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Encyclopedia > Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss.

Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß; October 4, 1892July 25, 1934) was an Austrian conservative statesman, who served as chancellor for two years from 1932 until his assassination by Nazi agents in 1934. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Texing in Lower Austria and deeply religious, Dollfuss was educated at a Roman Catholic seminary before deciding to study Law at the University of Vienna and then Economics at the University of Berlin. Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der...


Dollfuss had difficulty gaining admission into the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I due to his short stature, but was eventually accepted and sent to the Alpine Front. He was a highly decorated soldier and was briefly taken prisoner by the Italians as a POW in 1918. After the war he worked for the Agriculture ministry as secretary of the Peasants' Association and became director of the Lower Austrian Chamber of Agriculture in 1927, and in 1930 as a member of the conservative Christian Social Party was appointed president of the Federal Railway System. (One of the founders of the CS was a hero of Dollfuss's, Karl Freiherr von Vogelsang.) The following year he was named minister of agriculture and forests. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Categories: Military stubs | World War I | World War II defensive lines ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... Current logo of the Austrian Federal Railways, ÖBB ÖBB Logo The various logos of the ÖBB over time, starting with the oldest, which is a classic flying wheel as used in different variants by many railway companies around the world. ... Karl von Vogelsang Karl Freiherr von Vogelsang (1818 - 1890) was one of the founders of the Austrian Christian Social Party, and the founder of the Austrian Christian Social Movement. ...


He became Chancellor on May 20, 1932 as head of a coalition government, with the pressing goal of tackling the problems of the Great Depression, in a state (post-Versailles Austria) which was not an economically viable entity since its creation in 1919.[citation needed] But, Dollfuss's majority in Parliament was almost non-existent; deflationary policies implemented by his chief economic advisor, Ludwig von Mises, would prove unpopular in and outside of Parliament, especially among the (deeply hostile to Dolfuss) Austrian Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria (SDAPÖ). The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the head of government in Austria. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the Stock Market Crash on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday. ... The Austrian parliament consists of two chambers, the Nationalrat (national council) and the Bundesrat (federal council). ... Deflation occurs when prices deflate, i. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest political parties in Austria. ...


Dollfuss suspended Parliament indefinitely in March 1933 and governed thereafter by decree. He arguably also had another reason for the suspension of democracy in Austria besides standard political fighting – the rise of the Nazi party in Germany. With Adolf Hitler now German Chancellor, it looked increasingly likely that the Austrian National Socialists (DNSAP) would gain a majority in any future elections, after which Austria would surely cease to exist as a state. Accordingly, Dollfuss banned the DNSAP in June 1933, and then the SDAPÖ in February 1934, after a bloodbath that killed hundreds of people of the factory workers district, including women and children, who tried to stage a revolt against him. Some historians argue the Nazi rise to power in 1933 in Germany forced Dollfuss to take an authoritarian line in order to preserve Austrian sovereignty, whilst others argue that the authoritarian trend was already underway in 1932. National Socialism redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Dollfuss was drawn to Italian fascism and leveraged support from fascist Italy against Nazi Germany, gaining a guarantee for Austria's independence from Italy in August 1933 in exchange for radical political reforms along Fascist lines. He also exchanged 'Secret Letters' with Mussolini about ways to guarantee Austrian independence. Mussolini holding a speech. ...


In September 1933 Dolfuss formed the Vaterländische Front, an umbrella grouping to support his government, and merged the Christian Social Party with the Nationalist paramilitary Heimwehr (Home Guard). The Austrian regime which then ruled from 1933 until 1938 (long after his assassination and up until the Anschluss) is referred to by some as Austrofascism. The regime designated itself Ständestaat. The Vaterländische Front (VF, English: Patriotic Front) was a right-wing Austrian political party. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... The Heimwehr (German Home Guard) were a Nationalist, initially paramilitary grouping, operating within Austria during the 1920s and 1930s; they were similar in methods, organisation, and ideology to Germanys Freikorp. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ...


Dollfuss was a very short man and his diminutive stature was the object of satire, among his nicknames were 'Millimetternich' and the 'Jockey'. The New York Times also reported a series of jokes, including how in the coffee houses of Vienna, one could order a 'Dollfuss' cup of coffee instead of a 'Short Black' cup of coffee (black being the colour of the clerical political faction). He has also been satirized by Jura Soyfer. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Jura Soyfer and Maria Szecsi 1938 Jura Soyfer (December 8, 1912. ...


Assassination

Dolfuss was assassinated in 1934 by eight Austrian Nazis who entered the Chancellery building and shot him in an attempted coup d'état, as a prelude to the Anschluss. Immediately after the assassination Italian armed forces mobilized at the Austrian-Italian border to deter any German invasion of Austrian territory. However, the Nazi assassins in Vienna surrendered and were executed. Kurt Schuschnigg became the new chancellor. A year earlier, in October 1933, Dollfuss already escaped an assassination attempt by Rudolf Dertill, a 22-year old who was ejected from the military for his national-socialist views. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Kurt Schuschnigg in a propagando manifesto. ...


Dollfuss is buried in the Hietzing cemetery in Vienna, alongside his wife Alvine. Hietzing is the 13th municipal District of Vienna. ...


By the time of the Anschluss in 1938 it was clear that Mussolini did not support Schuschnigg as he had Dollfuss; contacts between Italian fascists and German Nazis had improved enough by then to see Mussolini's acceptance of the annexation of the Austrian territories by Nazi Germany.

Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss

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External links

Primary and secondary literature

  • Bußhoff, Heinrich, Das Dollfuß Regime in Österreich (Berlin: Duncker & Humbolt, 1968)
  • Carsten, F. L., The first Austrian Republic 1918-1938 (Cambridge U.P., 1986)
  • Dollfuß, Engelbert, Dollfuß Schafft Arbeit [Pamphlet] (Heimatdienst, 1933)
  • Ender, D, Die neue Österreichische Verfassung mit dem Text des Konkordates (Wien/Leipzig: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1935)
  • Gregory, J. D., Dollfuss and his Times (Tiptree: Hutchinson & Co. Anchor, 1935)
  • Maleta, Alfred, Der Sozialist im Dollfuß-Österreich (Linz: Preßverein Linz, 1936)
  • Messner, Johannes, Dollfuß (Tyrolia, 1935)
  • Messner, Johannes, Dollfuss: An Austrian Patriot (Norfolk, Virginia: IHS Press, 2003)
  • Moth, G., Neu Österreich und seine Baumeister (Wien: Steyrermühl-Verlag, 1935)
  • Österreichischer Bundespressedienst, Der Führer Bundeskanzler Dr. Dollfuß zum Feste des Wiederaufbaues 1. Mai 1934 (Österreichischer Bundespressedienst, 1934)
  • Sugar, Peter (ed.) Native Fascism in the Successor States (Seattle 1971)
  • Tálos, Emmerich & Neugebauer, Wolfgang, Austrofascismus (Vienna: Lit. Verlag, 2005)
  • Walterskirchen, Gudula Engelbert Dollfuss, Arbeitermörder oder Heldenkanzler (Vienna: Molden Verlag, 2004)
  • Weber, Hofrat Edmund, Dollfuß an Oesterreich, Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel (Wien: Reinhold Verlag, 1935)
  • Winkler, Franz, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich (Zürich/Leipzig, Orell Füssli Verlag, 1935)
  • Zweig, Stefan, Die Welt von Gestern, eines Dichters von Morgen (Frankfurt am Main/Bonn: Athenäum, 1965)
Preceded by:
Karl Buresch
Chancellor of Austria Succeeded by:
Kurt Schuschnigg
Foreign Ministers of Austria
First Austrian Republic: Victor Adler | Otto Bauer | Karl Renner | Michael Mayr | Johann Schober | Walter Breisky | Leopold Hennet | Alfred Grünberger | Heinrich Mataja | Rudolf Ramek | Ignaz Seipel | Ernst Streeruwitz | Johann Schober | Ignaz Seipel | Johann Schober | Karl Buresch | Engelbert Dollfuß | Stephan Tauschitz | Egon Berger-Waldenegg | Kurt Schuschnigg | Guido Schmidt | Wilhelm Wolf
Second Austrian Republic: Karl Gruber | Leopold Figl | Bruno Kreisky | Lujo Tončić-Sorinj | Kurt Waldheim | Rudolf Kirchschläger | Erich Bielka | Willibald Pahr | Erwin Lanc | Leopold Gratz | Peter Jankowitsch | Alois Mock | Wolfgang Schüssel | Benita Ferrero-Waldner | Ursula Plassnik

  Results from FactBites:
 
Engelbert Dollfuss (329 words)
Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892 - July 25, 1934) was an Austrian politician.
Born in Texing, Austria, Dollfuss was a religious youth who was educated at a seminary before deciding to study law at the University of Vienna and then economics at the University of Berlin.
During WW I he had difficulty being drafted due to his short stature but he was eventually accepted and sent to the Alpine front, briefly becoming a POW in 1918.
Engelbert Dollfuss - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892, Texing—July 25, 1934, Vienna) was an Austrian statesman, serving as chancellor for two years from 1932 until his assassination in 1934.
Born in Texing, Austria, Dollfuss was a religious youth who was educated at a seminary before deciding to study Law at the University of Vienna and then Economics at the University of Berlin.
Dollfuss was drawn to Italian fascism and levered support from fascist Italy against Nazi Germany, gaining a guarantee for Austria's independence from Italy in August 1933 in exchange for radical political reforms along Fascist lines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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