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Encyclopedia > Enfuvirtide

Enfuvirtide is a novel antiretroviral drug used in combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It is currently marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Fuzeon. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... In contemporary usage, the expression combination therapy most often refers to the simultaneous administration of two or more medications to treat a single disease, but the expression is also used when other types of therapy are used at the same time. ... The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ...


It is the first of a new class of antiretroviral drugs, approved by the United States FDA on March 13, 2003, on the basis of two studies (TORO 1 and TORO 2) which compared the effect of optimized regimens of antiretroviral medication with and without the addition of Fuzeon on serum viral load. Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in the United States. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Viral load is a measure of the severity of a viral infection, and can be estimated by calculating the amount of virus in an involved body fluid, e. ...


The drug, in development since 1996, works by disrupting the HIV-1 molecular machinery at the final stage of fusion with the target cell, preventing uninfected cells from becoming infected. A biomimetic peptide, Enfuvirtide was rationally designed to mimic components of the HIV-1 fusion machinery and displace them, preventing normal fusion. Drugs that disrupt fusion of virus and target cell are termed entry inhibitors. 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The HIV virus A virus is a microscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ...


Developed by Trimeris Inc., and initially designated T-20, the medication has several disadvantages that resulted in its slow progress. It is difficult to manufacture, expensive, and is only available in an injectable form. The injections must be taken twice a day.


Because of this, it is thought likely that the medication will be used as "salvage therapy": that is, as a drug to be used after other combinations of antiretroviral medications have failed.


The most common side effect is injection site reaction.


Trimeris partnered with Hoffmann-La Roche to develop the drug in 1999. 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


As of November 2005, the unsubisized price of Fuzeon at the US drugstore Walgreens was $2339 per month. Exterior view of a typical Walgreens store. ...


References


Greenberg, M. L. and N. Cammack (2004). "Resistance to enfuvirtide, the first HIV fusion inhibitor." J Antimicrob Chemother 54(2): 333-40.


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Drug Information: Enfuvirtide Injection (1766 words)
Enfuvirtide is used in combination with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients who have not responded well enough to other antiviral medications.
Enfuvirtide comes as a powder to be mixed with sterile water and injected subcutaneously (under the skin).
Gently tap the enfuvirtide vial to loosen the powder.
Fuzeon Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Enfuvirtide - RxList Monographs (598 words)
Enfuvirtide is a linear 36-amino acid synthetic peptide with the N-terminus acetylated and the C-terminus is a carboxamide.
Enfuvirtide binds to the first heptad-repeat (HR1) in the gp41 subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein and prevents the conformational changes required for the fusion of viral and cellular membranes.
Enfuvirtide exhibited additive to synergistic effects in cell culture assays when combined with individual members of various antiretroviral classes, including lamivudine, zidovudine, indinavir, nelfinavir, and efavirenz.
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