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Encyclopedia > England
England
Flag of England Royal Coat of Arms of England
Flag Royal Coat of Arms
Motto
Dieu et mon droit  (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen". See also Proposed English National Anthems.
Location of  England  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the United Kingdom  (camel) Look up England in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Currently, England does not have an official anthem, and so adopts God Save the Queen, which is the United Kingdom and Commonwealth anthem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 712 KB, MIME type: image/png) The text below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
London (de facto)
51°30′N, 0°7′W
Official languages English (de facto)1
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister Gordon Brown MP
Unified
 -  by Athelstan AD 927 
Area
 -  Total 130,395 km² 
50,346 sq mi 
Population
 -  2006 estimate 50,714,000² 
 -  2001 census 49,138,831 
 -  Density 388.7 /km² 
976 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $1.9 trillion (6th)
 -  Per capita US$38,000 (6th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.2 trillion (5th)
 -  Per capita $44,000 (10th)
HDI (2006) 0.940 (high
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk³
Calling code +44
Patron saint St. George
1 English is established by de facto usage. Cornish is officially recognised as a Regional or Minority language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The Cornish-language name for England is Pow Sows.
2 From the Office for National Statistics - National population projections
3 Also .eu, as part of the European Union. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

England (pronounced IPA: /ˈɪŋglənd/) (Old English: Englaland, Middle English: Engelond) is the largest and most populous constituent country[1][2] of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total population of the United Kingdom,[3] whilst the mainland territory of England occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and English Channel. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article discusses the Demographics of England as presented by the United Kingdom Census in 2001. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Members of Parliament elected to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the 2005 general election, arranged by constituency. ... Athelstan (c. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... This is a trivia section. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... ISO 3166-1, as part of the ISO 3166 standard, provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... .gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia[1], the Soviet Union and European institutions such as the Council of... “UK” redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


England became a unified state during the 10th century and takes its name from the Angles, one of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in the territory during the 5th and 6th centuries. The capital city of England is London, which is the largest city in Great Britain, and the largest city in the European Union by most, but not all, measures.[4] White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


England ranks amongst the world's most influential and far-reaching centres of cultural development.[5][6] It is the place of origin of both the English language and the Church of England, and English law forms the basis of the legal systems of many countries: in addition, London, the country's capital, was the centre of the British Empire, and the country was also the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution.[7] England was the first country in the world to become industrialised. England is home to the Royal Society, which laid the foundations of modern experimental science. England was the world's first parliamentary democracy[8] and consequently many constitutional, governmental and legal innovations that had their origin in England have been widely adopted by other nations. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelled Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ...


The Kingdom of England was a separate state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union resulted in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.[9] With the Principality of Wales already in the English state. Great Britain is the term in use for the largest island in the British Isles, with the name's origins in the Celtic 'People of the Islands', or Pretani. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the historical state known as the Principality of Wales (1267-1542). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... The words Celt and Celtic can have a variety of meanings. ... The Cruithne or Cruthin were a historical people known to have lived in the British Isles during the Iron Age. ...

Contents

Etymology and usage

See also: List of meanings of countries' names

England is named after the Angles, the largest of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in England in the fifth and sixth centuries, and who are believed to have originated in the peninsula of Angeln, in what is now Denmark and northern Germany[10]. (The further etymology of this tribe's name remains uncertain, although a popular theory holds that it need be sought no further than the word angle itself, and refers to a fish-hook-shaped region of Holstein.[11]) Media:Example. ... Media:Example. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Map of Schleswig-Holstein Modern Angeln, also known as Anglia (German: Angeln, Danish: Angel, Latin: Anglia, English: may follow German or Latin), is a peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, protruding into the Bay of Kiel. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...


The Angles' name has had a variety of different spellings. The earliest known reference to these people is under the Latinised version Anglii used by Tacitus in chapter 40 of his Germania,[12] written around 98 AD. He gives no precise indication of their geographical position within Germania, but states that, together with six other tribes, they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean." Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Nerthus (also sometimes Hertha) is a Germanic fertility goddess who was mentioned by Tacitus in his work entitled Germania. ...

England The United Kingdom

The early 8th century historian Bede, in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People), refers to the English people as Angelfolc (in English) or Angli (in Latin).[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known usage of "England" referring the southern part of the island of Great Britain was in 897, with the modern spelling first used in 1538.[14] The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


The word "England" is often used colloquially - and incorrectly - to refer to Great Britain or the United Kingdom as a whole[15]. There are many instances of this usage in history, where patriotic references to "England" actually intend to include Scotland and Wales as well[16]. This term is used throughout the world and even by English people; the usage is problematic and causes offence in many parts of Britain.

See also: British Isles (terminology)

. For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ...

History

Prehistoric England

Main article: Prehistoric Britain
Stonehenge, a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument in Wiltshire, thought to have been erected c.2000-2500BC.
Stonehenge, a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument in Wiltshire, thought to have been erected c.2000-2500BC.

Bones and flint tools found in Norfolk and Suffolk show that Homo erectus lived in what is now England around 700,000 years ago.[17] At this time, England was linked to mainland Europe by a large land bridge. The current position of the English Channel was a large river flowing westwards and fed by tributaries that would later become the Thames and the Seine. This area was greatly depopulated during the period of the last major ice age, as were other regions of the British Isles. In the subsequent recolonisation, after the thawing of the ice, genetic research shows that present-day England was the last area of the British Isles to be repopulated,[18] circa 13,000 years ago. The migrants arriving during this period contrast with the other of the inhabitants of the British Isles, coming across land from the south east of Europe, whereas earlier arriving inhabitants came north along a coastal route from Iberia. These migrants would later adopt the Celtic culture that came to dominate much of western Europe. Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... Download high resolution version (1752x1196, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1752x1196, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article is about the river in France. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ...


Roman conquest of Britain

By AD 43, the time of the main Roman invasion of Britain, Britain had already frequently been the target of invasions, planned and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. It was first invaded by the Roman dictator Julius Caesar in 55 BC, but it was conquered fully by the Emperor Claudius in AD 43. Like other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans, and their economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age, especially in the south. With the fall of the Roman empire 400 years later, the Romans left England. Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other Romans named Claudius see Claudius (gens). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Anglo-Saxon England

Main article: History of Anglo-Saxon England
Further information: Anglo-Saxon conquest of England
An Anglo-Saxon helmet found at Sutton Hoo

The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early mediaeval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the fifth century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ...


Fragmentary knowledge of Anglo-Saxon England in the 5th and 6th centuries comes from the British writer Gildas (6th century) the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (a history of the English people begun in the 9th century), saints' lives, poetry, archaeological findings, and place-name studies. Gildas (c. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


The dominant themes of the seventh to tenth centuries were the spread of Christianity and the political unification of England. Christianity is thought to have come from three directions — from Rome to the south, and Scotland and Ireland to the north and west. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the country. ...


Heptarchy is a term used to refer to the existence (as believed) of the seven petty kingdoms which eventually merged to become the Kingdom of England during the early 10th century: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex. A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... Petty kingdoms were prominent before the formation of many of todays nation states. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Kingdom of the East Seaxe (one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy) was founded around 500 AD and covered the territory currently occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Middlesex. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... The Kingdom of Sussex, (Suth Seaxe, i. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ...


The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms tended to coalesce by means of warfare. As early as the time of Ethelbert of Kent, one king could be recognised as Bretwalda ("Lord of Britain"). Generally speaking, the title fell in the 7th century to the kings of Northumbria, in the eighth to those of Mercia, and finally, in the ninth, to Egbert of Wessex, who in 825 defeated the Mercians at the Battle of Ellendun. In the next century his family came to rule all England. Statue of Ethelbert. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Ellandun was the site of a battle between Egbert of Wessex and Beornwulf of Mercia in 825. ...


Kingdom of England

Originally, England (or Englaland) was a geographical term to describe the territory of Britain which was occupied by the Anglo-Saxons, rather than a name of an individual nation-state. It became politically united through the expansion of the kingdom of Wessex, whose king Athelstan brought the whole of England under one ruler for the first time in 927, although unification did not become permanent until 954. In 1016 England was conquered by the Danish king Canute the Great, and became the centre of government for his short-lived empire which also included Denmark and Norway. In 1042 England became a separate kingdom again with the accession of Edward the Confessor, heir of the native English dynasty. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 98 KB) Photo prise par Odejea le 25 août 2005 à Winchester. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 98 KB) Photo prise par Odejea le 25 août 2005 à Winchester. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: Ælfrēd //) (c. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ...


The Kingdom of England (including Wales) continued to exist as an independent nation-state right through to the Acts of Union and the Union of Crowns. However the political ties and direction of England were changed forever by the Norman Conquest in 1066. The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (Charles James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


Mediæval England

The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. It was one of the first steps towards the creation of modern democracy.
Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the English victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt.
Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the English victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt.

The next few hundred years saw England as an important part of expanding and dwindling empires based in France, with the "Kings of England" using England as a source of troops to enlarge their personal holdings in France for many years (Hundred Years' War); in fact the English crown did not relinquish its last foothold on mainland France until Calais was lost during the reign of Mary Tudor (the Channel Islands are still crown dependencies, though not part of the UK). Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of...


The Principality of Wales, under the control of English monarchs from the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, became part of the Kingdom of England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. Wales shared a legal identity with England as the joint entity originally called England and later England and Wales. This article is about the country. ... This article treats the generic title monarch. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... For the purposes of Public International Law and Private International Law, a state is a defined group of people, living within defined territorial boundaries and subject, more or less, to an autonomous legal system exercising jurisdiction through properly constituted courts. ...


An epidemic of catastrophic proportions, the Black Death first reached England in the summer of 1348. The Black Death is estimated to have killed between a third and two-thirds of Europe's population. England alone lost as many as 70% of its population, which passed from 7 million to 2 million in 1400. The plague repeatedly returned to haunt England throughout the 14th to 17th centuries.[19] The Great Plague of London in 1665–1666 was the last plague outbreak.[20] This article is about large epidemics. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Look up plague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ...


Reformation

Main article: English Reformation
Portrait of Elizabeth made to commemorate the English victory over the Spanish Armada (1588).
Portrait of Elizabeth made to commemorate the English victory over the Spanish Armada (1588).

During the English Reformation in the 16th century, the external authority of the Roman Catholic Church in England was abolished and replaced with Royal Supremacy and ultimately describes the establishment of a Church of England, outside the Roman Catholic Church, under the Supreme Governance of the English monarch. The English Reformation differed from its European counterparts in that it was a political, rather than purely theological, dispute at root.[21] The break with Rome started in the reign of Henry VIII. King Henry VIII of England. ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... King Henry VIII of England. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


The English Reformation paved the way for the spread of Anglicanism in the church and other institutions. Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ...


English Civil War

Main article: English Civil War
Cromwell at Dunbar. Oliver Cromwell united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwell at Dunbar. Oliver Cromwell united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England.

The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. The first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war of (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Prince Rupert an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second... Combatants Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Combatants English Parlimentry forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell English and Scottish Royalists loyal to King Charles II Strength 31,000 less than 16,000 Casualties 200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisoners The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II and the replacement of the English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659): the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell. After a brief return to Commonwealth rule, in 1660 The Crown was restored and Charles II accepted Convention Parliament's invitation to return to England. During the interregnum the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England came to an end, and the victors consolidated the already-established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established a precedent that British monarchs could not govern without the consent of Parliament although this would not be cemented until the Glorious Revolution later in the century. Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...


Great Britain and the United Kingdom

The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland remained separate, until 1707, when under the Acts of Union, both England and Scotland lost their individual political (though not legal) identities. This union has subsequently changed its name twice; firstly on the merger with the Kingdom of Ireland following the Act of Union in 1800 creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. Then following the secession from the union of the Irish Free State under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, it became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Throughout these changes, England (including Wales) retained a separate legal identity from its partners, with a separate legal system (English law) from those in Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland law) and Scotland (Scots law), and eventually the strong feelings of the Welsh were acknowledged when it was decided that the name would henceforth be "England and Wales". Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... This article is about the prior state. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the country. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ...


Politics

A Mediaeval manuscript, showing the Parliament of England in front of the king c. 1300
A Mediaeval manuscript, showing the Parliament of England in front of the king c. 1300

There has not been a Government of England since 1707, when the Kingdom of England merged with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, although both kingdoms have been ruled by a single monarch since 1603. Prior to the Acts of Union of 1707, England was ruled by a monarch and the Parliament of England. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...


The Scottish and Welsh governing institutions were created by the UK parliament with support from the majority of people of Scotland and Wales in referenda in 1997 and are not independent of the rest of Britain. However, this gave each country a separate political entity which left England as the only part of Britain directly ruled in nearly all matters by the British government in London. In Cornwall, a region of England claiming a distinct national identity, there has been a campaign for a Cornish assembly along Welsh lines by nationalist parties such as Mebyon Kernow. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Flag of Cornwall // Overview In July 2000 Mebyon Kernow launched the Declaration for a Cornish Assembly campaign which some three months later led to the creation of The Cornish Constitutional Convention with the objective of establishing a devolved Assembly for Cornwall. ... Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...

The Palace of Westminster, Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palace of Westminster, Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Because Westminster is the UK parliament but also votes on local English matters devolution of national matters to parliament/assemblies in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland has refocused attention on a long-standing anomaly called the West Lothian question. The "Question" is that there is no convention or rule whereby Scottish MPs are barred from voting on issues relating only to England and Wales in the post devolution era. Image File history File links The Palace of Westminster, seen from the London Eye observation wheel on a very dull November day. ... Image File history File links The Palace of Westminster, seen from the London Eye observation wheel on a very dull November day. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... The West Lothian question was a question posed on 14 November 1977 by Tam Dalyell, Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of West Lothian, during a British House of Commons debate over Scottish and Welsh devolution (see Scotland Act 1978 and Wales Act 1978): For how long...


Welsh devolution has removed the anomaly for Wales, but highlighted the anomaly for England: Scottish and Welsh MPs can vote on English issues, but purely Scottish and Welsh issues are debated in Scotland and Wales, not at Westminster; in fact Scottish MPs are even unable to vote on such issues affecting their own constituencies. This problem is exacerbated by an over-representation of Scottish MPs in the government, sometimes referred to as the Scottish mafia; as of September 2006, seven of the twenty-three Cabinet members are Scottish, including the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Defence Secretary. In addition, Scotland traditionally benefited from moderate malapportionment in its favour, increasing its representation to a degree disproportionate to its population. In 2004 the Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Act 2004 was passed which rectified this to a degree, reducing the number of MPs representing Scottish constituencies from 73 to 59 and brought the number of voters per constituency closer to that in England. This change was implemented in the 2005 General Election. The Scottish mafia refers to a group of Scottish politicians who are seen as having undue influence over the government of the the United Kingdom and in particular of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Malapportionment is broad and systematic variance in the size of electoral constituencies (at least within electoral systems which have them). ... The Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Act 2004 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament that amends the Scotland Act 1998 which established the Scottish Parliament. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ...


In terms of national administration, England's affairs are managed by a combination of the UK government, the UK parliament, a number of England-specific quangos, such as English Heritage, and the mostly unelected Regional Assemblies (a kind of nascent executive for each English Region). The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The acronyms Qango and Quango, variously spelt out as QUAsi Non Governmental Organisation, Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation, and Quasi-Autonomous National Government Organisation have been used, notably in the United Kingdom, but also in Australia, Ireland and other countries, to describe a range of organisations to which governments have... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ...


There are calls for a devolved English Parliament, and certain English parties go further by calling for the dissolution of the Union entirely[22][23]. However, the approach favoured by the current Labour government was (on the basis that England is too large to be governed as a single sub-state entity) to propose the devolution of power to the Regions of England. Lord Falconer claimed a devolved English parliament would dwarf the rest of the United Kingdom.[24] Referendums would decide whether people wanted to vote for directly-elected regional assemblies to watch over the work of the non-elected Regional Development Agencies. A devolved English Parliament, giving separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England similar to the representation given by the Welsh Assembly, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, is currently an issue in British politics. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Charles Leslie Falconer, Baron Falconer of Thoroton, PC (born November 19, 1951), is a British lawyer and Labour Party politician. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Regional Development Agencies are Non-Departmental Public Bodies, sponsored by Central Government Departments, for the development of each of the UKs Government Office regions. ...


During the campaign, a common criticism of the proposals was that England did not need "another tier of bureaucracy".[25] On the other hand, many said that they were not decentralising enough, and amounted not to devolution, but to little more than local government reorganisation, with no real power being removed from central government, and no real power given to the regions, which would not even gain the limited powers of the Welsh Assembly, much less the tax-varying and legislative powers of the Scottish Parliament (but Welsh powers are now being expanded). They said that power was simply re-allocated within the region, with little new resource allocation and no real prospects of Assemblies being able to change the pattern of regional aid. Late in the process, responsibility for regional transport was added to the proposals. This was perhaps crucial in the North East, where resentment at the Barnett Formula, which delivers greater regional aid to adjacent Scotland, was a significant impetus for the North East devolution campaign. However, a referendum on this issue in North East England on 4 November 2004 rejected this proposal, and plans for referendums in other Regions (such as Yorkshire) were shelved. Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Barnett formula is a mechanism used by Her Majestys Treasury in the United Kingdom to adjust automatically some elements of public expenditure in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales to reflect decisions affecting other parts of the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The three northern regions. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Subdivisions

See also: Counties of England

Historically, the highest level of local government in England was the county. These have their origin in the shires, the subdivisions of the kingdom of Wessex, which were extended over the rest of England as Wessex expanded to unite the country in the ninth and tenth centuries. Some of these new shires, particularly in the south-east of England, retained the extent and names of the kingdoms or subdivisions of kingdoms which had existed there before, such as Sussex and Kent, but most were new creations, named after their principal town with the suffix "-shire" added, for example Warwickshire from Warwick. In the far north of England, the system took longer to become regularised and County Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland emerged after the Norman Conquest. The counties each had a county town. Administrative divisions of England. ... The traditional counties as usually portrayed. ... The traditional counties as usually portrayed. ... For information on the fictional Shire of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, see Shire (Middle-earth) A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... The Kingdom of Sussex, (Suth Seaxe, i. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Warwick (pronounced or War-ick (silent w in middle)) is the historic county town of Warwickshire in England and has a population of 25,434 (2001 census). ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... A county town is the capital of a county in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. ...


Since these historical county lines were drawn up before the Industrial Revolution and the mass urbanisation of England, the changes in the distribution of population and the demands on local administration resulting from those developments have led to a series of local government reorganisations since the latter part of the nineteenth century. The solution to the emergence of large urban areas was the creation of large metropolitan counties centred on cities (an example being Greater Manchester). The creation of unitary authorities, where districts gained the administrative status of a county, began with the 1990s reform of local government. Today, some confusion exists between the ceremonial counties (which do not necessarily form an administrative unit) and the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The metropolitan counties of England are counties that cover large urban areas, each with several metropolitan districts. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The structure of local government in the United Kingdom underwent large changes in the 1990s. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ...


Non-metropolitan counties (or "shire counties") are divided into one or more districts. At the very lowest level, England is divided into parishes, though these are not to be found everywhere (many urban areas for example are unparished). Parishes are prohibited from existing in Greater London. A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is a county level entity which is not a metropolitan county. ... Non-metropolitan districts or commonly Shire districts are a type of local government district in England. ... A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ...


England is now also divided into nine regions, which do not have an elected authority and exist to co-ordinate certain local government functions across a wider area. London is an exception, however, and is the one region which now has a representative authority as well as a directly elected mayor. The 32 London boroughs and the Corporation of London remain the local form of government in the city. The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ...


Geography

England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus offshore islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. It is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of Britain, divided from France only by a 52 km (24 statute mile or 21 nautical mile)[26] sea gap. The Channel Tunnel, near Folkestone, directly links England to the European mainland. The English/French border is halfway along the tunnel[27]. The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ... The geography of England England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus offshore islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire, between the Solent and the English Channel. ... Berwick-upon-Tweed from south of the river The Anglo-Scottish border runs for between the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... , Folkestone (IPA: ) is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


Most of England consists of rolling hills, but it is more mountainous in the north with a chain of low mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west. The dividing line between terrain types is usually indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There is also an area of flat, low-lying marshland in the east, the Fens, much of which has been drained for agricultural use. Typical Pennine scenery. ... The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary line that can be draw on a map of the British mainland which roughly divides the lowland and upland regions of the country. ... The Fens may also refer to the Back Bay Fens, a park in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


The list of England's largest cities is much debated because in English the normal meaning of city is "a continuously built-up urban area"; these are hard to define and various other definitions are preferred by some people to boost the ranking of their own city. For the official definition of a UK (and therefore English) city, see City status in the United Kingdom. However, by any definition London is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the largest and busiest cities in the world. Birmingham is the second largest, both in terms of the city itself and its urban conurbation. A number of other cities, mainly in central and northern England, are of substantial size and influence. These include: Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield, Bristol, Coventry, Bradford , Leicester, Nottingham and Hull. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ...


The largest natural harbour in England is at Poole, on the south-central coast. Some regard it as the second largest harbour in the world, after Sydney, Australia, although this fact is disputed (see harbours for a list of other large natural harbours). Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination, situated on the shores of the English Channel, in the ceremonial county of Dorset in southern England. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ...


Climate

England has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round, though the seasons are quite variable in temperature. However, temperatures rarely fall below −5 °C (23 °F) or rise above 30 °C (86 °F). The prevailing wind is from the south-west, bringing mild and wet weather to England regularly from the Atlantic Ocean. It is driest in the east and warmest in the south, which is closest to the European mainland. Snowfall can occur in Winter and early Spring, though it is not that common away from high ground. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about precipitation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... East of England is one of the official regions of England. ... Southern England is a vague term referring to the south of England. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geomorphological/geopolitical term; MAINLAND is also a cheese brand owned by Fonterra, a New Zealand dairy company. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ...


The highest temperature ever recorded in England is 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on August 10, 2003 at Brogdale, near Faversham, in Kent.[28] The lowest temperature ever recorded in England is −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on January 10, 1982 at Edgmond, near Newport, in Shropshire.[29] The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brogdale is a hamlet in Kent, England, located beside the M2 motorway two miles south of Faversham. ... Faversham is a town in Kent, England, in the district of Swale, roughly halfway between Sittingbourne and Canterbury. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Edgmond is a village in Shropshire, England. ... Map sources for Newport at grid reference SJ7419 Newport is a market town in Shropshire, England, some 6 miles north of Telford. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ...


Major rivers

Until 1998, the Humber Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world.
Until 1998, the Humber Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world.

Humber Bridge from south side. ... Humber Bridge from south side. ... The Humber Bridge is the fourth-largest single-span suspension bridge in the world, near Kingston upon Hull in England. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of the largest suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... Waterways in the United Kingdom is a link page for any river, canal, firth or estuary in the United Kingdom. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... For other uses see Trent River. ... Humber is also the name of one of the ranges of cars manufactured by the Rootes Group Humber is also the name of a river in Newfoundland, Canada, as well as a river and a college, both in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... The Tees is a river in Northern England. ... The River Ribble at Ribchester The River Ribble is a river that runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire, in the North of England. ... For other Rivers named Ouse, see Ouse The River Great Ouse is a river in the east of England. ... Ferry across the Mersey, June 2005 The River Mersey is a river in north-western England. ... For other Rivers Dee in the UK, see River Dee. ... The River Avon or Avon is a river in or adjoining the counties of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire in the midlands of England. ...

Major conurbations

London is the largest city in England, the United Kingdom, and the European Union.
London is the largest city in England, the United Kingdom, and the European Union.[30]

The largest cities in England are much debated but according to the urban area populations (continuous built-up areas) these would be the fifteen largest conurbations (population figures taken from 2001 census): ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x786, 732 KB) Summary London Skyline Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x786, 732 KB) Summary London Skyline Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of the largest cities and towns of England ordered by population. ...

Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251
West Midlands conurbation 2,284,093
Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,240,230
West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465
Tyneside 879,996
Liverpool Urban Area 816,216
Nottingham Urban Area 666,358
Sheffield Urban Area 640,720
Greater Bristol 551,066
Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181
Portsmouth Urban Area 442,252
Leicester Urban Area 441,213
Bournemouth Urban Area 383,713
Reading/Wokingham Urban Area 369,804
Teesside 365,323

The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... A NASA satellite image of Greater Manchester. ... The West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based mainly on Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield, but excluding Halifax which though part of the county of West Yorkshire is considered independently. ... Tyneside is a conurbation in northern England, covering part of the area of Tyne and Wear. ... The Liverpool Urban Area is a name given by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to the urban area of Liverpool and the built-up areas immediately adjacent to it. ... Greater Nottingham is a conurbation based around the city of Nottingham in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Panorama from Meersbrook Park. ... Greater Bristol is the conurbation surrounding the city of Bristol in the South West of England. ... The Sussex Coast is the southern coast of Sussex in England. ... The Portsmouth Urban Area has a population of 422,252 (2001 census) and includes the following components (as defined by the ONS): Fareham/Portchester Gosport Havant Lee-on-the-Solent Portsmouth Stubbington Waterlooville Portsmouth itself makes up less than half this population, with 187,056 people. ... The Leicester Urban Area is a conurbation based around the city of Leicester in Leicestershire, England. ... Shown within Dorset: the towns of Poole (yellow), Bournemouth (blue) and Christchurch (red) form the main centres of the conurbation, which also spreads into east Dorset to the north and the New Forest district of Hampshire to the east. ... The Reading/Wokingham Urban Area is a name given by the Office for National Statistics to a conurbation in Berkshire, England, with a population of 369,804 (2001 census), up 10. ... Arms of the County Borough of Teesside Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in northern England based on Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar, along the banks of the River Tees with a resident population of over 388,000 in 2005. ...

Economics

The City of London is a major business and commercial centre, ranking alongside New York City as the leading centre of global finance.
The City of London is a major business and commercial centre, ranking alongside New York City as the leading centre of global finance.[31]
Main article: Economy of England

England's economy is the second largest in Europe and the fifth largest in the world. It follows the Anglo-Saxon economic model. England's economy is the largest of the four economies of the United Kingdom, with 100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations based in London.[32] As part of the United Kingdom, England is a major centre of world economics. One of the world's most highly industrialised countries, England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry and the manufacturing side of the software industry. Image File history File linksMetadata City_of_London_Skyline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata City_of_London_Skyline. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... The Economy of England is the largest of the four economies of the United Kingdom. ... Anglo-Saxon economy or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is largely practiced in English speaking countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States) is a capitalist macroeconomic model in which levels of regulation and taxes are low, and the quality of state services and social... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... Starting in the 1980s, application software has been sold in mass-produced packages through retailers The software industry comprises of businesses involved in the development, maintenance and publication of computer software. ...

The Bullring shopping complex in Birmingham city centre attracted 36.5 million visitors in its début year upon opening in 2003.

London exports mainly manufactured goods and imports materials such as petroleum, tea, wool, raw sugar, timber, butter, metals, and meat,[33] exporting over 30,000 tonnes of beef last year, worth around £75,000,000, with France, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain being the biggest importers of beef from England.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 147 pixelsFull resolution (894 × 164 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of the Bullring shopping centre in Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 147 pixelsFull resolution (894 × 164 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of the Bullring shopping centre in Birmingham, England. ... The Selfridges store designed by Future Systems at the Bullring. ... This article is about the British city. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ...


The central bank of the United Kingdom, which sets interest rates and implements monetary policy, is the Bank of England in London. London is also home to the London Stock Exchange, the main stock exchange in the UK and the largest in Europe. London, is one of the international leaders in finance[35] and the largest financial centre in Europe. Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Traditional heavy and manufacturing industries have declined sharply in England in recent decades, as they have in the United Kingdom as a whole. At the same time, service industries have grown in importance. For example, tourism is the sixth largest industry in the UK, contributing 76 billion pounds to the economy. It employs 1,800,000 full-time equivalent people — 6.1% of the working population (2002 figures).[36] The largest centre for tourism is London, which attracts millions of international tourists every year. Servis Industries Limited is a publicly traded company and it is a part of Servis Group. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ...


As part of the United Kingdom, England's official currency is the Pound Sterling (also known as the British pound or GBP). “GBP” redirects here. ...


Demography

Main articles: Demography of England and Population of England
Demography of England
Demography of England

With 50,431,700 inhabitants, or 84% of the UK's total,[37] England is the most populous nation in the United Kingdom; as well as being the most ethnically diverse. England would have the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Population of England increased from 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1083 × 1458 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/png) Counties of England by population, based on GNU map here as listed on w:List of English counties by population File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1083 × 1458 pixel, file size: 217 KB, MIME type: image/png) Counties of England by population, based on GNU map here as listed on w:List of English counties by population File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Map of countries by population for the year 2005 (U.N. source) This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000). ...


The country's population is 'aging', with a declining percentage of the population under age 16 and a rising one of over 65. Population continues to rise and in every year since 1901, with the exception of 1976, there have been more births than deaths.[38] England is one of the most densely-populated countries in Europe, with 383 people per square kilometre (992/sq mi),[39] making it second only to the Netherlands.


The generally accepted view is that the ethnic background of the English populace, before 19th- and 20th century immigration, was a mixed European one deriving from historical waves of Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Norman invasions, along with the possible survival of pre-Celtic ancestry. This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For the asteroid, see 3753 Cruithne. ...


The economic prosperity of England has also made it a destination for economic migrants from Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. This was particularly true during the Industrial Revolution. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Since the fall of the British Empire, many denizens of former colonies have migrated to Britain including the Indian sub-continent and the British Caribbean. A BBC-published report of the 2001 census, by the Institute for Public Policy Research stated that the vast majority of immigrants settled in London and the South East of England. The largest groups of residents born in other countries were from the Republic of Ireland, India, Pakistan, Germany, and the Caribbean. Though Germany was high on the list, this was mainly the result of children being born to British forces personnel stationed in that country.[40] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank in the United Kingdom, with close links to the ruling Labour Party. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


About half the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to foreign-born immigration. In 2004 the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795 - a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Africa (32%) and Asia (40%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[41] One in five babies in the UK are born to immigrant mothers, according to official statistics released in 2007 that also show the highest birth rates in Britain for 26 years. 21.9% of all births in the UK in 2006 were to mothers born outside the United Kingdom compared to just 12.8% in 1995.[42] In 2005 the BBC published an analysis of data from the 2001 UK Census, revealing the number of people included in the census who were born outside the British Isles, where they live, and comparing this information against the 1991 Census. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, an estimated 565,000 migrants[43] arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, while 380,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more, with Australia, Spain and France most popular destinations.[44][45] Largest group of arrivals were people from the Indian subcontinent who accounted for two-thirds of net immigration, mainly fuelled by family reunion.[46] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While France and Germany put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration, the UK (along with Ireland) did not impose restrictions. Following Poland's entry into the EU in May 2004 it is estimated that by the start of 2007 about 375,000 Poles have registered to work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK is believed to be 750,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number is likely to move back and forth including between Ireland and other EU Western nations. A quarter of Eastern European migrants, often young and well-educated, plan to stay in Britain permanently. Most of them had originally intended to go home but have changed their minds after living there.[47] Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ...


Culture

England has a vast and influential culture that encompasses elements both old and new. The modern culture of England is sometimes difficult to identify and separate clearly from the culture of the wider United Kingdom, so intertwined are its composite nations. However, the traditional and historic culture of England is more clearly defined. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. London's British Museum, British Library and National Gallery contain some of the finest collections in the world. The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ...


The English have played a significant role in the development of the arts and sciences. Many of the most important figures in the history of modern western scientific and philosophical thought were either born in, or at one time or other resided in, England. Major English thinkers of international significance include scientists such as Sir Isaac Newton, Francis Bacon, Charles Darwin and New Zealand-born Ernest Rutherford, philosophers such as John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell and Thomas Hobbes, and economists such as David Ricardo, and John Maynard Keynes. Karl Marx wrote most of his important works, including Das Kapital, whilst in exile in Manchester, and the team that developed the first atomic bomb began their work in England, under the wartime codename tube alloys. The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 - 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist civil servant, and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... David Ricardo (18th April, 1772–11th September, 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments fiscal policies. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ...


Architecture

See also: List of historic houses in England and Castles in England
The dome of St. Paul's Cathedral designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

England has played a significant part in the advancement of Western architecture. It is home to some of the finest mediaeval castles and forts in the world, including Warwick Castle, the Tower of London and Windsor Castle (the largest inhabited castle in the world and the oldest in continuous occupation). It is also known for its numerous grand country houses, and for its many mediaeval and later churches and cathedrals. Historic houses in England is a link page for any stately home, country house or other historic house in England. ... // Castles in England is a link page for any castle in England. ... Download high resolution version (640x688, 75 KB)St Pauls Cathedral dome from Paternoster Square - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: St Pauls Cathedral Paternoster Square User:Tagishsimon/Gallery London 240404 Wikipedia:List of... Download high resolution version (640x688, 75 KB)St Pauls Cathedral dome from Paternoster Square - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: St Pauls Cathedral Paternoster Square User:Tagishsimon/Gallery London 240404 Wikipedia:List of... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article describes the fortified buildings. ... The east front of Warwick Castle as painted by Canaletto in 1752. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ...


English architects have contributed to a number of styles over the centuries, including Tudor architecture, English Baroque, the Georgian style and Victorian movements such as Gothic Revival. Among the best-known contemporary English architects are Norman Foster and Richard Rogers. Tudor architecture is the architecture of the Tudor period, ie. ... Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The restored Reichstag in Berlin, housing the German parliament. ... For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ...


Cuisine

Main article: English cuisine

Although highly-regarded in the Middle Ages, English cuisine later became a source of fun among Britain's French and European neighbours, being viewed until the late twentieth century as crude and unsophisticated by comparison with continental tastes. However, with the influx of non-European immigrants (particularly those of south and east Asian origins) from the 1950s onwards, the English diet was transformed. Indian and Chinese cuisine in particular were absorbed into English culinary life, with restaurants and takeaways appearing in almost every town in England, and 'going for an Indian' becoming a regular part of English social life. A distinct hybrid food style composed of dishes of Asian origin, but adapted to British tastes, emerged and was subsequently exported to other parts of the world. Many of the well-known Indian dishes in the western world, such as Tikka Masala and Balti, are in fact Anglo-Indian dishes of this sort. Chicken Tikka Masala is often jokingly referred to as England's national dish, in a reference both to its English origins and to its enormous popularity. English cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... Chicken Tikka Masala has origins in the Indian subcontinent. ... Balti is the name for a style of food probably first devised and served in Birmingham, England. ... Chicken Tikka Masala has origins in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Dishes forming part of the old tradition of English food include:

For the manga anthology series, see Petit Apple Pie. ... Bangers and mash Look up bangers and mash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bedfordshire Clanger is a traditional dish from the county of the same name. ... Bubble and squeak (sometimes just called bubble) is a traditional British dish made with the shallow-fried leftover vegetables from a roast dinner. ... A pasty from Cornwall A pasty from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan A Cornish pasty or Cornish pastie is a type of pie, originating in Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Cottage pie is a variation on shepherds pie that is based on minced (ground) beef rather than lamb or mutton. ... Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, is a popular British take-away food, which consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes, traditionally sold wrapped in newspaper. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... for the guitarist, see Dave Felton Gravy is a type of sauce, usually made from the juices that naturally run from meat or vegetables during cooking. ... Jellied eels are an east end of London delicacy often sold with pie and mash. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Lancashire hotpot Lancashire hotpot is a culinary dish consisting essentially of meat, onion and potatoes left to bake in the oven all day in a heavy pot and on a low heat. ... Lincolnshire sausages are a distinctive variety of pork sausage developed in and associated with the English county of Lincolnshire. ... Mince Pie A mince pie is a traditional festive British sweet pastry, usually consumed during the Christmas and New Year period. ... A pie and mash shop in Walworth, South East London Pie and mash is a traditional London working class food. ... A slice of a pork pie, made to a recipe by Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall. ... Scouse was orignally a mutton stew. ... Shepherds Pie with minced (ground) beef. ... Spotted dick and custard A tin of Heinz brand Spotted Dick Spotted dick is a steamed pudding, containing dried fruits, usually currants. ... A steak & kidney pie, as served in a pub The steak and kidney pie is a typical British dish with a filling of diced beef steak and lambs kidneys in a thick sauce. ... Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and yorkshire pudding The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal served on Sundays (usually in the early afternoon), and consisting of roasted meat together with accompaniments. ... Toad in the hole is a traditional British dish. ... Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Yorkshire Pudding Yorkshire pudding is an English savoury dish made from batter. ...

Engineering and innovation

See also: Category:English inventors and Category:English inventions

As birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern day engineering. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ...


Other notable English figures in the fields of engineering and innovation include:

[[Media: ]] Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) to Ellen and Thomas Arkwright he was an Englishman credited with the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Babbage redirects here. ... This article is about the machine. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... James Blundell (January 19, 1791 Holborn, London – January 15, 1878 St. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Hubert Cecil Booth was born in Gloucester, England on the 4th of July 1871 and died at Purley, Surrey, England on the 18th of January 1955. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Edwin Beard Budding (1795-1846)an engineer from Stroud, Gloucestershire, England was the English inventor of the lawnmower (1830) and adjustable spanner. ... A lawn mower (often spelled as one word—lawnmower) is a machine (electric or mechnical) used to cut grass to an even length. ... Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773 – December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... This article is about the safety device. ... Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell (June 4, 1910 – June 1, 1999) was an English engineer, inventor of the hovercraft. ... A Hovercraft, or Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV), is an amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface - land or water - supported by a cushion of slowly moving, low-pressure air, ejected downwards against the surface close below it. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into chicken any arbitrarily small quantity. ... Sir James Dyson (born Cromer, Norfolk, England, 2 May 1947) is a British industrial designer. ... The Dyson DC01 The DC01 was the first product made by Dyson for use in a normal household. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Thomas Fowler (born 1777 in Great Torrington, Devon, England - died March 31, 1843) was a British inventor whose most notable invention was the thermosiphon which forms the basis of most modern central heating systems. ... Thermosiphon (alternatively spelled thermosyphon) refers to a method of heat exchange through a phase change heat pump that depends on gravity. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... E. Purnell Hooley is the inventor of Tarmac. ... Tarmac, short for tar-penetration macadam, is a type of highway pavement no longer commonly used. ... Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Five rubber bands A rubber band (in some regions known as a binder, elastic band, lacker band or gumband in Pittsburgh, as well as some parts of Australia) is a short length of rubber and latex formed in the shape of a loop. ... Thomas Savery (c. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Percy Shaw was born in Halifax in West Yorkshire in 1890, the son of Jimmy Shaw, a dyer’s labourer, who worked at a local mill. ... A regular white cats eye of the kind invented by Shaw, marking the middle of the road. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see George. ... Statue of Robert Stephenson at Euston Station, London Robert Stephenson FRS (October 16, 1803–October 12, 1859) was an English civil engineer. ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick (April 13, 1771 – April 22, 1833) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Jethro Tull Jethro Tull (born March 1672 in Basildon, Berkshire; died 21 February 1741 in Shalbourne, Berkshire (now Wiltshire)) was an English agricultural pioneer during the Industrial Revolution and the Agricultural Revolution. ... “Seeder” redirects here. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Thomas (Tommy) Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was a British engineer. ... This article is about the machine. ... Frank Whittle speaking to employees of the Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory (Now known as the NASA Glenn Research Center), USA, in 1946 Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force officer and is seen as the... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Sir Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet (December 21, 1803 - January 22, 1887) was an English engineer and entrepreneur. ...

Folklore

Main article: English folklore

English folklore is rich and diverse. Many of the land's oldest legends share themes and sources with the Celtic folklore of Wales, Scotland and Ireland, a typical example being the legend of Herne the Hunter, which shares many similarities with the traditional Welsh legend of Gwyn ap Nudd. English folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in England over a number of centuries. ... This article is about the European people. ... This article is about the country. ... In English mythology, Herne the Hunter is a ghost or monster associated with Windsor Great Park. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwyn or Gwynn ap Nudd was the ruler of Annwn (the Underworld). ...


Successive waves of pre-Norman invaders and settlers, from the Romans onwards, via Saxons, Jutes, Angles, Norse to the Norman Conquest have all influenced the myth and legend of England. Some tales, such as that of The Lambton Wyrm show a distinct Norse influence, whilst others, particularly some of the events and characters associated with the Arthurian legends show a distinct Romano-gaulic slant.[48] ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


The most famous body of English folk-tales concerns the legends of King Arthur, although it would be wrong to regard these stories as purely English in origin as they also concern Wales and, to a lesser extent, Ireland and Scotland. They should therefore be considered as part of the folklore of the British Isles as a whole. A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ...


Post-Norman stories include the tales of Robin Hood, which exists in many forms, and stories of other folk heroes such as Hereward the Wake and Fulk FitzWarin who, although being based on historical characters, have grown to become legends in their own right. For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ... // Hereward the Wake, known in his own times as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile, was an 11th century leader in England who led resistance to the Norman Conquest, and was consequently labelled an outlaw. ... Fulk FitzWarin (also called Fulke or Fouke FitzWaryn or FitzWarren) was a medieval landed gentleman turned outlaw, from Whittington Castle in Shropshire. ...


Finally, other historical figures come to have legends associated with them (such as Sir Francis Drake and 'Drake's Drum'). These figures then move out of the realm of historical fact and into the realm of mythology. Sir Francis Drake, c. ...


Literature

William Shakespeare; an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, as well as one of the greatest in Western literature.
William Shakespeare; an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, as well as one of the greatest in Western literature.[49][50][51]
Main article: English literature

The English language boasts a rich and prominent literary heritage. England has produced a wealth of significant literary figures including playwrights William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, John Webster, as well as writers Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Jane Austen, J.K. Rowling, William Makepeace Thackeray, Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Dickens, Mary Shelley, HG Wells, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, DH Lawrence, EM Forster, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell and Harold Pinter. Others, such as J.K. Rowling, Enid Blyton and Agatha Christie have been among the best-selling novelists of the last century. Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... John Webster (c. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was an English writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Charlotte Bront - idealized portrait, 1873 (based on a drawing by George Richmond, 1850) Charlotte Bront (April 21, 1816 - March 31, 1855) was an English writer. ... Emily Brontë (July 30, 1818 - December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, best remembered for her one novel Wuthering Heights, an acknowledged classic of English literature. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... This article is about the British author. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, prolific and controversial English writers of the 20th century, whose output spans novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism and personal letters. ... E. M. Forster aged 36 in 1915 Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 – June 7, 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... Enid Mary Blyton (August 11, 1897–November 28, 1968) was a popular English childrens writer. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), mainly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ...


Among the poets, Geoffrey Chaucer, Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, Andrew Marvell, Alexander Pope, William Wordsworth, Lord Byron, John Keats, John Milton, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, T.S. Eliot (American-born, but a British subject from 1927) and many others remain read and studied around the world. Among men of letters, Samuel Johnson, William Hazlitt and George Orwell are some of the most famous. England continues to produce writers working in all branches of literature, and in a wide range of styles; contemporary English literary writers attracting international attention include Martin Amis, Julian Barnes and Zadie Smith. The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip Sidney Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554 - October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Ages most prominent figures. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Photo of Martin Amis by Robert Birnbaum Martin Amis (born August 25, 1949) is an English novelist. ... Barnes as Francophile and Francophone in Bernard Pivots Double je (France 2, March 2005) Julian Patrick Barnes (born January 19, 1946 in Leicester) is a contemporary English writer whose novels and short stories have been seen as examples of postmodernism in literature. ... Zadie Smith (born October 27, 1975) is an English novelist. ...


Music

Main article: Music of England
The composer Sir Edward Elgar is primarily remembered for his orchestral music, some of which develops patriotic themes.
The composer Sir Edward Elgar is primarily remembered for his orchestral music, some of which develops patriotic themes.

Composers from England have not achieved recognition as broad as that earned by their literary counterparts, and, particularly during the nineteenth century, were overshadowed in international reputation by other European composers; however, many works of earlier composers such as Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, and Henry Purcell are still frequently performed throughout the world today. A revival of England's musical status began during the twentieth century with the prominence of composers such as Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, William Walton, Eric Coates, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Frederick Delius and Benjamin Britten. The Music of England has a long history. ... Download high resolution version (509x1354, 1563 KB)Statue of Edward Elgar in Worcester File links The following pages link to this file: Edward Elgar Categories: Images with unknown source ... Download high resolution version (509x1354, 1563 KB)Statue of Edward Elgar in Worcester File links The following pages link to this file: Edward Elgar Categories: Images with unknown source ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Thomas Tallis Thomas Tallis (c 1505–23 November 1585) was an English composer. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: [1]; September 10 (?) [2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers. ... Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Eric Coates (August 27, 1886 – December 21, 1957) was an English composer of light music and a viola player. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ...


In popular music, however, English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, and The Rolling Stones are amongst the biggest selling in the world.[52] England is also credited with being the birthplace of many musical genres and movements such as hard rock, British invasion, heavy metal, Britpop, glam rock, drum and bass, grindcore, progressive rock, punk rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, UK garage, Trip Hop and Dubstep. The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... “Hard Rock” redirects here. ... For other uses, see British Invasion (disambiguation). ... “Heavy metal” redirects here. ... Britpop was a mid-1990s British alternative rock genre and movement. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a style of rock and roll music, which initially surfaced in the post-hippie early 1970s. ... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... Grindcore, often shortened to grind, is an evolution of crust punk, most commonly associated with death metal, a very different though similarly extreme style of music. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Gothic rock (sometimes called goth rock or simply goth) is a genre of rock music that originated during the late 1970s. ... Shoegazing (also known as shoegaze or shoegazer; practitioners referred to as shoegazers) is a style of Independent (or Indie) music that emerged from the U.K. in the late 1980s, lasting until the mid 1990s, with peaking circa 1990 to 1991. ... For the 1994 novel by Irvine Welsh, see The Acid House. ... UK garage (also known as UKG or just garage) refers to several different varieties of modern electronic dance music generally connected to the evolution of house in the UK in the mid 1990s. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... Dubstep is a genre of electronic music which has its roots in Londons early 2000s UK garage scene. ...


Science and philosophy

Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, J. J. Thomson, Charles Babbage, Charles Darwin, Stephen Hawking, Christopher Wren, Alan Turing, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Tim Berners-Lee, Andrew Wiles and Richard Dawkins. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a Metric system was invented by John Wilkins, first secretary of the Royal Society in 1668.[53] Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... This article is about the British scientist. ... Babbage redirects here. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... For the French mathematician with work in the area of elliptic curves, see André Weil. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... John Wilkins. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


England played an important role in the development of Western philosophy, particularly during the Enlightenment. Jeremy Bentham, leader of the Philosophical Radicals, and his school are recognised as the men who unknowingly laid down the doctrines for Socialism.[54] Bentham's impact on English law is also considerable. Aside from Bentham, major English philosophers include Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, Bernard Williams and Bertrand Russell. 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist civil servant, and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Bernard Arthur Owen Williams (September 21, 1929 – June 10, 2003) was a British philosopher, widely cited as the most important British moral philosopher of his time. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in England

A number of modern sports were codified in England during the nineteenth century, among them cricket, rugby union and rugby league, football (soccer), tennis and badminton. Of these, association football, rugby and cricket remain the country's most popular spectator sports. England contains more UEFA 5 star and 4 star rated stadia than any other country, and is home to some of the sport's top clubs. Among these, Aston Villa, Liverpool FC, Manchester United and Nottingham Forest have won the European Cup. The England national football team are considered one of the game's superpowers (currently ranked 9th by FIFA and 7th by Elo), having won the World Cup in 1966 when it was hosted in England. Since then, however, they have failed to reach a final of a major international tournament, though they reached the semi-finals of the World Cup in 1990 and the quarter-finals in 2002 and 2006 and Euro 2004. Sport plays a prominent role in English life. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... The UEFA Stadia List is a ranking of football stadia compiled by UEFAs Stadia and Security Committee. ... A football team is the collective name given to a number of players who play together in a football game, be it association football (soccer), rugby, Australian football, American football, Gaelic football, or other version of football. ... Aston Villa Football Club play at Villa Park in Birmingham, England. ... {{Football club infobox | clubname = Liverpool FC | image = fullname = Liverpool FC | nickname = The Reds | founded = 1892 | ground = Anfield | capacity = 45,000 | chairman = D.R.Moores | Chief Executive Officer = R.N.Parry | manager = Rafael Benitez | league = FA Premiership | season = 2005-06 | position = FA premiership, 5th | pattern_la1=|pattern_b1=|pattern_ra1=| leftarm1=FFFFFF|body1=FF0000... Manchester Uniteds emblem Manchester United F.C. (often abbreviated to Man United or just Man U, pronounced man-yoo) is an English football club based at Old Trafford in Greater Manchester. ... History Nottingham Forest F.C. are an English football club, based at the City Ground, which is just outside the official boundary of Nottingham on the south side of the River Trent. ... Champions League Logo The UEFA Champions League is an annual international inter-club football competition between Europes most successful clubs, regarded as the most prestigious club trophy in the sport. ... First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... This article is about an international football organization. ... The World Football Elo Ratings (Elo is pronounced E-L-O despite not being an acronym) is a ranking system for mens national teams in football. ... For the club competition, see FIFA Club World Cup. ... Qualifying countries The 1966 FIFA World Cup, the eighth staging of the World Cup, was held in England from July 11 to July 30. ... The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football...


The England national rugby union team and England cricket team are often among the best performing in the world, with the rugby union team winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup, and the cricket team winning The Ashes in 2005, and being ranked the second best Test nation in the world. Rugby union clubs such as Leicester Tigers, London Wasps and the Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. At rugby league, the England national rugby league team are to compete more regularly after 2006, when England will become a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, when that team is retired after the 2006 Rugby League Tri-Nations. The English Rugby Team is currently playing in the 2007 World Cup in France and have reached the final after an awesome victory over Australia in the quarter-final and a nail biting win over hosts France in Paris in the semi-final. First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team is... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ... The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth rugby union world cup. ... Teams England Australia Captains Michael Vaughan Ricky Ponting Most Runs Kevin Pietersen (473) Marcus Trescothick (431) Andrew Flintoff (402) Justin Langer (394) Ricky Ponting (359) Michael Clarke (335) Most Wickets Andrew Flintoff (24) Simon Jones (18) Steve Harmison (17) Shane Warne (40) Brett Lee (20) Glenn McGrath (19) The Ashes... A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. ... Official website www. ... Official website www. ... Official website www. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Heineken Cup sponsored by Heineken (known as the H Cup in France due to alcohol advertising laws) is an annual rugby union competition involving leading club, regional and provincial teams from England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... England lines up against New Zealand in Warrington, 2005. ... First international New Zealand 6 - 14 Great Britain (Headingley, England; 18 January 1908) Biggest win Fiji 4 - 72 Great Britain (Suva, Fiji; October 1996) Biggest defeat Australia 64 - 10 Great Britain (Sydney, Australia; July 2002) World Cup Appearances 9 (First in 1954) Best result Winners, 1954; 1960; 1972 Great Britain... The 2006 Rugby League Tri-Nations is to be hosted for the second time by Australia and New Zealand. ...


Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. Sport England logo Sport England (formerly the English Sports Council) is the body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. ...


The 2012 Summer Olympics are to be hosted by London, England. It will run from 26 July to 12 August 2012. London will become the first city to have hosted the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and 1948. “London 2012” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Language

English language

Main articles: English language and History of the English language
Places in the world where English language is spoken. Countries are dark blue where English is an official language, de facto official language, or national language. Countries (and one Province) are light blue where it is an official, non-primary language or non-official primary language.
Places in the world where English language is spoken. Countries are dark blue where English is an official language, de facto official language, or national language. Countries (and one Province) are light blue where it is an official, non-primary language or non-official primary language.
Beowulf is one of the oldest surviving epic poems in what is identifiable as a form of the English language.
Beowulf is one of the oldest surviving epic poems in what is identifiable as a form of the English language.

As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue today (although not officially designated as such). An Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family, it is closely related to Scots and Frisian. As the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms merged into England, "Old English" emerged; some of its literature and poetry has survived. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Anglospeak. ... Image File history File links Anglospeak. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Used by aristocracy and commoners alike before the Norman Conquest (1066), English was displaced in cultured contexts under the new regime by the Norman French language of the new Anglo-Norman aristocracy. Its use was confined primarily to the lower social classes while official business was conducted in a mixture of Latin and French. Over the following centuries, however, English gradually came back into fashion among all classes and for all official business except certain traditional ceremonies, some of which survive to this day. But Middle English, as it had by now become, showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins; and more recent years, Modern English has extended this custom, being always remarkable for its far-flung willingness to incorporate foreign-influenced words. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


It is most commonly accepted that — thanks in large part to the British Empire, and now the United States — the English language is now the world's unofficial lingua franca,[55] while English common law is also the foundation of many legal systems throughout the English-speaking countries of the world.[56] English language learning and teaching is an important economic sector, including language schools, tourism spending, and publishing houses. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... See also: Language education and Second language acquisition ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) and EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers of other languages. ... A language school is a place of learning where one can study a foreign language. ...


Additional languages

UK legislation does not recognise any language as being official,[57] but English is the only language used in England for general official business. The other national languages of the UK (Welsh, Irish, Scots and Scottish Gaelic) are confined to their respective nations, except Welsh to some degree. United Kingdom legislation comes from a number of different sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


The only non-Anglic native spoken language in England is the Cornish language, a Celtic language spoken in Cornwall, which became extinct in the nineteenth century but has been revived and is spoken in various degrees of fluency, currently by around 2000 people.[58] This has no official status (unlike Welsh) and is not required for official use, but is nonetheless supported by national and local government under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Cornwall County Council has produced a draft strategy to develop these plans. There is, however, no programme as yet for public bodies to actively promote the language. Scots is spoken by some adjacent to the Anglo-Scottish Border, and Welsh is still spoken by some natives around Oswestry, Shropshire, on the Welsh border. Anglic is a term used to refer to speech varieties derived from Old English, especially the Anglian variety thereof spoken in Northumbria—the most notable modern descendants of which are English and Scots—and their corresponding speech communities. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Most deaf people within England speak British sign language (BSL), a sign language native to Britain. The British Deaf Association estimates that 250,000 people throughout the UK speak BSL as their first or preferred language,[59] but does not give statistics specific to England. Neither Cornish nor BSL are official languages of the UK and most British government departments and hospitals have limited facilities for deaf people. The BBC broadcasts several of its programmes with BSL interpreters. The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of an unknown number of Deaf people in the UK (published estimates range from 30,000 to 250,000 but it is likely that the lower figures are more... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... British Deaf Association is a large British charity for deaf people. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Different languages from around the world, especially from the former British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations, have been brought to England by immigrants. Many of these are widely spoken within ethnic minority communities, with Hindi, Bengali, Sinhala, Tamil, Punjabi, Urdu, Polish, Greek, Turkish and Cantonese being the most common languages that people living in Britain consider their first language. These are often used by official bodies to communicate with the relevant sections of the community, particularly in big cities, but this occurs on an "as needed" basis rather than as the result of specific legislative ordinances. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Punjabi” redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


Other languages have also traditionally been spoken by minority populations in England, including Romany. Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ...


Despite the relatively small size of the nation, there are a many distinct English regional accents. Those with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood elsewhere in the country. Use of foreign non-standard varieties of English (such as Caribbean English) is also increasingly widespread, mainly because of the effects of immigration. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ...


Religion

Due to immigration in the past decades, there is an enormous diversity of religious belief in England, as well as a growing percentage that have no religious affiliation. Levels of attendance in various denominations have begun to decline. England today is largely a secular country. Although the following percentages : Christianity: 71.6%, Islam: 3.1%, Hindu: 1.1%, Sikh: 0.7%, Jewish: 0.5%, and Buddhist: 0.3%, No Faith: 22.3%.[60], the EU Eurobarometer poll of 2005 shows that only 38%[61] of people in the UK believe in a god and that religious belief is on the decline. This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Christianity

Stained glass from Rochester Cathedral in Kent, England, incorporating the Flag of England.

Christianity reached England through missionaries from Scotland and from Continental Europe; the era of St. Augustine (the first Archbishop of Canterbury) and the Celtic Christian missionaries in the north (notably St. Aidan and St. Cuthbert). The Synod of Whitby in 664 ultimately led to the English Church being fully part of Roman Catholicism. Early English Christian documents surviving from this time include the seventh century illuminated Lindisfarne Gospels and the historical accounts written by the Venerable Bede. England has many early cathedrals, most notably York Minster (1080), Durham Cathedral (1093) and Salisbury Cathedral (1220), In 1536, the Church was split from Rome over the issue of the divorce of King Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon. The split led to the emergence of a separate ecclesiastical authority, and later the influence of the Reformation, resulting in the Church of England and Anglicanism. Unlike the other three constituent countries of the UK, the Church of England is an established church (although the Church of Scotland is a 'national church' recognised in law). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 479 KB) Summary Photograph of a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent, England. ... Rochester Cathedral is a Norman church in Rochester, Kent. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Saint Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria (?-651), is the founder and first bishop of the monastery on the island of Lindisfarne in England. ... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (c. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. ... York Minster is the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe and is situated in the city of York in Northern England. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishops Grounds by John Constable c. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...

Canterbury Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England, a significant worldwide Christian denomination.
Canterbury Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England, a significant worldwide Christian denomination.

The sixteenth century break with Rome under the reign of King Henry VIII and the dissolution of the monasteries had major consequences for the Church (as well as for politics). The Church of England remains the largest Christian church in England; it is part of the Anglican communion. Many of the Church of England's cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x2400, 1040 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom Canterbury Cathedral ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... A list of the cathedrals, former cathedrals and intended cathedrals in the United Kingdom and its dependencies. ...


Other major Christian Protestant denominations in England include the Methodist Church, the Baptist Church and the United Reformed Church. Smaller denominations, but not insignificant, include the Religious Society of Friends (the "Quakers") and the Salvation Army — both founded in England. There are also Afro-Caribbean Churches, especially in the London area. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For school of ancient Greek medicine... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an evangelical, protestant denomination. ... Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ... “Quaker” redirects here. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ...


The Roman Catholic Church re-established a hierarchy in England in the nineteenth century. Attendances were considerably boosted by immigration, especially from Ireland and more recently Poland. The Catholic Church in Great Britain is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, sometimes known as the Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual government and teaching of the Pope and Catholic Bishops throughout the world. ...

See also: Churches Together in England

Churches Together in England (CTE) is an ecumenical organisation and national Christian church council in England. ...

Other religions

Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, immigration from many colonial countries, often from South Asia and the Middle East have resulted in a considerable growth in Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism in England. Cities and towns with large Muslim communities include Birmingham, Blackburn,Coventry, Bolton, Bradford, Leicester, London, Luton, Manchester, Oldham & Sheffield. Cities and towns with large Sikh communities include London, Slough, Staines, Hounslow, Southall, Reading, Ilford, Barking, Dagenham, Leicester, Leeds, Birmingham, Wolverhampton and others. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the British city. ... , Blackburn is a large town in Lancashire, England. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Culture in Luton be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... Staines is a Thames-side town in the Spelthorne borough of Surrey and part of the London Commuter Belt of South East England. ... , Hounslow is the principal town of the London Borough of Hounslow in West London. ... It has been suggested that Southalls South Asian community be merged into this article or section. ... , Reading is a town, unitary authority (the Borough of Reading) and urban area in the English county of Berkshire. ... Ilford is a district of the London Borough of Redbridge in east London, England. ... Barking is the principal town in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham. ... Dagenham is a suburban town in east London, in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, situated 12 miles (19. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British city. ... // Wolverhampton is a City in the historical county of Staffordshire and metropolian county of the West Midlands. ...


The Jewish community in England is mainly located in the Greater London area, particularly the north west suburbs such as Golders Green;[62] although Manchester and Gateshead also have significant Jewish communities.[63][64] Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in London, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ...


Education

Main article: Education in England

There is a long history of the promotion of education in England in schools, colleges and universities. England is home to the oldest existing schools in the English speaking world: The King's School, Canterbury and The King's School, Rochester, believed to be founded in the sixth and seventh century respectively. There are at least eight existing schools in England which were founded in the first millennium. Most of these ancient institutions are fee-paying schools, however there are also very early examples of state schools in England, most notably Beverley Grammar School founded in 700. State and private schools and colleges have continued side by side since that time. Other famous English schools include Winchester College (founded 1382), Eton College (1440), Tonbridge School (1553), Rugby School (1567), Harrow School (1572), and Charterhouse School (1611). The oldest surviving girls' school in England is Red Maids' School founded in 1634. England is also home to the two oldest universities in the English speaking world: Oxford University (twelfth century) and Cambridge University (early thirteenth century). There are more than ninety universities in England and many of these (most notably the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London) consist of autonomous colleges many of which are world famous in their own right, for example University College, Oxford (founded 1249), Peterhouse, Cambridge (1284) Imperial College London and the London School of Economics (1895). Download high resolution version (1025x768, 217 KB)The west end of Kings College Chapel seen from The Backs. ... Download high resolution version (1025x768, 217 KB)The west end of Kings College Chapel seen from The Backs. ... Full name The King’s College of Our Lady and St Nicholas in Cambridge Motto Veritas et Utilitas Truth and usefulness Named after Henry VI Previous names - Established 1441 Sister College(s) New College, Oxford Provost Prof. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Education in England is the responsibility of Department for Education and Skills at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. ... The Kings School is a British independent school situated in Canterbury, Kent. ... The Kings School, Rochester is a public school in Rochester, Kent. ... State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately run schools. ... Beverley Grammar School, is a boys secondary school in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire. ... Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of an English public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... Charterhouse School (Originally, Suttons Hospital in Charterhouse), usually known simply as Charterhouse, is a famous boys English public school, located in Godalming in the county of Surrey. ... The Red Maids School is an Independent school in Bristol. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... College name University College Collegium Magnae Aulae Universitatis Named after Established 1249 Sister College Trinity Hall Master Lord Butler of Brockwell JCR President Peter Surr Undergraduates 420 MCR President Monte MacDiarmid Graduates 144 Homepage Boatclub Crest of University College, Oxford University College (in full, the The Master and Fellows of... Full name Peterhouse Motto - Named after St Peter Previous names The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely St Peter’s College Established 1284 Sister College(s) Merton College Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates 253 Postgraduates 125 Homepage Boatclub The chapel cloisters, through which Old Court... Mascot Beaver Affiliations University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Golden Triangle G5 Group Website http://www. ...


The education system in England is run by the Department for Children, Schools and Families. The education is split into two main types; State schools which are funded through taxation and free to all, and private schools, which provide a paid-for education on top of taxes (also confusingly known as "Public" or "Independent" schools). The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) is a British government department created on 28 June 2007 on the disbanding of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). ...


Education is the responsibility of Department for Children, Schools and Families at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. The education structures for Wales and Northern Ireland are broadly similar to the English system, but there are significant differences of emphasis in the depth and breadth of teaching objectives in Scotland. Traditionally the English system emphasises depth of education, whereas the Scottish system emphasises breadth.

See also: List of universities in England

Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge & Chelmsford The Arts Institute at Bournemouth, Bournemouth University of the Arts London Camberwell College of Arts Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design Chelsea College of Art and Design London College of Communication London College of Fashion Wimbledon College of Art Aston University, Birmingham University...

Transport

See also: Transport in England
Heathrow Airport is the world's busiest airport in terms of numbers of international passengers

BAA Limited runs many of England's airports, its flagship being London Heathrow Airport, the largest airport by traffic volume in Europe and one of the world's busiest airports, and London Gatwick Airport, the second largest. The third largest is Manchester Airport. This is run by Manchester Airport Group, which also owns various other airports. Other major airports include London Stansted Airport in Essex, about thirty miles (50 km) north of London, Coventry Airport and Birmingham International Airport. Wales - yes Scotland - yes France - yes - Via Channel Tunnel England Category: ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x702, 251 KB) Summary Photo copyright Tom Collins. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x702, 251 KB) Summary Photo copyright Tom Collins. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... The following is a list of the worlds busiest airports by international passenger traffic. ... BAA Limited is the owner and operator of seven major United Kingdom airports and operator of several airports worldwide, making the company one of the largest transport companies in the world. ... “Heathrow” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Worlds busiest airport is a claim that is fiercely fought over by the owners of the worlds largest airports. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... For City Airport Manchester, UK, see City Airport Manchester. ... The Manchester Airport Group is a holding company owned by the boroughs of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. ... The lawn in front of Stansted Airport used to attract large numbers of people waiting for their flight during the summer. ... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ... Coventry Airport (IATA: CVT, ICAO: EGBE) is located about 7 km south of Coventry city centre, in the village of Baginton, Warwickshire, England, and about 1 km outside Coventry boundaries. ... There is also a airport located on the border of the city of Birmingham and borough of Solihull (and mostly in the latter) in the West Midlands, England. ...


The growth in private car ownership in the latter half of the twentieth century led to a number of major road-building programmes. Important trunk roads built include the A1 Great North Road from London to Newcastle and Edinburgh, and the A580 "East Lancs." road between Liverpool and Manchester. The Preston Bypass was the first section of motorway and opened in 1958 - it now forms part of the M6 motorway, the country's longest motorway running from Rugby through North West England to the Scottish border. Other major roads include the M1 motorway from London to Leeds up the East of the country, the M25 motorway which encircles London, the M60 motorway which encircles Manchester, the M4 motorway from London to South Wales, the M62 motorway from Liverpool to Manchester and Yorkshire, and the M5 motorway from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West. This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ... The A580, the Liverpool-East Lancashire Road (abbreviated to East Lancs Road) was designed and built to provide better access to the Port of Liverpool for East Lancashire and Manchester. ... The M6 near Carnforth, 2005 This article concerns the M6 motorway in England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The M1 motorway heading south towards junction 37 at Barnsley, South Yorkshire. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... The M60 motorway is an orbital motorway which completely encircles Manchester. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... The route of the M62, in dark blue. ... The M5 near J28, Devon This article concerns the M5 motorway in England. ...


The National Rail network of 10,072 route miles (16,116 route km) in Great Britain, of which the majority is in England. Urban rail networks are also well developed in London and several other cities, including the Manchester Metrolink and the London Underground. The London Underground is the oldest and most extensive underground railway in the world, and as of 2007 consists of 253 miles (407 kilometres) of line[65] and serves 275 stations. A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ...


There are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) of navigable waterways in England, of which roughly half is owned by British Waterways. It is estimated that 165 million journeys are made by people on Britain's waterways annually. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at Tilbury, one of the three major ports in the UK. Ports in the UK handled over 560 million tonnes of domestic and international freight in 2005.[66] This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. ...


The government department overseeing transport is the Department for Transport. In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ...


English people

Main article: English people

The ancestry of the English, considered as an ethnic group, is mixed; it can be traced to the mostly Celtic Romano-Britons,[67] to the eponymous Anglo-Saxons,[68] the Danish-Vikings[69] that formed the Danelaw during the time of Alfred the Great and the Normans,[70][71] among others. The 19th and 20th centuries, furthermore, brought much new immigration to England. This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: Ælfrēd //) (c. ...


Ethnicity aside, the simplest view is that an English person is someone who was born in England and holds British nationality, regardless of his or her racial origin. It has, however, been a notoriously complicated, emotive and controversial identity to delimit. Centuries of English dominance within the United Kingdom has created a situation where to be English is, as a linguist would put it, an "unmarked" state. The English frequently include themselves and their neighbours in the wider term of "British", while the Scots and Welsh tend to be more forward about referring to themselves by one of those more specific terms.[72] This reflects a more subtle form of English-specific patriotism in England; St George's Day, the country's national day, is barely celebrated (though this may be due to the fact that it is not a public holiday in England). The celebrations have increased year on year over the past 5 years.[73] Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that National holiday be merged into this article or section. ...


Modern celebration of English identity is often found around its sports, one field in which the British Home Nations often compete individually. The English Association football team, rugby union team and cricket team often cause increases in the popularity of celebrating Englishness. Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... First International Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Largest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Northern Ireland; 18 February 1882) Worst defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 11 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First... England Rugby is the name of the English national rugby union team. ... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ...


Nomenclature

The country is named after the Angles, one of several Germanic tribes who settled the country in the fifth and sixth centuries. There are two distinct linguistic patterns for the name of the country. The term Germanic tribes applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ...

The majority of European languages use names similar to "England":

The Celtic names are quite different, referring to the Saxons, another family of Germanic tribes which arrived at about the same time as the Angles. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...

The names in Asian languages: Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

  • "إنجلترا" (Ingiltra) or "إنكلترا" (Inkiltra)(Arabic)
  • "ইংল্যান্ড" (Ingland) (Bangla)
  • "انگلستان" (Inglistan) (Persian)
  • "אנגליה" (Anglia) (Hebrew)
  • "イギリス" (Igirisu) or "英国" (eikoku)(Japanese)
  • "Engalaantha" (Sri Lankans (Sinhalese))
  • "இங்கிலாந்து" (In-gi-laan-dhu) (Tamil)
  • "Anh Quôc" (Vietnamese)
  • "Inggris" (Indonesian)
  • "อังกฤษ" (Ang-grit) (Thai)
  • "英国" (Yīngguó) (Chinese)
  • "잉글랜드" (Ing-geul-laen-deu) (Korean)

Names In other languages: “Arabic” redirects here. ... This article is about the Bengali language. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...

  • "Uingereza"(Ou-I-ng'e-re-za) (Swahili)

Alternative names include:

  • The slang "Blighty", from the Hindustani "bila yati" meaning "foreign" (which coincidentally resembles "Britain")
  • "Albion", an ancient name, supposedly referring to the white (Latin alba) cliffs of Dover. Originally it referred to the whole island of Great Britain, and is still sometimes seen that way today, but is more often used for England. Following the Roman conquest of Britain, the term contracted to mean only the area north of Roman control and is today a relative of Alba, the Celtic languages name for Scotland.
  • More poetically, England has been called "this sceptred isle...this other Eden" and "this green and pleasant land", quotations respectively from the poetry of William Shakespeare (in Richard II) and William Blake (And did those feet in ancient time).

Slang terms sometimes used for the people of England include "Sassenachs" or "Sasanachs" (from the Scots Gaelic and Irish Gaelic respectively, both originally meaning "Saxon", and originally a Scottish Highland term for Lowland Scots), "Limeys" (in reference to the citrus fruits carried aboard English sailing vessels to prevent scurvy) and "Pom/Pommy" (used in Australian English and New Zealand English), but these may be perceived as offensive. Also see alternative words for British. Hindustani (/ /; ; हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی), also known as Hindi-Urdu, is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and the vernacular blend between its two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of Hindi and Urdu, as... This article is about the archaic name for Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Look up Alba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... “Jerusalem (song)” redirects here. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Lime Citrus x aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus x bergamia - Bergamot Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There are many alternative ways to describe the people of the United Kingdom (UK), though the official designated nationality is British. ...


National symbols, insignia and anthems

Saint George and the Dragon, Paolo Uccello, c. 1470. This small one has the look of a griffin or a wyvern.
Saint George and the Dragon, Paolo Uccello, c. 1470. This small one has the look of a griffin or a wyvern.

The two main traditional symbols of England are the St George's cross (the English flag), and the Three Lions coat of arms. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1498, 417 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dragon Saint George ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1498, 417 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dragon Saint George ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Paolo Uccello (born Paolo di Dono, 1397 – December 10, 1475) was an Italian painter who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. ... For other uses, see Griffin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wyvern (disambiguation). ... St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... This article is about a flag referring to the particular region of the U.K. properly known as England. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of...


Other national symbols exist, but have varying degrees of official usage, such as the oak tree and the rose. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ...


England's National Day is St George's Day (Saint George being the patron saint), which is on 23 April.[74] It has been suggested that National holiday be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


St George's Cross

Main article: St George's Cross

The St George's Cross is a red cross on a white background and is the national flag of England. St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ...


It is believed to have been adopted for the uniform of English soldiers during the Crusades of the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries.[75] From about 1277 it became the national flag of England. St George's Cross was originally the flag of Genoa and was adopted by England and the City of London in 1190 for their ships entering the Mediterranean to benefit from the protection of the powerful Genoese fleet. The maritime Republic of Genoa was rising and going to become, together with its rival Venice, one of the most important powers in the world. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege. The cross of St George would become the official Flag of England. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Flag of Genoa. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ...


A red cross acted as a symbol for many Crusaders in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It became associated with St George and England, along with other countries and cities (such as Georgia, Milan and the Republic of Genoa), which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. It remained in national use until 1707, when the Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack, especially at sea) which English and Scottish ships had used at sea since 1606, was adopted for all purposes to unite the whole of Great Britain under a common flag. The flag of England no longer has much of an official role, but it is widely flown by Church of England properties and at sporting events. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ...


Until recently, the flag was not commonly flown in England with the British Union Flag being used instead. This was certainly evident at the 1966 Football World Cup when English fans predominantly flew the latter. However, since devolution in the United Kingdom, the St George Cross has experienced a growth in popularity and is now the predominant flag used in English sporting events.[76] “Union Jack” redirects here. ...


Three Lions

The arms of England are gules, three lions passant guardant or; the earliest surviving record of their use was by Richard I (Richard the Lionheart) in the late twelfth century. Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ...


Since union with Scotland and Northern Ireland, the arms of England are no longer used on their own; instead they form a part of the conjoined Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. However, both the Football Association and the England and Wales Cricket Board use logos based on the three lions. In recent years, it has been common to see banners of the arms flown at English football matches, in the same way the Lion Rampant is flown in Scotland. The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms. ...


In 1996, Three Lions was the official song of the England football team for the 1996 European Football Championship, which were held in England. Three Lions was the official song of the England football team for the 1996 European Championships, which were held in England. ... The 1996 European Football Championship (or simply Euro 96) was hosted by England. ...


Rose

The Tudor rose is the national floral emblem of England, and was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses.[77] Image File history File linksMetadata Tudor_Rose. ... When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ... A national emblem is a symbol that represents a nation. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ...


The rose is used in a variety of contexts in its use for England's representation. The so-called Rose of England is a Royal Badge, and is a Tudor, or half-red-half-white rose, [78] symbolising the end of both the Wars of the Roses and the subsequent marriage between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. This symbolism is reflected in the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom and the crest of the FA. However, the rose of England is often displayed as a red rose (which also symbolises Lancashire), such as the badge of the England national rugby union team. A white rose (which also symbolises Yorkshire) is also used on different occasions. Heraldic badges were common in the Middle Ages particularly in England. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Anthem

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has "God Save the Queen". However, the following are often considered to be unofficial English national anthems: Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ...

"God Save the Queen" is usually played for English sporting events, such as football matches, against teams from outside the UK,[citation needed] although "Land of Hope and Glory" was used as the English anthem for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.[79] Since 2004, "Jerusalem" has been sung before England cricket matches,[80] and "Rule Britannia" (Britannia being the Roman name for Great Britain a personification of the United Kingdom) was often used in the past for the English national football team when they played against another of the home nations but more recently "God Save the Queen" has been used by both the rugby union and football teams.[citation needed] I Vow to Thee, My Country is an British patriotic song and Anglican hymn. ... Land of Hope and Glory is an English patriotic song. ... Variations on an Original Theme for orchestra, Op. ... And did those feet in ancient time is a poem by William Blake from the preface to his work Milton (1804). ... Heart of Oak is the official march of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... The 2002 Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester, England from July 25 to August 4, 2002. ... “Rule Britannia” is a patriotic British national song, originating from the poem Rule Britannia by James Thomson, and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740. ... First International Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Largest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Northern Ireland; 18 February 1882) Worst defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 11 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


Gallery of images

See also

Look up England in
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom is a nation which was created by the bonding of the four succsessor states). ... Logres (also spelt Logris or Loegria) is another name for England in Arthurian legend. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ... “Elizabethan” redirects here. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Jacobinism or Jacobitism. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... King Henry VIII of England. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... England under Queen Elizabeth Is reign, the Elizabethan Era, was ruled by the very structured and complicated Elizabethan government. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... This is a list of flags used exclusively in England. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The traditional counties as usually portrayed. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... Gardens in England is a link page for any garden, botanical garden, arboretum or pinetum open to the public in England. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... This is a link page for towns and cities in England. ... This is a list of civil parishes in England, the smallest level of local government, split by county. ... This article discusses the Demographics of England as presented by the United Kingdom Census in 2001. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Castles in England is a link page for any castle in England. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. ... Museums in England is a link page for any museum in England. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team is... English inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques which owe their existence either partially or entirely to a person born in England; in some cases, their Englishness is determined by the fact that they were brought into existence in England , by non-English people working in the country. ... English cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

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  2. ^ England -- Britannica Student Encyclopedia. URL retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  3. ^ National Statistics Online - Population Estimates. URL accessed 6 June 2007.
  4. ^ The official definition of LUZ (Larger Urban Zone) is used by the European Statistical Agency (Eurostat) when describing conurbations and areas of high population. This definition ranks London highest, above Paris (see Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) in the European Union); and a ranking of population within municipal boundaries also puts London on top (see Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits). However, research by the University of Avignon in France ranks Paris first and London second when including the whole urban area and hinterland, that is the outlying cities as well (see Largest urban areas of the European Union).
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  21. ^ Cf. "The Reformation must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not until later make any substantial change in doctrine". Roger Scruton, A Dictionary Political Thought (Macmillan, 1996), p. 470.
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  41. ^ BBC Thousands in UK citizenship queue
  42. ^ 1 in 5 babies in Britain born to immigrants
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  44. ^ Indians largest group among new immigrants to UK
  45. ^ 1500 immigrants arrive in Britain daily, report says
  46. ^ 1,500 migrants enter UK a day
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... // Eurostat, the European Unions statistical agency, has created the concept of Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) in an effort to harmonize definitions[1] of urbanization in the European Union. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of this famous signal flying from the Victory. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, FRSL, FRTS (born 6 October 1939, in Wigton, Cumberland) is a British author and broadcaster. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on England by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • England travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Office for National Statistics
  • Enjoy England — The official website of the English Tourist Board
  • Enjoy England's Travel Blog — Discover England's best hidden gems
  • Official website of the United Kingdom Government
  • England-related pages from the BBC
  • English Nature — wildlife and the natural world of England.
  • English Heritage — national body protecting and promoting English history and heritage.
  • Historical and genealogical information from Genuki England
Geographic locale

  Results from FactBites:
 
England and Wales Cricket Board - ECB (600 words)
The England selectors have named an unchanged 12-man squad for the third and final npower Test match against India at The Brit Oval starting on Thursday.
England need to win the clash in order to draw the series 1-1.
The England and Wales Cricket Trust welcomes eligible ECB affiliated cricket clubs with junior sections to consider an interest-free loan to assist in the development of facilities on their ground.
BADMINTON England - Badminton England (120 words)
Our goal is to develop badminton as a sport for all, and to encourage the best players to progress up through the rankings both at club, county and International level.
England have strengthened their coaching set-up with the appointment of China's Lu Jian as Assistant National Coach.
England today confirmed their squad for the Proton-BWF World Championships in Kuala Lumpur, starting August 13.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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