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Encyclopedia > Engineering
Engineering Portal 

Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. More precisely, engineering can be defined as “the creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.[1][2][3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Look up device in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, or Incorporated Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology. Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... Incorporated engineer is a professional qualification in engineering (not a degree) offered through professional associations that act as subsidiary instruments of the Engineering Council (UK). ... Engineering is a collective term to describe the application of scientific theory in the design, creation, and maintenance of technology. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

Contents

History

The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the industrial revolution, underscores the importance of Engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain
The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the industrial revolution, underscores the importance of Engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain

The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The major components of a Watt pumping engine. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ...


The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates an engine) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.”[4] In this context, now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult). The word “engine” itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning “innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention.”[5] Drawing of a Roman catapult For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering[3] entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering (the original meaning of the word “engineering,” now largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survived to the present day such as military engineering corps, e. g., the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers). The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


The Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aquaducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria, the pyramids in Egypt, Teotihuacán and the cities and pyramids of the Mayan, Inca and Aztec Empires, the Great Wall of China, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the ancient civil and military engineers. The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ... Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, Italy The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Hanging Gardens redirects here. ... The Lighthouse of Alexandria (often called the Pharos of Alexandria after the island on which it resided), was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.[3] As one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC. [6] He may also have been responsible for the first known use of columns in architecture. This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... The Pyramid of Djoser, or step pyramid or kbhw-ntrw, was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser-Netjerikhet by his Vizier Imhotep. ... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ...


The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete, who was the originator of the term "electricity".[7] An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... For other persons named William Gilbert, see William Gilbert (disambiguation). ... De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert. ...


The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery. The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades, allowing for the beginnings of mass production. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... Thomas Savery (c. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


With the rise of engineering as a profession in the nineteenth century the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... The phrase mechanic arts is an obsolete and archaic term. ...


Electrical Engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty.[3] Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... {{Infobox Scientist This guy was gay | name = Georg Simon Ohm | image = Ohm3. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... James Maxwell may be: James Clerk Maxwell (1831 to 1879), physicist James Laidlaw Maxwell (1836 to 1921), missionary to Formosa James Maxwell (actor) (1929 to 1995) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ...


The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.[3] For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ...


Even though in its modern form Mechanical engineering originated in Britain, its origins trace back to early antiquity where ingenuous machines were developed both in the civilian and military domains. The Antikythera mechanism, the earliest known model of a mechanical computer in history, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes, including his death ray, are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial revolution and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.[8] The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, that allows each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... A gear train is a set or system of gears arranged to transfer rotational torque from one part of a mechanical sytem to another. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ...


Chemical Engineering, like its counterpart Mechanical Engineering, developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution.[3] Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants.[3] The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.[3] Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including spacecraft design.[9] Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering.[10] Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1920s saw extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of World War I military aircraft. Meanwhile, research to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics with experiments. Flying machine redirects here. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Sir George Cayley (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was an exuberant polymath from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ...


The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.[11] PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Yale redirects here. ...


In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by computer engineer Alan Emtage. This article is about the machine. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... Computer Engineering (also sometimes called Computer Systems Engineering) is a specialised discipline that combines electrical engineering and computer science. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Main Branches of Engineering

Main article: List of engineering branches

Engineering, much like science, is a broad discipline which is often broken down into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Historically the main Branches of Engineering are categorized as follows:[9][12] Aerospace Engineering - The design of aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ...

With the rapid advancement of Technology many new fields are gaining prominence and new branches are developing such as Computer Engineering, Software Engineering, Nanotechnology, Molecular engineering, Mechatronics etc. These new specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches such as Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics and Electrical and Computer Engineering. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A kinematic chain is the assembly of several kinematic pairs connecting rigid body segments. ... Vibration isolation is the process of isolating an object, such as a piece of equipment, from the source of vibrations. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... Computer engineering encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ...


For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the application of sciences to their disciplines such as physics, chemistry and mathematics.


Methodology

Design of a turbine requires collaboration from engineers from many fields
Design of a turbine requires collaboration from engineers from many fields

Engineers apply the sciences of physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions to problems or to make improvements to the status quo. If multiple options exist, engineers weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements. Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost, safety, marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which a viable object or system may be produced and operated. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1779x2126, 1759 KB) Mounting of a steam turbine produced by Siemens, Germany Photo taken from [1] with the friendly permission of Siemens Germany by Christian Kuhna, E-Mail: christian. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1779x2126, 1759 KB) Mounting of a steam turbine produced by Siemens, Germany Photo taken from [1] with the friendly permission of Siemens Germany by Christian Kuhna, E-Mail: christian. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... For other uses, see Serviceability. ... In engineering and manufacturing, the term specification has the following meanings: Technical requirement An essential technical requirement for items, materials, or services, including the procedures to be used to determine whether the requirement has been met. ...


Problem solving

Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineering is considered a branch of applied mathematics and science. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions. Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their requirements. Genrich Altshuller, after gathering statistics on a large number of patents, suggested that compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher level the best design is one which eliminates the core contradiction causing the problem. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is propositional knowledge obtained by experience or sensorial information. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... In civil engineering, a design choice is a possible solution to a problem. ... Genrih Altshuller Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер IPA: ) (October 15, 1926 - September 24, 1998), penname Genrikh Altov was born in Tashkent. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Look up Compromise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Level of Invention or Degree of Inventiveness or Level of Solution is degree of an solution of inventive problem (one containing a contradiction) defined and introduced by TRIZ author G. S. Altshuller. ...


Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure. However, the greater the safety factor, the less efficient the design may be. For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ... This article is about the general term. ... In destructive testing, tests are carried out to the specimen’s failure. ... // Nondestructive testing (also called NDT, nondestructive evaluation, NDE, and nondestructive inspection, NDI) is testing that does not destroy the test object. ... Stress testing is a form of testing which is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. ... Factor of safety (FoS) can mean either the fraction of structural capability over that required, or a multiplier applied to the maximum expected load (force, torque, bending moment or a combination) to which a component or assembly will be subjected. ...


Computer use

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry.
A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry.

As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play an increasingly important role. As well as the typical business application software there are a number of computer aided applications (CAx) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods. Image File history File linksMetadata CFD_Shuttle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CFD_Shuttle. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... CAx is a summary term for various kinds of Computer Aided technologies. ... Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ...


One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD) software which enables engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of their designs. CAD together with Digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as finite element method analysis allows engineers to create models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes. These allow products and components to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product Data Management software.[13] CADD and CAD redirect here. ... Digital MockUp or DMU is a technology that allows product design engineers to replace physical prototypes with virtual ones, using 3D computer graphics techniques. ... Computer-aided Engineering analysis (often referred to as CAE) is the application of computer software in engineering to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. ... In numerical analysis, the finite element method (FEM) is used for solving partial differential equations (PDE) approximately. ... Product Data Management (PDM) is a category of computer software used to control data related to products. ...


There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as Computer-aided manufacture (CAM) software to generate CNC machining instructions; Manufacturing Process Management software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board (PCB) and circuit schematics for electronic engineers; MRO applications for maintenance management; and AEC software for civil engineering. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of a wide range of Product Lifecycle Management computer-based software tools that assist engineers, in the manufacture of product components. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing Processes is a collection of technology and methods used in the manufacturing of products. ... PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... A schematic of the Washington Metro. ... Maintenance, Repair and Operations or Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ...


In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM).[14] This article is about managing product design and production details. ...


Engineering in a social context

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design engineering. Pro bono is a phrase derived from Latin meaning for the good. The complete phrase is pro bono publico, for the public good. It is used to designate legal or other professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment, as a public service. ... Open Design is a term that applies to the investigation and potential of open source and the collaborative nature of the internet to create physical objects. ...


By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility, as represented by many of the Engineering Institutions codes of practice and ethics. Whereas medical ethics is a well-established field with considerable consensus, engineering ethics is far less developed, and engineering projects can be subject to considerable controversy. Just a few examples of this from different engineering disciplines are the development of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges Dam, the design and use of Sports Utility Vehicles and the extraction of oil. There is a growing trend amongst western engineering companies to enact serious Corporate and Social Responsibility policies, but many companies do not have these. An engineering society is a professional organization for engineers of various disciplines. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The Three Gorges Dam (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a Chinese hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Yichang, Hubei, China. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a type of passenger vehicle which combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Engineering is a key driver of human development.[15] Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development.[16] All overseas development and relief NGOs make considerable use of engineers to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number of charitable organizations aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind: The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ...

There are organizations in several countries that have the name Engineers Without Borders. ... Engineers for a Sustainable World (ESW) is a national not-for-profit based in Ithaca, New York. ...

Cultural presence

Engineering is a well respected profession. For example, in Canada it ranks as one of the public's most trusted professions.[17]


Sometimes engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular culture, and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds. For example, the cartoon character Dilbert is an engineer. One difficulty in increasing public awareness of the profession is that average people, in the typical run of ordinary life, do not ever have any personal dealings with engineers, even though they benefit from their work every day. By contrast, it is common to visit a doctor at least once a year, the chartered accountant at tax time, and, occasionally, even a lawyer. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation). ... Dilbert (first published April 16, 1989) is an American comic strip written and drawn by Scott Adams. ...


This has not always been so - most British school children in the 1950s were brought up with stirring tales of 'the Victorian Engineers', chief amongst whom were the Brunels, the Stephensons, Telford and their contemporaries.


In science fiction engineers are often portrayed as highly knowledgeable and respectable individuals who understand the overwhelming future technologies often portrayed in the genre. The Star Trek characters Montgomery Scott, Geordi La Forge, Miles O'Brien, B'Elanna Torres, and Charles Tucker are famous examples. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Scotty redirects here. ... Geordi La Forge is a regular character in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, played by LeVar Burton. ... Miles OBrien Miles Edward OBrien is a character in the fictional Star Trek universe, played by Colm Meaney. ... BElanna Torres, played by Roxann Dawson, is a character in Star Trek: Voyager. ... Charles Trip Tucker III Commander Charles Tucker III, known as Trip (for triple, since he is the third generation of his family to be called Charles Tucker), is a fictional character in the television series Star Trek: Enterprise, played by Connor Trinneer. ...


Occasionally, engineers may be recognized by the "Iron Ring"--a stainless steel or iron ring worn on the little finger of the dominant hand. This tradition began in 1925 in Canada for the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer as a symbol of pride and obligation for the engineering profession. Some years later in 1972 this practice was adopted by several colleges in the United States. Members of the US Order of the Engineer accept this ring as a pledge to uphold the proud history of engineering. A Professional Engineer's name may be followed by the post-nominal letters PE or P.Eng in North America. In much of Europe a professional engineer is denoted by the letters IR, while in the UK and much of the Commonwealth the term Chartered Engineer applies and is denoted by the letters CEng. Iron Ring, stainless steel version, circa 2004. ... Canada Post stamp commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Ritual. ... The membership ring for the Order of the Engineer The Order of the Engineer is an association for graduate and professional engineers in the United States that emphasizes pride and responsibilty in the engineering profession. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ...


Legislation

In most Western countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a Professional Engineer or a Chartered Engineer or an Incorporated Engineer. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... Incorporated engineer is a professional qualification in engineering (not a degree) offered through professional associations that act as subsidiary instruments of the Engineering Council (UK). ...


Laws protecting public health and safety mandate that a professional must provide guidance gained through education and experience. In the United States, each state tests and licenses Professional Engineers. In much of Europe and the Commonwealth professional accreditation is provided by Engineering Institutions, such as the Institution of Civil Engineers from the UK. The engineering institutions of the UK are some of the oldest in the world, and provide accreditation to many engineers around the world. In Canada the profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association. For instance, in the Province of British Columbia an engineering graduate with 4 or more years of experience in an engineering-related field will need to be registered by the Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists [(APEGBC)][1] in order to become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P.Eng. This article is about people called professionals. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... An engineering society is a professional organization for engineers of various disciplines. ... The Institutions headquarters Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, based in central London, representing civil engineers. ...


The federal US government, however, supervises aviation through the Federal Aviation Regulations administrated by the Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Designated Engineering Representatives approve data for aircraft design and repairs on behalf of the Federal Aviation Administration.


Even with strict testing and licensure, engineering disasters still occur. Therefore, the Professional Engineer or Chartered Engineer or Incorporated Engineer adheres to a strict code of ethics. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which the members pledge to uphold. Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... Incorporated engineer is a professional qualification in engineering (not a degree) offered through professional associations that act as subsidiary instruments of the Engineering Council (UK). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


Refer also to the Washington accord for international accreditation details of professional engineering degrees. The Washington Accord is an international accreditation agreement for professional engineering degree programs. ...


Relationships with other disciplines

Science

Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been.

There exists an overlap between the sciences and engineering practice; in engineering, one applies science. Both areas of endeavor rely on accurate observation of materials and phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze and communicate observations. Scientists are expected to interpret their observations and to make expert recommendations for practical action based on those interpretations.[citation needed] Scientists may also have to complete engineering tasks, such as designing experimental apparatus or building prototypes. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists. Theodore von Kármán (Szőllőskislaki Kármán Tódor) (May 11, 1881 – May 6, 1963) was an engineer and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics during the seminal era in the 1940s and 1950s. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ...


In the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It,[18] Walter Vincenti asserts that engineering research has a character different from that of scientific research. First, it often deals with areas in which the basic physics and/or chemistry are well understood, but the problems themselves are too complex to solve in an exact manner. Examples are the use of numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations to describe aerodynamic flow over an aircraft, or the use of Miner's rule to calculate fatigue damage. Second, engineering research employs many semi-empirical methods that are foreign to pure scientific research, one example being the method of parameter variation. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Navier-Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, are a set of equations which describe the motion of fluid substances such as liquids and gases. ... This article is about a computer game. ... In mathematics, variation of parameters or variation of constants is a method used to solve inhomogeneous linear ordinary differential equations. ...


As stated by Fung et al. in the revision to the classic engineering text, Foundations of Solid Mechanics, [19]


"Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress invention. To embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms, and design something that people can use. That something can be a device, a gadget, a material, a method, a computing program, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem, or an improvement on what is existing. Since a design has to be concrete, it must have its geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. Almost all engineers working on new designs find that they do not have all the needed information. Most often, they are limited by insufficient scientific knowledge. Thus they study mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics. Often they have to add to the sciences relevant to their profession. Thus engineering sciences are born."


Medicine and biology

Leonardo DaVinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer. He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiognomy
Leonardo DaVinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer.[20] He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiognomy

The study of the human body, albeit from different directions and for different purposes, is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines. Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the human body, if necessary, through the use of technology. Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain implants and pacemakers.[21][22] The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems. Conversely, some engineering disciplines view the human body as a biological machine worth studying, and are dedicated to emulating many of its functions by replacing biology with technology. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, and robotics. There are also substantial interdisciplinary interactions between engineering and medicine.[23][24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... Leonardo redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Brain implants, often referred to as neural implants, are technological devices that connect directly to a biological subjects brain - usually placed on the surface of the brain, or attached to the brains cortex. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... AI redirects here. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...


Both fields provide solutions to real world problems. This often requires moving forward before phenomena are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense and therefore experimentation and empirical knowledge is an integral part of both. Medicine, in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods.[25] The heart for example functions much like a pump,[26] the skeleton is like a linked structure with levers,[27] the brain produces electrical signals etc.[28] These similarities as well as the increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the development of the field of biomedical engineering that utilizes concepts developed in both disciplines. A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... In the fields of communications, signal processing, and in electrical engineering more generally, a signal is any time-varying quantity. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ...


Newly emerging branches of science, such as Systems biology, are adapting analytical tools traditionally used for engineering, such as systems modeling and computational analysis, to the description of biological systems.[25] Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ...


Art

There are connections between engineering and art;[29] they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design (even to the extent that these disciplines may sometimes be included in a University's Faculty of Engineering); and indirect in others.[29][30][31][32] The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design.[33] Robert Maillart's bridge design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic.[34] At the University of South Florida, an engineering professor, through a grant with the National Science Foundation, has developed a course that connects art and engineering.[35][30] Among famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and engineer, and a prime example of the nexus between art and engineering.[20][36] This article is about building architecture. ... Central Park, like all parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... The Art Institute of Chicago is a fine art museum located in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... // Robert Maillart Robert Maillart (February 6, 1872 - April 5, 1940) was a Swiss civil engineer who revelutionized reinforced concrete with such designs as the three-hinged arch, the deck-stiffened arch, and the mushroom slab. ... The University of South Florida (USF), known within its system as USF Tampa[2][3][4], is a public university system located in Tampa, Florida, USA, with an autonomous campus in St. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Look up nexus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Other fields

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Political engineering is a concept in political science that deals with the designing of political institutions in a society. ... Political structure is a term frequently used in political science. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ...


See also

Main lists: List of basic engineering topics and Alphabetical list of engineering topics

For a more comprehensive list, see the List of engineering topics. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the broad field of engineering. ... For a list of engineers see: List of aerospace engineers List of chemical engineers List of civil engineers List of electrical engineers List of industrial engineers List of materials engineers List of mechanical engineers List of inventors List of architects List of urban planners List of scientists List of heroic... An engineering society is a professional organization for engineers of various disciplines. ... This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of aerospace engineering. ... This is a listing of electrical engineering and electronic engineering topics and related terms. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 3 end -- 5 end -- Acentric chromosome -- Achondroplasia -- Active site -- Adams Curse -- Adaptation -- Adenine -- Adenosine -- Adenosine diphosphate -- Adenovirus -- ADP -- Ala... This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of mechanical engineering. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the specific discipline of nanoengineering. ... This list complements the software engineering article, giving more details and examples. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Engineering economics, previously known as engineering economy, is a subset of economics for application to engineering projects. ... There are organizations in several countries that have the name Engineers Without Borders. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... Open Hardware (OH) is a part of the GNU project in which hardware designers share their work by disclosing the schematics and software (GNU drivers) used in their designs. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

References

  1. ^ Science, Volume 94, Issue 2446, pp. 456: Engineers' Council for Professional Development
  2. ^ Engineers' Council for Professional Development. (1947). Canons of ethics for engineers
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Engineers' Council for Professional Development definition on Encyclopaedia Britannica (Includes Britannica article on Engineering)
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ Origin: 1250–1300; ME engin < AF, OF < L ingenium nature, innate quality, esp. mental power, hence a clever invention, equiv. to in- + -genium, equiv. to gen- begetting; Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.
  6. ^ Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2005, p.159
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000, CD-ROM, version 2.5.
  8. ^ Wright, M T. (2005). "Epicyclic Gearing and the Antikythera Mechanism, part 2". Antiquarian Horology 29 (1 (September 2005)): 54-60. 
  9. ^ a b Imperial College London England: Studying engineering at Imperial: Engineering courses are offered in five main branches of engineering: aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. There are also courses in computing science, software engineering, information systems engineering, materials science and engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering.
  10. ^ Van Every, Kermit E. (1986). "Aeronautical engineering". Encyclopedia Americana 1. Grolier Incorporated. 226. 
  11. ^ Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs - the History of a Great Mind. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-11-6. 
  12. ^ U of Edinburgh Welcome to Chemical Engineering, which is celebrating 50 years this academic year, is part of the School of Engineering and Electronics (SEE), which includes the other three main engineering disciplines of electrical and electronic engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering.
  13. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2001.05.07). PDM: Not Just for the Big Boys Anymore. ThomasNet.
  14. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2003.05.22). The Latest Chapter in CAD Software Evaluation. ThomasNet.
  15. ^ PDF on Human Development
  16. ^ MDG info pdf
  17. ^ Leger Marketing (2006). "Sponsorship effect seen in survey of most-trusted professions: pollster"., pg. 2, The occupations most-trusted by Canadians, according to a poll by Leger Marketing... Engineering 88 per cent of respondents...
  18. ^ Vincenti, Walter G. (1993). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  19. ^ (2001) Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, YC Fung and P. Tong. World Scientific. 
  20. ^ a b Bjerklie, David. “The Art of Renaissance Engineering.” MIT’s Technology Review Jan./Feb.1998: 54-9. Article explores the concept of the “artist-engineer”, an individual who used his artistic talent in engineering. Quote from article: Da Vinci reached the pinnacle of “artist-engineer”-dom, Quote2: “It was Leonardo da Vinci who initiated the most ambitious expansion in the role of artist-engineer, progressing from astute observer to inventor to theoretician.” (Bjerklie 58)
  21. ^ Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips. Ellen M. McGee and G. Q. Maguire, Jr. from Boston University
  22. ^ IEEE technical paper: Foreign parts (electronic body implants).by Evans-Pughe, C. quote from summary:Feeling threatened by cyborgs?
  23. ^ Institute of Medicine and Engineering: Mission statement The mission of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) is to stimulate fundamental research at the interface between biomedicine and engineering/physical/computational sciences leading to innovative applications in biomedical research and clinical practice.
  24. ^ IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering...
  25. ^ a b Royal Academy of Engineering and Academy of Medical Sciences: Systems Biology: a vision for engineering and medicine in pdf: quote1: Systems Biology is an emerging methodology that has yet to be defined quote2: It applies the concepts of systems engineering to the study of complex biological systems through iteration between computational and/or mathematical modelling and experimentation.
  26. ^ Science Museum of Minnesota: Online Lesson 5a; The heart as a pump
  27. ^ Minnesota State University emuseum: Bones act as levers
  28. ^ UC Berkeley News: UC researchers create model of brain's electrical storm during a seizure
  29. ^ a b Lehigh University project: We wanted to use this project to demonstrate the relationship between art and architecture and engineering
  30. ^ a b National Science Foundation:The Art of Engineering: Professor uses the fine arts to broaden students' engineering perspectives
  31. ^ MIT World:The Art of Engineering: Inventor James Dyson on the Art of Engineering: quote: A member of the British Design Council, James Dyson has been designing products since graduating from the Royal College of Art in 1970.
  32. ^ University of Texas at Dallas:The Institute for Interactive Arts and Engineering
  33. ^ Aerospace Design: The Art of Engineering from NASA’s Aeronautical Research
  34. ^ Princeton U: Robert Maillart's Bridges: The Art of Engineering: quote:no doubt that Maillart was fully conscious of the aesthetic implications...
  35. ^ quote:..the tools of artists and the perspective of engineers..
  36. ^ Drew U: user website: cites Bjerklie paper

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...

Further reading

  • Billington, David P. (1996-06-05). The Innovators: The Engineering Pioneers Who Made America Modern. Wiley; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-471-14026-0. 
  • Petroski, Henry (1992-03-31). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73416-3. 
  • Petroski, Henry (1994-02-01). The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday Artifacts-From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers-Came to be as They are. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74039-2. 
  • Lord, Charles R. (2000-08-15). Guide to Information Sources in Engineering. Libraries Unlimited. DOI:10.1336/1563086999. ISBN 1-563-08699-9. 
  • Vincenti, Walter G. (1993-02-01). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-80184588-2. 

Henry Petroski (born 1942) is an American civil engineering professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, where he specializes in failure analysis. ... Henry Petroski (born 1942) is an American civil engineering professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, where he specializes in failure analysis. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Look up engineering in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity, you can learn about:
Engineering

[[]] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, in particular the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, performance, search and retrieval. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Computer engineering encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Engineering | The WWW Virtual Library (743 words)
Industrial engineers integrate human, information, material, monetary, and technological resources to produce goods and services optimally.
Links pertaining to petroleum engineering for the academic, governmental and industrial communities.
The Wastewater Engineering Virtual Library was established on Dec. 5, 1994 and is devoted to all aspects of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.
Engineering technicians (2317 words)
Employment of engineering technicians often is influenced by the same local and national economic conditions that affect engineers; as a result, job outlook varies with industry and specialization.
Engineering technicians who work in research and development build or set up equipment; prepare and conduct experiments; collect data; calculate or record results; and help engineers or scientists in other ways, such as making prototype versions of newly designed equipment.
Growth in the largest specialty—electrical and electronics engineering technicians—is expected to be about as fast as the average, while employment of environmental engineering technicians is expected to grow faster than average to meet the environmental demands of an ever-growing population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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