 22 minutes by "Princess Anne" MCH SR-N4 MkIII Craft was designed to work as a ferry
1997 First vessel to complete a solar-powered crossing using photovoltaic cells. SB Collinda
14 June 2004 New record time for crossing in amphibious vehicle (the Gibbs Aquada, two-seater open-top sports car) Richard Branson (UK) Completed crossing in 100 min 06 sec. Broke record by about six hours.
26 July 2006 New record time for crossing in hydrofoil car (the Rinspeed Splash, two-seater open-top sports car) Frank M. Rinderknecht (SUI) Completed crossing in 194 min (link with photos)

is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... Jean-Pierre Blanchard (aka Jean Pierre François Blanchard), (7 July 1753 – 7 March 1809) was a French inventor, most remembered a pioneer in aviation and ballooning. ... Dr. John Jeffries (1745-1819) was a Boston physician and scientist, and a military surgeon with the British army in Nova Scotia and New York during the American Revolution. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hot air balloons are the oldest successful human flight technology, dating back to the Montgolfier brothers invention in Annonay, France in 1783. ... Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier. ... redirect Pilâtre_de_Rozier ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aids. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wimereux is a commune of the Pas-de-Calais département, in France. ... South Foreland Lighthouse is a Victorian lighthouse on the South Foreland in St. ... For the inventor of radio,and macoroni see the competing claims in history of radio and the invention of radio. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Designed by Louis Blériot and Raymond Saulnier (of Morane-Saulnier) the Blériot XI was a light and sleek monoplane constructed of oak and poplar. ... Louis Blériot Louis Blériot (July 1, 1872 – August 2, 1936) was a French inventor and engineer, who performed the first flight over a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John Moisant (1868-1910) in 1910 John Bevins Moisant (25 April 1868 - 31 December 1910) was a United States aviator. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Saunders-Roe Nautical One (SR-N1) was the first practical hovercraft. ... Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (June 4, 1910 – June 1, 1999) was an English engineer, inventor of the hovercraft. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... The Gossamer Albatross II in flight. ... Bryan L. Allen (born October 13, 1952 in Visalia, California) is a former amateur competitive cyclist and self-taught hang glider pilot. ... The Kremer prizes are a series of monitory awards, established in 1959 by the industrialist Henry Kremer, that are given to pioneers of human-powered flight. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... A Hovercraft, or Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV), is an amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface - land or water - supported by a cushion of slowly moving, low-pressure air, ejected downwards against the surface close below it. ... The mean corpuscular hemoglobin, or MCH, is a measure of the amount of hemoglobin contained by a red blood cell. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Gibbs Aquada The Gibbs Aquada is a high speed amphibious vehicle developed by Alan Gibbs and his company Gibbs Technologies. ... 1963 Jaguar E-Type, a classic sports car 1963 Chevrolet Corvette was based upon European sports cars A sports car is an automobile designed for performance driving. ... Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950 ) in Shamley Green, Surrey, England), is a British entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 Jaguar E-Type, a classic sports car 1963 Chevrolet Corvette was based upon European sports cars A sports car is an automobile designed for performance driving. ...

By boat

Pierre Andriel crossed the English Channel aboard the Élise in 1815, one of the earliest sea going voyages by steam ship . The Élise was the first steam ship to cross the English Channel. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ...


The Mountbatten class hovercraft (MCH) entered commercial service in August 1968 initially operated between Dover and Boulogne but later craft also made the Ramsgate (Pegwell Bay) to Calais route. The journey time, Dover to Boulogne, was roughly 35 minutes, with six trips a day at peak times. The fastest ever crossing of the English Channel by a commercial car-carrying hovercraft was 22 minutes, recorded by the Princess Anne MCH SR-N4 Mk3 on 14 September 1995,[17] for the 10:00 am service [citation needed]. SR.N4 Hovercraft arriving in Dover on its last commercial flight - 1st October 2000 The Mountbatten class hovercraft or SR-N4 was built by BHC, the British Hovercraft Corporation. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also Ramsgate (disambiguation) for other places with this name. ... Pegwell Bay is a shallow inlet in the Channel coast being the outlet of the estuary of the River Stour between Ramsgate and Sandwich, Kent. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


The youngest recorded sailors to cross the channel by boat are Hugo Sunnucks and Guy Harrison aged 15 (formular 18 catamaran). They completed in 4 hours 15 mins in August 2006.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Catamaran History be merged into this article or section. ...


By swimming

The sport of Channel Swimming traces its origins to the latter part of the 19th century when Captain Matthew Webb made the first observed and unassisted swim across the Strait of Dover swimming from England to France on 24 August25 August 1875 in 21 hours and 45 minutes. Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aids. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1927 (at a time when fewer than ten swimmers had managed to emulate the feat and a number of dubious claims were being made), the Channel Swimming Association (the CSA) was founded to authenticate and ratify swimmers' claims to have swum the English Channel and to verify crossing times. The CSA was dissolved in 1999 and succeeded by two separate organisations: The CSA (Ltd) and the Channel Swimming and Piloting Federation (CSPF) (website). Both organisations are registered with the international governing body for swimming Fédération Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA) (website) and observe and authenticate cross-Channel swims in the Strait of Dover. Fédération Internationale de Natation The International Swimming Federation (French Fédération Internationale de Natation, FINA) organizes and regulates international swimming, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo and open water swimming championships. ...


Although the swimming rules and regulations of the two organisations are virtually identical, the CSA has not always been prepared to recognise swims conducted under the auspices of the larger and more popular CSPF.


A comprehensive list of all registered and verified solo swims is available from http://home.btconnect.com/critchlow/ChannelSwimDatabase.htm


A comprehensive list of all registered and verified solo and relay swims is available from http://www.doverlife.co.uk/channelswimming


For a list of Channel Swimming Association Records for swims registered only under the rules of the Channel Swimming Association and verified by that body, go to http://www.channelswimmingassociation.com

  • On 24 August25 August 1875 Capt. Matthew Webb made the first crossing of the English Channel from England to France.
  • On 12 August 1923 Enrico Tiraboschi made the first crossing of the English Channel from France to England.
  • On 6 August 1926, Gertrude Ederle became the first woman to swim the Channel. She did it in 14 hours and 31 minutes, breaking the men's record of the time by two hours.
  • On 24 November 1927, Mercedes Gleitze, the first British lady, swims across wearing a Rolex Oyster.
  • In July 1972, Lynne Cox became the youngest person to swim the English Channel at age fifteen, breaking both the men's and women's records. She swam the channel again in 1973, setting a new record time of nine hours and thirty-six minutes.
  • The oldest verified male swimmer to cross is American George Brunstad, who was aged 70 years and 4 days when he crossed on 27 August and 28 August 2004, taking 15 hours 59 min.
  • The oldest male swimmer to cross under the rules of the Channel Swimming Association is Australian Clifford Batt, who was aged 67 years and 240 days when he crossed on 19 August 1987, taking 18 hours 37 minutes.
  • The fastest ever verified swim of the channel was by Peter Stoychev on 24 August 2007. He crossed the channel in 6 hours 57 minutes and 50 seconds.
  • The fastest verified female channel swimmer is Yvetta Hlaváčová in 2006. She crossed the channel in 7 hours 25 minutes and 15 seconds.
  • The fastest swim of the channel made under Channel Swimming Association rules is by Chad Hundeby of the USA on 27 September 1994. He crossed the channel in 7 hours 17 minutes.
  • The titles "King" and "Queen" of the Channel, held by those with the most successful crossings, are taken seriously by the swimming community and there has been some controversy over the refusal by some to recognise others' swims.
  • The undisputed "Queen of the Channel" is Alison Streeter MBE with 43 crossings including one 3-way and three 2-way swims; 39 of those crossings are recognised and authenticated by the CSA.
  • The righful "King of the Channel" title was conferred by the CSPF on Kevin Murphy (34 crossings, including three doubles) and then dubiously by the CAS on Michael Read (with 33 crossings of the English Channel authenticated by the CSA. [neutrality disputed]
  • Des Renford swam the Channel 19 times, more than any other Australian. He was born on 25 August 1927, the 52nd anniversary of Matthew Webb's inaugural swim.

The team with the most number of Channel swims to its credit is the International Sri Chinmoy Marathon Team with 35 crossings by 25 members (by 2005). [6] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ederle in 1926 Gertrude Caroline Ederle (October 23, 1905 – November 30, 2003) was an American competitive swimmer. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lynne Cox (born 1957) is an American long-distance open-water swimmer and writer. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Petar Stoychev is a Bulgarian open water swimmer and is most famous for claiming 3rd place at 2005 FINA World Championships in Montréal, Canada during the 5000 metre event. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Yvetta Hlaváčová (born 26 May 1975 in Boskovice) is a Czech national team member in long-distance swimming and women’s world record holder from swimming the English Channel in a time of 7 hours, 25 minutes, was born in 1975 and has been swimming since childhood. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kevin Murphy has swum the English Channel 34 times, more than any other man in history, earning him the title as King Of The Channel This total includes three double-channel swims. ... Desmond Robert Renford MBE (25 August 1927 - 30 December 1999) was an Australian long distance swimmer who swam the English Channel 19 times from 19 attempts. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vicki Keith (born 26 February 1961) is a Canadian ultra marathon swimmer. ... Florence May Chadwick (born November 9, 1918 – died March 15, 1995) was an American swimmer who was the first woman ever to cross the English Channel both ways. ... Marilyn Bell, (born October 19, 1937) is a retired Canadian long distance swimmer, born in Toronto. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brojen Das Brojen Das,(1927-1998) first South Asian to swim across the English Channel. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Doon Mackichan Doon Mackichan (born 1962, Fife) is a Scottish comedian. ... David Walliams (born David Williams, August 20, 1971) is an English comedy actor, best known for his partnership with Matt Lucas in the sketch show Little Britain. ...


By the end of 2005, 811 individuals had completed 1185 verified crossings under the rules of the CSA, the CSA (Ltd), the CSPF and Butlins.


The total number of swims conducted under and ratified by the Channel Swimming Association to 2005: 982 successful crossings by 665 people. This includes twenty-four 2-way crossings and three 3-way crossings.


Total number of ratified swims to 2004: 948 successful crossings by 675 people (456 by men and 214 by women). There have been sixteen 2-way crossings (9 by men and 7 by women). There have been three 3-way crossings (2 by men and 1 by a woman). (It is unclear whether this last set of data is comprehensive or CSA-only.)


References

  1. ^ a b "English Channel". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004.
  2. ^ a b "English Channel." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
  3. ^ "English Channel." The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas. 2005.
  4. ^ Gupta, Sanjeev; Jenny S. Collier, Andy Palmer-Felgate & Graeme Potter (2007). "Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel". Nature 448 (7151): 342-345. doi:10.1038/nature06018. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. Lay summary – msnbc.com (2007-07-18). 
  5. ^ "Map Of Great Britain, Ca. 1450", Collect Britain
  6. ^ (Room A. Placenames of the world: origins and meanings, p. 6).
  7. ^ http://www.ryemuseum.co.uk/shipwrec.htm
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Germany The migration period, <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-58084/Germany>. Retrieved on July 24, 2007
  10. ^ Nick Attwood MA, The Holy Island of Lindisfarne - The Viking Attack, <http://www.lindisfarne.org.uk/793/index.htm>. Retrieved on July 24, 2007
  11. ^ britishbattles.com, The Spanish Armada: Sir Francis Drake, <http://www.britishbattles.com/spanish-war/spanish-armada.htm>. Retrieved on July 24, 2007
  12. ^ http://www.manorhouse.clara.net/book3/chapter2.htm
  13. ^ http://www.germannotes.com/hist_ww1_uboat.shtml
  14. ^ http://uboat.net/history/wwi/
  15. ^ Campaigns of World War II, Naval History Homepage, Atlantic, WW2, U-boats, convoys, OA, OB, SL, HX, HG, Halifax, RCN ..., <http://www.naval-history.net/WW2CampaignsStartEurope.htm>. Retrieved on July 24, 2007
  16. ^ Verifiable in Hovercraft Club of Great Britain Records and Archives.
  17. ^ Hovercraft Facts. 1966: Hovercraft deal opens show. BBC.

Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC logo MSNBC (Microsoft & National Broadcasting Company) is a 24-hour news channel in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Phoenix breakwaters were a set of reinforced concrete caissons constructed by civil engineering contractors around the coast of Britain in World War II. They were collected and sunk at Dungeness, the Cant, and Selsey Bay, and then towed across the English Channel to form the Mulberry harbour breakwaters together... Booze cruise is an English colloquial term for a brief trip from Britain to France or Belgium with the intent of buying personal supplies of alcohol or tobacco in bulk quantities. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • A unique and new approach to swimming the channel
  • Information about Dover and Channel Swimming
  • Oceanus Britannicus or British Sea
  • Channel swimmers website
  • Archives of long distance swimming
  • Sponsor David Walliam's Sport Relief swim
  • Channel Swimming and Piloting Federation
  • Channel Swimming Association
  • World War II Eye Witness Account - Audio Recording AIR BATTLE OVER THE ENGLISH CHANNEL (1940)

Coordinates: 50°11′01″N, 0°31′52″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
English Channel - LoveToKnow 1911 (2955 words)
Nearing the entrance to the Channel from the Atlantic, the ioo fathoms line may be taken to mark the edge of soundings.
As a general rule the slope from the English coast to the deepest parts of the Channel is more regular than that from the French coast, and for that reason, and in consideration of the greater dangers to navigation towards the French shore, the fairway is taken to lie between 12 and 24 m.
In the extreme case at Southampton the tidal effect is carried from the outer Channel first by way of the Solent, the strait west of the Isle of Wight, and later by way of Spithead, the eastern strait.
English Channel - LoveToKnow 1911 (2955 words)
Nearing the entrance to the Channel from the Atlantic, the ioo fathoms line may be taken to mark the edge of soundings.
As a general rule the slope from the English coast to the deepest parts of the Channel is more regular than that from the French coast, and for that reason, and in consideration of the greater dangers to navigation towards the French shore, the fairway is taken to lie between 12 and 24 m.
The configuration of the coasts is perhaps the chief cause of the peculiarities of tides in the Channel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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