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Encyclopedia > Energy superpower

There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. An approximate definition of such a state is one that possesses incredible amounts of energy reserves or potential reserves in areas like oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, and perhaps even renewable energy. However, for a state to qualify for such a status, it must be a net exporter of energy, possess a massive quantity of at least one of these resources, and be very influential in the prices and production of at least one energy field. An energy superpower cannot be any state that has shown recent signs of instability or had a recent government takeover. Such states, for example Nigeria, lack the stability to use their energy reserves as a leverage in the international community. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Natural olive oil Synthetic motor oil Oil, in a general sense, is a chemical compound that is not miscible with water, and is in a liquid state at ambient temperatures. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... Renewable energy (Non-Conventional Energy) is defined as energy derived from resources that are regenerative or for all practical purposes can not be depleted. ...


Some emerging energy superpower states have refrained from the the use of their reserves to further the state's direct political influence (Canada), or used their energy money more subtly (Norway), rather than using energy assets for direct political influence like energy superpower Russia.


Energy superpowers project greater power than would be otherwise possible due to their lock on the exportable energy markets, and are becoming increasingly valuable to the global economy. In the global commodities' boom of recent years many of these states have benefited massively from increased production and prices.


There are currently two "recognized" energy superpowers globally, both of whom have the largest reserves and production in their areas of energy they specialize in. Russia has the world's largest reserves of natural gas and is enormously influential on the world stage because of that, while Saudi Arabia has the world's largest conventional oil reserves and highest oil production rates in the world. Actions taken by companies or the government in either state are enough to produce an immediate reaction in the stock market, although the markets have been known to second-guess Saudi Arabia's stated production numbers. Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...

Contents

Energy superpowers of the world

Russia

Russia has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth, along with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves.[1] The main document defining the Energy policy of Russia is the Energy Strategy, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. ...


Russia is the world biggest natural gas producer with 21.8% of global natural gas production and also the biggest exporter with 24.0% of global natural gas export.[2]In recent years Russia has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. Many private oil and natural gas companies, most notably Yukos and Sibneft have been consolidated under the control of the state-controlled Rosneft and Gazprom respectively. Gazprom also has control over all gas pipelines leading out of Central Asia, a region also rich in gas. Gazprom utilises this monopoly to deny Central Asia access to the direct export business and the lucrative European market. However Russia has used such gas, primarily that from Turkmenistan, on occasions where it has found itself unable to meet all its delivery obligations from its own production. Such circumstances in 2000 led to Gazprom allowing Turkmenistan to use its pipelines to supply gas to the highly-subsidised, low price Russian domestic market - leaving Gazprom free to fulfil its obligations towards European customers.[3] Gazprom sells a 33% of its gas to Europe, accounting for nearly 70% of the company's revenue. The remaining 70% is sold for domestic Russian consumption at highly subsidized prices. Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... Sibneft (Сибне́фть in Russian) is Russias fifth largest oil producing and refining company. ... OAO Rosneft Oil Company is a Russian integrated oil company. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ...


As of 2006, Russia supplies over 25% of Europe's oil and over 40% of its gas. Its energy superpower status has recently become a hot topic in the European Union.[4] Russia's overwhelmingly large reserves of natural gas have helped give it the title without much debate.[5][6]. Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ...


Russia has recently been accused in the West (i.e. Europe and the United States) of using its natural resources as a policy tool to be wielded against offending states like Georgia, the Ukraine, and other states it perceives as hindrances to its power. At the beginning of 2006 Russia greatly increased the price of gas for the Ukraine following that country's Orange Revolution. It has also recently doubled natural gas prices to the Republic of Georgia following an international incident in an alleged effort to strongly influence the Georgian leadership's defiance of Moscow. Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ...


Russia, in turn, accuses the West of applying double-standards relating to market principles, pointing out that it has been supplying gas to the states in question at prices that were significantly below world market levels, and in some cases remain so even after the increases. Russia argues that it is not obligated to effectively subsidize the economies of post-Soviet states by offering them resources at below-market prices. It should also be noted that Russia has greatly increased the price of gas for Belarus, which, unlike Georgia and the Ukraine, has been closely allied with Moscow and forms a loose union state with Russia.


Despite Russia's vast potential, there are have been concerns voiced by TNK-BP's Viktor Vekselberg that it will run into grave difficulties in the near future.[7] Russia has not opened up any new gas fields since the fall of the Soviet Union, those which are currently in operation are rapidly depleting. This, combined with inefficient plant and ageing infrastructure, have raised concerns that, unless quick action is taken, Russia could find itself unable to meet its commitments without importing additional gas from Central Asia - somewhat ironic given Russia's immense reserves.[8] Such a scenario is not inevitable as Gazprom has access to vast amounts of gas, and according to Gazprom's Alexey Miller intends to singlehandedly explore the Shtokman Field, one of the world's largest natural gas fields.[9] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Viktor Feliksovich Vekselberg (born April 14, 1957) is a chairman of Tyumen Oil (TNK), Russias third-largest oil and gas company. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... Alexei Borisovich Miller is Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chairman of the Management Committee (CEO) of Russian energy company Gazprom. ... The Shtokman field, one of the worlds largest natural gas fields, lies in the Russian portion of the Barents Sea, 600 km north of Kola Peninsula. ...


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia possesses both the world's largest known oil reserves and produces the largest amount of the world's oil. Considered to be the leading state of OPEC, its decisions to raise or cut production almost immediately impact world oil prices. Saudi Arabia is perhaps the best example of a contemporary energy superpower, in terms of having power and influence on the global stage (due to its energy reserves and production of not just oil, but natural gas as well). It is often referred to as the world's only "oil superpower".[10] Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Russia Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis - Energy Information Administration (US Govt)
  2. ^ Key World Energy Statistics. 2006 Edition, International Energy Agency 2006
  3. ^ Russia takes heat over energy supply, by Judy Dempsey, International Herald Tribune, 12 February 2006
  4. ^ Beware Russia, energy superpower, by Philip Delves Broughton, The First Post, 16 October 2006
  5. ^ How Sustainable is Russia's Future as an Energy Superpower?, by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 16 March 2006
  6. ^ Russia: The 21st Century's Energy Superpower?, by Fiona Hill, The Brookings Institution, 5 October 2002
  7. ^ TNK-BP warns of Russian gas shortage in 2007, by Tarmo Virki, SignonSanDiego.com, 24 November 2006
  8. ^ What if Russian Gas Runs Low?, by Edward Lucas, The Economist, 23 November 2006
  9. ^ Gas from Shtokman to be piped to Europe, press release by Gazprom, 9 October 2006
  10. ^ Saudi vows to keep oil flowing, by CNN 31 May 2004

The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Power statuses Middle power | Regional power | Great power | Superpower | Hyperpower
Further geopolitics African Century | American Century | Asian Century | British Moment | Chinese Century | European Century | Indian Century | Pacific Century
Types of power Soft power | Hard power | Political power | Power (sociology) | Machtpolitik | Realpolitik | Power projection | Polarity in international relations
Other G8+5 | BRIC | BRIMC | BRICS | Historical powers | Next Eleven | Energy superpower | Power transition theory | Second superpower | SCO | Superpower collapse | Superpower disengagement

 
 

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