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Encyclopedia > Energy development
Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). Developing nations score much lower on these variables than developed nations. The continued rapid economic growth and increase in living standards in developing nations with large populations, like China and India, is dependent on a rapid and large expansion of energy production capacity.
Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). Developing nations score much lower on these variables than developed nations. The continued rapid economic growth and increase in living standards in developing nations with large populations, like China and India, is dependent on a rapid and large expansion of energy production capacity.

Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sustainable energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. When harnessing energy from primary energy sources and converting them into more convenient secondary energy forms, such as electrical energy and cleaner fuel, both emissions (reducing pollution) and quality (more efficient use) are important. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... Electrical energy can refer to several closely related things. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...

Environmental technology
Environmental science

Contents

Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Air Pollution#Control devices. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... This article is about green building construction. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by mans industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ...

Dependence on external energy sources

Technologically advanced societies have become increasingly dependent on external energy sources for transportation, the production of many manufactured goods, and the delivery of energy services. This energy allows people, in general, to live under otherwise unfavorable climatic conditions through the use of heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning. Level of use of external energy sources differs across societies, as do the climate, convenience, traffic congestion, pollution, production, and greenhouse gas emissions of each society. HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Increased levels of human comfort generally induce increased dependence on external energy sources, although the application of energy efficiency and conservation approaches allows a certain degree of mitigation of the dependence. Wise energy use therefore embodies the idea of balancing human comfort with reasonable energy consumption levels by researching and implementing effective and sustainable energy harvesting and utilization measures. In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Energy consumption is a measure of the rate of energy use such as fuels or electricity. ... This article is about the concept. ...


Limitations to energy development

A key limit to the development of any particular energy source is availability of the underlying resource. Most of the world's main energy sources are based on the consumption of non-renewable resources (petroleum, coal, natural gas, and uranium). While still a small segment of the energy supply, renewable sources such as wind power and solar power are growing rapidly in market share. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ...


Closely linked to energy development are concerns about the possible environmental effects of energy use, such as climate changes. Energy development issues are part of the much debated sustainable development problem. In politics and other non-technical contexts, nature or (the) (natural) environment often refers to that part of the natural world that people deem important or valuable, for any reason — economic, aesthetic, philosophical, hedonistic, sentimental, etc. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ...


Primary energy sources

Primary energy sources are substances or processes with concentrations of energy at a high enough potential to be feasibly encouraged to convert to lower energy forms under human control for human benefit. Except for nuclear fuels, tidal energy and geothermal energy, all terrestrial energy sources are from current solar insolation or from fossil remains of plant and animal life that relied directly and indirectly upon sunlight, respectively. And ultimately, solar energy itself is the result of the Sun's nuclear fusion. Geothermal power from hot, hardened rock above the magma of the earth's core is the result of the accumulation of radioactive materials during the formation of Earth which was the byproduct of a previous supernova event. Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph comparing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Tidal power is a means of electricity generation achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Sol redirects here. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... “Rock” redirects here. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ...


Fossil fuels

Main article: Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels, in terms of energy, involve the burning of coal or hydrocarbon fuels, which are the remains of the decomposition of plants and animals. Steam power plant combustion heats water to create steam, which turns a turbine, which, in turn, generates electricity, waste heat, and pollution. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Another fossil fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is principally derived from the production of natural gas. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Waste heat is the by-product heat of machines and technical processes for which no useful application is found. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ...


Pros

  • Because it is based on the simple process of combustion, the burning of fossil fuels can generate large amounts of electricity with a small amount of fuel. Gas-fired power plants are more efficient than coal fired power plants.[citation needed]
  • Fossil fuels such as coal are readily available and are currently plentiful. Excluding external costs, coal is less expensive than most other sources of energy because there are large deposits of coal in the world.[citation needed]
  • The technology already exists for the use of fossil fuels, though oil and natural gas are approaching peak production and will require a transition to other fuels and/or other measures.
  • Commonly used fossil fuels in liquid form such as light crude oil, gasoline, and LPG are easy to distribute.
  • LPG can be transported, stored and used virtually anywhere. It does not require a fixed network and will not deteriorate over time. As a result, it is particularly useful in regions which are not connected to fixed energy networks.[citation needed]
  • LPG is clean burning and has lower greenhouse gas emissions than any other fossil fuel when measured on a total fuel cycle.[citation needed] In fact, by 2010, all buses and taxis in the Southern Chinese city of Guangzhou will be LP Gas fueled. The city will host the 2010 Asian games and has taken the step in a bid to reduce air pollution in advance of the games.[1] LPG is also non-toxic and will not contaminate soil or aquifers in the event of a leak.[citation needed]
  • LPG can be accessible to everyone everywhere today without major infrastructure investment.[citation needed] There are enough reserves to last many decades.[citation needed]
  • LPG can be up to 5 times more efficient than traditional fuels, resulting in less energy wastage and better use of our planet’s resources.[citation needed]

A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... In economics external cost refers to a negative side-effect of an economic transaction, an act of exchange, consumption, or production. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. ...

Cons

  • The combustion of fossil fuels leads to the release of pollution into the atmosphere. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a typical coal plant produces in one year:[2]
    • 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary human cause of global warming.
    • 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2), the leading cause of acid rain.
    • 500 tons of small airborne particles, which result in chronic bronchitis, aggravated asthma, and premature death, in addition to haze-obstructed visibility.
    • 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx), leading to formation of ozone (smog) which inflames the lungs, burning lung tissue making people more susceptible to respiratory illness.
    • 720 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), resulting in headaches and additional stress on people with heart disease.
    • 220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form ozone.
    • 170 pounds of mercury, where just 1/70th of a teaspoon deposited on a 25-acre lake can make the fish unsafe to eat.
    • 225 pounds of arsenic, which will cause cancer in one out of 100 people who drink water containing 50 parts per billion.
    • 114 pounds of lead, 4 pounds of cadmium, other toxic heavy metals, and trace amounts of uranium.
  • Dependence on fossil fuels from volatile regions or countries creates energy security risks for dependent countries. Oil dependence in particular has led to monopolization, war, and socio-political instability.
  • They are considered non-renewable resources, which will eventually decline in production and become exhausted, with dire consequences to societies that remain highly dependent on them. Fossil fuels are actually slowly forming continuously, but we are using them up at a rate approximately 100,000 times faster than they are formed.
The Moss Landing Power Plant burns natural gas to produce electricity in California.
The Moss Landing Power Plant burns natural gas to produce electricity in California.
  • Extracting fossil fuels is becoming more difficult as we consume the most accessible fuel deposits. Extraction of fossil fuels is becoming more expensive and more dangerous as mines get deeper and oil rigs go further out to sea.[3]
  • Extraction of fossil fuels can result in extensive environmental degradation, such as the strip mining and mountaintop removal of coal.
  • The drilling and transportation of petroleum can result in accidents that result in the despoilation of hundreds of kilometers of beaches and the death or elimination of many forms of wildlife in the area.[citation needed]
  • Safety measures are necessary in order to use LPG without incident.[citation needed]
  • The storage of these fuels can result in accidents with explosions and poisoning of the atmosphere and groundwater.[citation needed]

Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Air redirects here. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Energy security, or security of supply, is a key component of energy policy in many countries. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Moss Landing Power Plant, moss landing, California Contrast enhanced to compensate mist Copyright © 2007 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Moss Landing Power Plant, moss landing, California Contrast enhanced to compensate mist Copyright © 2007 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Aerial view of the Moss Landing power plant The Moss Landing power plant, with its highly visible smokestacks The Moss Landing Power Plant is an electricity generation plant located in Moss Landing, California, at the midpoint of Monterey Bay. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Natural gas drilling rig A drilling rig or oil rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill for and extract oil or natural gas from underground reservoirs. ... Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... // Mountaintop removal coal mining at Kayford Mountain, West Virginia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x356, 23 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x356, 23 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... A gas flare at an oil refinery. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...

Biomass, biofuels, and vegetable oil

Sugar cane residue can be used as a biofuel
Sugar cane residue can be used as a biofuel
Main articles: Alcohol fuel, Biomass, Vegetable oil economy, vegetable oil as fuel, biodiesel

Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as corn or other vegetation, to generate electricity. When garbage decomposes the methane produced is captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation and wood can be burned directly, like fossil fuels, to generate energy, or processed to form alcohols. Sugar cane leaves File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sugar cane leaves File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... // There is a limited amount of fossil fuel in the ground. ... Waste Vegetable Oil which has been filtered. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Vegetable oil is generated from sunlight and CO2 by plants. It is safer to use and store than gasoline or diesel as it has a higher flash point. Straight vegetable oil works in diesel engines if it is heated first. Vegetable oil can also be transesterified to make biodiesel which burns like normal diesel. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ...


Pros

  • Biomass production can be used to burn organic waste products resulting from agriculture. This type of recycling encourages the philosophy that nothing on this Earth should be wasted. The result is less demand on the Earth's resources, and a higher carrying capacity for Earth because non-renewable fossil fuels are not consumed.
  • Biomass is abundant on Earth and is generally renewable. In theory, we will never run out of organic waste products as fuel, because we are continuously producing them. In addition, biomass is found throughout the world, a fact that should alleviate energy pressures in third world nations.
  • When methods of biomass production other than direct combustion of plant mass, such as fermentation and pyrolysis, are used, there is little effect on the environment. Alcohols and other fuels produced by these alternative methods are clean burning and are feasible replacements to fossil fuels.
  • Since CO2 is first taken out of the atmosphere to make the vegetable oil and then put back after it is burned in the engine, there is no net increase in CO2. So vegetable oil does not contribute to the problem of greenhouse gas.
  • Vegetable oil has a higher flash point and is safer than most fossil fuels.
  • Transitioning to vegetable oil could be relatively easy as biodiesel works where diesel works, and straight vegetable oil takes relatively minor modifications.
  • The World already produces more than 100 billion gallons a year for food industry, so we have experience making it.
  • Algaculture has the potential to produce far more vegetable oil per acre than current plants.
  • Infrastructure for biodiesel around the World is significant and growing.

For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... This page describes the use and availability of biodiesel in various countries around the world. ...

Cons

  • Direct combustion without emissions filtering generally leads to air pollution similar to that from fossil fuels.
  • Producing liquid fuels from biomass is generally less cost effective than from petroleum, since the production of biomass and its subsequent conversion to alcohols is particularly expensive.[citation needed]
  • Some researchers claim that, when biomass crops are the product of intensive farming, ethanol fuel production results in a net loss of energy after one accounts for the fuel costs of fertilizer production, farm equipment, and the distillation process. [23]
  • Direct competition with land use for food production.
  • Current production methods would require enormous amounts of land to replace all gasoline and diesel. With current technology, it is unfeasible for biofuels to replace the demand for petroleum.
  • Growth in vegetable oil production is already resulting in deforestation.
  • Converting forest land to vegetable oil production can result in a net increase in CO2.
  • Demand for vegetable oil used as a fuel may drive up prices of vegetable oils in the food industry
  • Costs to modify existing engines may outweigh fuel cost savings

Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The combustion product gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (or any other combustible fuel) is called flue gas. ... Biomass to liquid (BTL) is a (multi step) process to produce liquid fuels out of biomass: It mainly aims at using the whole plant to improve the CO2 balance and the costs. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Cost-effectiveness In economics, comparison of the relative expenditure (costs) and outcomes (effects) associated with two or more courses of action. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... Information on pump, California. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ...

Hydroelectric energy

Main article: Hydroelectricity

In hydro energy, the gravitational descent of a river is compressed from a long run to a single location with a dam or a flume. This creates a location where concentrated pressure and flow can be used to turn turbines or water wheels, which drive a mechanical mill or an electric generator. Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Gravity redirects here. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... This flume diverts water from the White River in Washington to generate electricity A flume is a waterwork with open water table, that leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely aside a natural flow, often an elevated box structure (typically wood) that follows the natural contours of the... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Look up flow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... Generator redirects here. ...


Pros

  • Hydroelectric power stations can promptly increase to full capacity, unlike other types of power stations. This is because water can be accumulated above the dam and released to coincide with peaks in demand.
  • Electricity can be generated constantly, so long as sufficient water is available.
  • Hydroelectric power produces no primary waste or pollution.
  • Hydropower is a renewable resource.
  • Hydroelectricity assists in securing a country's access to energy supplies.

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...

Cons

  • The construction of a dam can have a serious environmental impact on the surrounding areas. The amount and the quality of water downstream can be affected, which affects plant life both aquatic, and land-based. Because a river valley is being flooded, the delicate local habitat of many species are destroyed, while people living nearby may have to relocate their homes.
  • Hydroelectricity can only be used in areas where there is a sufficient supply of water.
  • Flooding submerges large forests (if they have not been harvested). The resulting anaerobic decomposition of the carboniferous materials releases methane, a greenhouse gas.
  • Dams can contain huge amounts of water. As with every energy storage system, failure of containment can lead to catastrophic results, e.g. flooding.
  • Hydroelectric plants rarely can be erected near load centres, requiring large transmission lines.

Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Look up Anaerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CO2 levels are increasing due to human activity Greenhouse gases (GHG) are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ...

Nuclear energy

Main article: Nuclear power
Diablo Canyon Power Plant Nuclear power station.
Diablo Canyon Power Plant Nuclear power station.
The status of nuclear power globally. Nations in dark green have reactors and are constructing new reactors, those in light green are constructing their first reactor, those in dark yellow are considering new reactors, those in light yellow are considering their first reactor, those in blue have reactors but are not constructing or decommissioning, those in light blue are considering decommissioning and those in red have decommissioned all their commercial reactors. Brown indicates that the country has declared itself free of nuclear power and weapons.
The status of nuclear power globally. Nations in dark green have reactors and are constructing new reactors, those in light green are constructing their first reactor, those in dark yellow are considering new reactors, those in light yellow are considering their first reactor, those in blue have reactors but are not constructing or decommissioning, those in light blue are considering decommissioning and those in red have decommissioned all their commercial reactors. Brown indicates that the country has declared itself free of nuclear power and weapons.
History of the use of nuclear power (top) and the number of active nuclear power plants (bottom).
History of the use of nuclear power (top) and the number of active nuclear power plants (bottom).

Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium rods, the atoms of which are split in the process of fission, releasing a large amount of energy. The process continues as a chain reaction with other nuclei. The heat released heats water to create steam, which spins a turbine generator, producing electricity. A relatively small number of nuclear power plants (about 50) has the potential to supply the entire U.S. This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1360, 1829 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Diablo Canyon Power Plant Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x1360, 1829 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Diablo Canyon Power Plant Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 51 KB) Summary A map showing countries which have or had commercial nuclear power stations. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 51 KB) Summary A map showing countries which have or had commercial nuclear power stations. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 604 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) This figure shows the history of nuclear power generation. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 604 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) This figure shows the history of nuclear power generation. ... A nuclear power station. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... In geometry, a Rod is a 3-dimensional, solid (filled) cylinder. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


Depending on the type of fission fuel considered, estimates for existing supply at known usage rates varies from several decades for the currently popular Uranium-235 to thousands of years for uranium-238. At the present use rate, there are (as of 2007) about 70 years left of known uranium-235 reserves economically recoverable at an uranium price of US$ 130/kg.[4] The nuclear industry argue that the cost of fuel is a minor cost factor for fission power, more expensive, more difficult to extract sources of uranium could be used in the future, such as lower-grade ores, and if prices increased enough, from sources such as granite and seawater.[5] Increasing the price of uranium would have little effect on the overall cost of nuclear power; a doubling in the cost of natural uranium would increase the total cost of nuclear power by 5 percent. On the other hand, if the price of natural gas was doubled, the cost of gas-fired power would increase by about 60 percent.[6] Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ...


Opponents on the other hand argue that the correlation between price and production is not linear,but as the ores concentration are becoming smaller,the difficulty(energy , and resource consumption are increasing,while the yields are decreasing) of extraction is rising very fast,and that the assertion that a hear price will yield more uranium is overly optimistic,for example a ruffle estimate predicts that the extraction of uranium from granite will consume at least 70 times more energy then what it will produce in a reactor,seawater seems to be equally dubious as a source[24].As a consequence an eventual doubling in the price of uranium will give a marginal increase in the the volumes that are being produced.


Another alternative would be to use thorium as fission fuel. Thorium is three times more abundant in Earth's crust than uranium,[7] and much more of the thorium can be used (or, more precisely, converted into Uranium-233 and then used). General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ...


Current light water reactors burn the nuclear fuel poorly, leading to energy waste. Nuclear reprocessing [8] or burning the fuel better using different reactor designs would reduce the amount of waste material generated and allow better use of the available resources. As opposed to current light water reactors which use uranium-235 (0.7 percent of all natural uranium), fast breeder reactors convert the more abundant uranium-238 (99.3 percent of all natural uranium) into plutonium for fuel. It has been estimated that there is anywhere from 10,000 to five billion years worth of Uranium-238 for use in these power plants[9] . Breeder technology has been used in several reactors. However, the breeder reactor at Dounreay in Scotland, Monju in Japan and the Superphénix at Creys-Malville in France, in particular, have all had difficulties and were not economically competitive and have been decommissioned. The People's Republic of China intends to build breeders.[10] A light water reactor or LWR is a thermal nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water, also called light water, as its neutron moderator. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Dounreay (Ordnance Survey Grid reference NC982669) is the name of a now ruinous castle on the north coast of Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland. ... This article is about the fast breeder reactor in Japan. ... Superphoenix (French: Superphénix or SPX) is a nuclear power station on the Rhône River at Creys-Malville in France, close to the border with Switzerland. ... The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is sometimes referred to as nuclear decommissioning, to mark the difference between conventional decommissioning and dismantling projects. ...


The possibility of nuclear meltdowns and other reactor accidents, such as the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl disaster, have caused much public fear. Research is being done to lessen the known problems of current reactor technology by developing automated and passively-safe reactors. Historically, however, coal and hydropower power generation have both been the cause of more deaths per energy unit produced than nuclear power generation.[11] [12] Various kinds of energy infrastructure might be attacked by terrorists, including nuclear power plants, hydropower plants, and liquified natural gas tankers. Nuclear proliferation is the spread from nation to nation of nuclear technology, including nuclear power plants but especially nuclear weapons. New technology like SSTAR ("small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor") may lessen this risk. Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consisted of two pressurized water reactors manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox each inside its own containment building and connected cooling towers. ... For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ... Passive nuclear safety describes a safety feature of a nuclear reactor that does not require operator action or electronic feedback in order to shut down safely in the event of a particular type of emergency (usually overheating resulting from a loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas which has been artificially condensed into a liquid form by a combination of pressurisation and cryogenic cooling. ... Tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A possible design for SSTAR. SSTAR is an acronym for the small, sealed, transportable, autonomous reactor - being primarily researched and developed in the US by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ...


The long-term radioactive waste storage problems of nuclear power have not been fully solved. Several countries have considered using underground repositories. Nuclear waste takes up little space compared to wastes from the chemical industry which remain toxic indefinitely.[13] Spent fuel rods are now stored in concrete casks close to the nuclear reactors.[14] The amounts of waste could be reduced in several ways. Both nuclear reprocessing and fast breeder reactors could reduce the amounts of waste. Subcritical reactors or fusion reactors could greatly reduce the time the waste has to be stored.[15] Subcritical reactors may also be able to do the same to already existing waste. The only way of dealing this wastes today is by geological storage. Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor that produces fission without achieving criticality. ...


The economics of nuclear power is not simple to evaluate, because of high capital costs for building and very low fuel costs. Comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear plants. See Economics of new nuclear power plants. The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ...


Depending on the source different energy return on energy investment (EROI) are claimed. Advocates (using life cycle analysis) argue that it takes 4-5 months of energy production from the nuclear plant to fully pay back the initial energy investment.[16] Opponents claim that it depends on the grades of the ores ,the fuel came from, so a fully pay back can vary from 10 to 18 years,and that the advocates claim was based on the assumption of high grade ores(the yields are getting worst ,as the ores are leaner ,for less then 0.02% ores,the yield is less then 50%).[17] We dont have an article called Eroi Start this article Search for Eroi in. ...


Advocates also claim that it is possible to relatively rapidly increase the number of plants. Typical new reactor designs have a construction time of three to four years.[18] In 1983, 43 plants were being built, before an unexpected fall in fossil fuel prices stopped most new construction. Developing countries like India and China are rapidly increasing their nuclear energy use.[19][20] However, a Council on Foreign Relations report on nuclear energy argues that a rapid expansion of nuclear power may create shortages in building materials such as reactor-quality concrete and steel, skilled workers and engineers, and safety controls by skilled inspectors. This would drive up current prices.[21] The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been...


Pros

  • The cost of making nuclear power, with current legislation, is about the same as making coal power, which is considered very inexpensive (see Economics of new nuclear power plants). If a carbon tax is applied, nuclear does not have to pay anything because nuclear does not emit toxic gases such as CO2, NO, CO, SO2, arsenic, etc. that are emitted by coal power plants.
  • Because of the fear of a nuclear disaster, nuclear safety has become a major issue.
  • Coal mining is the second most dangerous occupation in the United States. [22] Nuclear energy is much safer per capita than coal derived energy.
  • For the same amount of electricity, the life cycle emissions of nuclear is about 4% of coal power. Depending on the report, hydro, wind, and geothermal are sometimes ranked lower, while wind and hydro are sometimes ranked higher (by life cycle emissions).[23] [24]
  • According to a Stanford study, fast breeder reactors have the potential to power humans on earth for billions of years, making it sustainable.[25]

General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant) to the point where it is no longer useful in sustaining a nuclear reaction. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ... A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... A nuclear power station. ... A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Air redirects here. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a type of fast neutron reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes. ...

Cons

  • Waste produced from nuclear fission of uranium is both poisonous and highly radioactive, requiring maintenance and monitoring at the storage sites. Moreover, the long-term disposal of the long-lived nuclear waste causes serious problems, since (unless the spent fuel is reprocessed) it takes from one to three thousand years for the spent fuel to come back to the natural radioactivity of the uranium ore body that was mined to produce it.[citation needed]
  • There can be connections between nuclear power and nuclear weapon proliferation, since both require large-scale uranium enrichment facilities. While civilian nuclear facilities are normally overseen internationally by the IAEA, a couple of countries with such facilities refuse oversight.[citation needed]
  • Large capital cost. Building a nuclear power plant requires a huge investment and the costs of safe disassembling (called decommissioning) after it reaches end of usable life must be factored into the full lifecycle budget (see Economics of new nuclear power plants).[citation needed]
  • Nuclear fuels are a non-renewable energy source, with unknown high concentration ore reserves.[citation needed] There is a large amount of trace concentration nuclear material in seawater and most rocks; however, extraction from these is not currently economically competitive.[citation needed]
  • The limited liability for the owner of a nuclear power plant in case of a nuclear accident differs per nation while nuclear installations are sometimes built close to national borders.[26]
  • Waste heat disposal becomes an issue at high ambient temperature thus at a time of peak demand the reactor may need to be shut down or have reduced output [27]

A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant) to the point where it is no longer useful in sustaining a nuclear reaction. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Maintenance, Repair and Operations or Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ... To monitor or monitoring may mean: to observe a situation for any changes which may occur over time, using a monitor or measuring device of some sort: Baby monitor, medical monitor, Heart rate monitor Biomonitoring Condition monitoring Network monitoring Election monitoring to observe the behaviour or communications of individuals or... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. ...

Fusion power

Fusion power could solve many of the problems of fission power (the technology mentioned above) but, despite research having started in the 1950s, no commercial fusion reactor is expected before 2050[28] . Many technical problems remain unsolved. Proposed fusion reactors commonly use deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen, as fuel and in most current designs also lithium. Assuming a fusion energy output equal to the current global output and that this does not increase in the future, then the known current lithium reserves would last 3000 years, lithium from sea water would last 60 million years, and a more complicated fusion process using only deuterium from sea water would have fuel for 150 billion years.[29] Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ...


Wind power

Wind power: worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA
Wind power: worldwide installed capacity and prediction 1997-2010, Source: WWEA
Main article: Wind power

This type of energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. Image File history File links Wind_2006andprediction_en. ... Image File history File links Wind_2006andprediction_en. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ...


Pros

  • Wind power produces no water or air pollution that can contaminate the environment, because there are no chemical processes involved in wind power generation. Hence, there are no waste by-products, such as carbon dioxide.
  • Wind generation is a renewable source of energy, which means that we will never run out of it.
  • Wind towers can be beneficial for people living permanently, or temporarily, in remote areas. It may be difficult to transport electricity through wires from a power plant to a far-away location and thus, wind towers can be set up at the remote setting.
  • Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines.
  • Those utilizing wind power in a grid-tie configuration will have backup power in the event of a grid outage.
  • Due to the ability of wind turbines to coexist within agricultural fields, siting costs are frequently low.

For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...

Cons

  • Wind is unpredictable, therefore wind power is not predictably available. When the wind speed decreases less electricity is generated.
  • Wind farms may be challenged in communities that consider them an eyesore or view obstructor.[30]
  • Wind farms, depending on the location and type of turbine, may negatively affect bird migration patterns and may pose a danger to the birds themselves. Newer, larger wind turbines have slower moving blades which are visible to birds.

Wind turbines in Neuenkirchen, Dithmarschen (Germany). ...

Solar power

The CIS Tower, Manchester, England, was clad in PV panels at a cost of £5.5 million. It started feeding electricity to the national grid in November 2005.
The CIS Tower, Manchester, England, was clad in PV panels at a cost of £5.5 million. It started feeding electricity to the national grid in November 2005.
Main articles: Solar energy, Photovoltaics

Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting a parabolic mirror to heat water (producing steam), or using sunlight entering windows for passive solar heating of a building. It would be advantageous to place solar panels in the regions of highest solar radiation. In the Phoenix, Arizona area, for example, the average annual solar radiation is 5.7 kWh/m2/day [31], or 2080.5 kWh/m2/year. Electricity demand in the continental U.S. is 3.7*1012 kW·h per year. Thus, at 100% efficiency, an area of 1.8x10^9 sq. m (around 700 sq miles) would need to be covered with solar panels to replace all current electricity production in the US with solar power, and at 20% efficiency, an area of approximately 3500 sq miles (3% of Arizona's land area). The average solar radiation in the United States is 4.8 kwh/m2/day [32], but reaches 8-9 kWh/m2/day in parts of Southwest. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (694x1254, 648 KB) Summary Description: CIS Tower Source: I took it Date: created 16. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (694x1254, 648 KB) Summary Description: CIS Tower Source: I took it Date: created 16. ... CIS Tower before recladding The CIS Tower is currently the tallest building in Manchester, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in Great Britain can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere. ... Solar power from a parabolic reflector. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... A parabolic reflector (also known as a parabolic dish or a parabolic mirror) is a reflective device formed in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ...


The monetary cost, assuming $500/meter², would be about $5-10 trillion dollars. Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. ...


Pros

  • Solar power imparts no fuel costs.
  • Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth.
  • Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is no combustion of fuels.
  • In sunny countries, solar power can be used in remote locations, like a wind turbine. This way, isolated places can receive electricity, when there is no way to connect to the power lines from a plant.
  • Solar energy can be used very efficiently for heating (solar ovens, solar water and home heaters) and daylighting.
  • Requires no fuel.
  • Coincidently, solar energy is abundant in regions that have relatively largest number of people living off grid - in developing regions of Africa, Indian subcontinent and Latin America. Hence cheap solar, when availabile, opens the opportunity to enhance global electricity access considerably, and possibly in a relatively short time period. [33]

Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Power line redirects here. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... // With about 300 clear sunny days in a year, Indias theoretical solar power reception, just on its land area, is about 5 EWh/year (i. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Cons

  • Solar electricity is expensive compared to grid electricity.
  • Solar heat and electricity are not available at night and may be unavailable due to weather conditions; therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required for most applications.
  • Limited power density: Average daily insolation in the contiguous U.S. is 3-7 kW·h/m² [34][35] (see picture)
  • Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4-12%.[36]
  • A photovoltaic power station is expensive to build, and the energy payback time - the time necessary for producing the same amount of energy as needed for building the power device - for photovoltaic cells is about 1-5 years, depending primarily on location.[37]
  • Solar panels collect dust and require cleaning. Dust on the panels significantly reduces the transfer of energy from solar radiation to electric current.

Intermittent power sources are sources of electric power generation that may be variable or intermittent, primarily sources of renewable energy such as wind and solar generated electricity. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... A grid-tie inverter is an electrical device that allows solar power users to complement their grid power with solar power. ... A photovoltaic cell is a device that turns light into electric energy. ...

Geothermal energy

Main article: Geothermal power

Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. The hot rocks heat water to produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. When the water temperature is below the boiling point of water a binary system is used. A low boiling point liquid is used to drive a turbine and generator in a closed system similar to a refrigeration unit running in reverse. Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... “Rock” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Generator redirects here. ...


Pros

  • Geothermal energy does not produce air or water pollution if performed correctly.
  • Geothermal power plants run continuously day and night with an uptime typically exceeding 95%.
  • Once a geothermal power station is implemented, the energy produced from the station is practically free. A small amount of energy is required in order to run a pump, although this pump can be powered by excess energy generated at the plant.
  • Geothermal power stations are relatively small, and have a lesser impact on the environment than tidal or hydroelectric plants. Because geothermal technology does not rely on large bodies of water, but rather, small, but powerful jets of water, like geysers, large generating stations can be avoided without losing functionality.

Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ...

Cons

  • Geothermal energy extraction is only practical in certain areas of the world, usually volcanic, where the heated rock is sufficiently close to the surface such as to be reached by current drilling technology . [citation needed] Enhanced geothermal technology uses deeper drilling and water injection to generate geothermal power in areas where the earth's crust is thicker.[25]
  • Drilling holes underground may release hazardous gases and minerals from deep inside the Earth. It can be problematic to dispose of these subsidiary products in a safe manner.[citation needed]

“Rock” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...

Energy transportation

While new sources of energy are only rarely discovered or made possible by new technology, distribution technology continually evolves. The use of fuel cells in cars, for example, is an anticipated delivery technology. This section presents some of the more common delivery technologies that have been important to historic energy development. They all rely in some way on the energy sources listed in the previous section. Technology (Gr. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...

An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline.
An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline.
  • Fuels
Shipping is a flexible delivery technology that is used in the whole range of energy development regimes from primitive to highly advanced. Currently, coal, petroleum and their derivatives are delivered by shipping via boat, rail, or road. Petroleum and natural gas may also be delivered via pipeline and coal via a Slurry pipeline. Refined hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and LPG may also be delivered via aircraft. Natural gas pipelines must maintain a certain minimum pressure to function correctly
  • Electric grids
Electricity grids are the networks used to transmit and distribute power from production source to end user, when the two may be hundreds of kilometres away. Sources include electrical generation plants such as a nuclear reactor, coal burning power plant, etc. A combination of sub-stations, transformers, towers, cables, and piping are used to maintain a constant flow of electricity.
Electric Grid: Pilons and cables distribute power
Electric Grid: Pilons and cables distribute power
Grids may suffer from transient blackouts and brownouts, often due to weather damage. During certain extreme space weather events solar wind can interfere with transmissions.
Grids also have a predefined carrying capacity or load that cannot safely be exceeded. When power requirements exceed what's available, failures are inevitable. To prevent problems, power is then rationed.
Industrialised countries such as Canada, the US, and Australia are among the highest per capita consumers of electricity in the world, which is possible thanks to a widespread electrical distribution network. The US grid is one of the most advanced, although infrastructure maintenance is becoming a problem. The electrical power industry is one of the most heavily subsidized.[citation needed]
CurrentEnergy provides a realtime overview of the electricity supply and demand for California, Texas, and the Northeast of the US. African countries with small scale electrical grids have a correspondingly low annual per capita usage of electricity. One of the most powerful power grids in the world supplies power to the state of Queensland, Australia.
Energy consumption from 1989 to 1999
Energy consumption from 1989 to 1999
Energy production from 1989 to 1999
Energy production from 1989 to 1999
Energy consumption per capita (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.
Energy consumption per capita (2001). Red hues indicate increase, green hues decrease of consumption during the 1990s.

Pipeline transport-small image, seen from below From http://isweb. ... Pipeline transport-small image, seen from below From http://isweb. ... Map of the pipeline The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), usually called the Alyeska Pipeline in Alaska or the Alaska Pipeline elsewhere, is a major U.S. oil pipeline connecting oil fields in northern Alaska to a sea port where the oil can be shipped to the Lower 48 states... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... “railroads” redirects here. ... Slurry pipelines are used to transport aggregate materials by embedding them in a fluid, usually water. ... Petrol redirects here. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Power line redirects here. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... Download high resolution version (582x800, 73 KB)Electrical Grid tower and cables PD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (582x800, 73 KB)Electrical Grid tower and cables PD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tree limbs create a short circuit in electrical lines during a storm that spawned two tornados. ... Power Outage is an episode of The WB drama series, Charmed. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric company redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 52 KB) Summary This is a GFDL and less-mind warping version of Image:Energyconsumption. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 52 KB) Summary This is a GFDL and less-mind warping version of Image:Energyconsumption. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 53 KB)[edit] Summary This is a GFDL and less-mind warping version of Image:Energyproduction. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 53 KB)[edit] Summary This is a GFDL and less-mind warping version of Image:Energyproduction. ... Image File history File links Energy_per_capita. ... Image File history File links Energy_per_capita. ...

Energy storage

Main articles: Energy storage, grid energy storage

Methods of energy storage have been developed, which transform electrical energy into forms of potential energy. A method of energy storage may be chosen based on stability, ease of transport, ease of energy release, or ease of converting free energy from the natural form to the stable form. Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ...


Battery-powered Vehicles

Main articles: battery, battery electric vehicle

Batteries are used to store energy in a chemical form. As an alternative energy, batteries can be used to store energy in battery electric vehicles. Battery electric vehicles can be charged from the grid when the vehicle is not in use. Because the energy is derived from electricity, battery electric vehicles make it possible to use other forms of alternative energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, or hydroelectric. Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... For electric vehicles other than battery powered passenger automobiles, see electric vehicle. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


Pros

  • Produces zero emissions to help counteract the effects of global warming.
  • Batteries are a mature technology, no new expensive research and development is needed to implement technology.
  • Current lead acid battery technology offers 50+ miles range on one charge. [38]
  • The Tesla Roadster has a 200 mile range on one charge.
  • Batteries make it possible for stationary alternative energy generation such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, nuclear, or hydroelectric.
  • Electric motors are 90% efficient compared to about 20% efficiency of an internal combustion engine. [39]
  • No new major infrastructure is needed to charge battery electric vehicles.
  • Battery electric vehicles have fewer moving parts than internal combustion engines, thus improving the reliability of the vehicle.
  • Battery electric vehicles are quiet compared to internal combustion engines.
  • Multiple electric vehicles sold out including the General Motors EV1 and the Tesla Roadster proving the demand for battery electric vehicles.
  • Operation of a battery electric vehicle is approximately 2 to 4 cents per mile. About a sixth the price of operating a gasoline vehicle. [40]
  • The use of Battery Electric Vehicles eliminates the dependency on foreign oil.

Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The Tesla Roadster is the first fully electric automobile to be produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... EV1 redirects here. ... The Tesla Roadster is the first fully electric automobile to be produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ...

Cons

  • The energy used in electric vehicles needs to be derived from other sources.
  • Current battery technology is expensive.
  • Battery electric vehicles have a relative short range compared to internal combustion engine vehicles.

Hydrogen economy

Main article: Hydrogen economy

Hydrogen can be manufactured at roughly 77 percent thermal efficiency by the method of steam reforming of natural gas [41]. When manufactured by this method it is a derivative fuel like gasoline; when produced by electrolysis of water, it is a form of chemical energy storage as are storage batteries, though hydrogen is the more versatile storage mode since there are two options for its conversion to useful work: (1) a fuel cell can convert the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process, produce electricity, or (2) hydrogen can be burned (less efficiently than in a fuel cell) in an internal combustion engine. A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which energy is stored and transported as hydrogen (H2), particularly as an energy carrier for vehicle applications (e. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Pros

  • Hydrogen is colorless, odorless and entirely non-polluting, yielding pure water vapor (with minimal NOx) as exhaust when combusted in air. This eliminates the direct production of exhaust gases that lead to smog, and carbon dioxide emissions that enhance the effect of global warming.
  • Hydrogen is the lightest chemical element and has the best energy-to-weight ratio of any fuel (not counting tank mass).
  • Hydrogen can be produced anywhere; it can be produced domestically from the decomposition of water. Hydrogen can be produced from domestic sources and the price can be established within the country.
  • Electrolysis combined with fuel-cell regeneration [26] is more than 50% efficient.

Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Look up Domestic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Cons

  • Other than some volcanic emanations, hydrogen does not exist in its pure form in the environment, because it reacts so strongly with oxygen and other elements.
  • It is impossible to obtain hydrogen gas without expending energy in the process. There are three ways to manufacture hydrogen;
    • By breaking down hydrocarbons — mainly methane. If oil or gases are used to provide this energy, fossil fuels are consumed, forming pollution and nullifying the value of using a fuel cell. It would be more efficient to use fossil fuel directly.
    • By electrolysis from water — The process of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen using electrolysis consumes large amounts of energy. It has been calculated that it takes 1.4 joules of electricity to produce 1 joule of hydrogen (Pimentel, 2002).
    • By reacting water with a metal such as sodium, potassium, or boron. Chemical by-products would be sodium oxide, potassium oxide, and boron oxide. Processes exist which could recycle these elements back into their metal form for re-use with additional energy input, further eroding the energy return on energy invested.
  • There is currently modest fixed infastructure for distribution of hydrogen that is centrally produced,[42] amounting to several hundred kilometers of pipeline. An alternative would be transmission of electricity over the existing electrical network to small-scale electrolyzers to support the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel.
  • Hydrogen is difficult to handle, store, and transport. It requires heavy, cumbersome tanks when stored as a gas, and complex insulating bottles if stored as a cryogenic liquid. If it is needed at a moderate temperature and pressure, a metal hydride absorber may be needed. The transportation of hydrogen is also a problem because hydrogen leaks effortlessly from containers.
  • Some current fuel cell designs, such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells, use platinum as a catalyst. Widescale deployment of such fuel cells could place a strain on available platinum resources. [43] Reducing the platinum loading, per fuel cell stack, is the focus of R&D.
  • Electricity transmission and battery electric vehicles are far more efficient for storage, transmission and use of energy for transportation, neglecting the energy conversion at the electric power plant. As with distributed production of hydrogen via electrolysis, battery electric vehicles could utilize the existing electricity grid until widespread use dictated an expansion of the grid.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. ... Infrastructure is generally a set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A Hydride is a chemical compound or form of a bond between hydrogen with a metal usually found in group 1 of the Periodic table, usually with a more electropositive element or group. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric company redirects here. ... Battery Electric Vehicles or BEVs are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. ... Battery Electric Vehicles or BEVs are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. ...

Energy Storage Types

  • Chemical
Some natural forms of energy are found in stable chemical compounds such as fossil fuels. Most systems of chemical energy storage result from biological activity, which store energy in chemical bonds. Man-made forms of chemical energy storage include hydrogen fuel, batteries and explosives such as cordite and dynamite.
  • Gravitational
Dams can be used to store energy, by using excess energy to pump water into the reservoir. When electrical energy is required, the process is reversed. The water then turns a turbine, generating electricity. Hydroelectric power is currently an important part of the world's energy supply, generating one-fifth of the world's electricity. :[27].
  • Electrical capacitance
Electrical energy may be stored in capacitors. Capacitors are often used to produce high intensity releases of energy (such as a camera's flash).
  • Mechanical
  • Pressure:
Energy may also be stored pressurized gases or alternatively in a vacuum. Compressed air, for example, may be used to operate vehicles and power tools. Large scale compressed air energy storage facilities are used to smooth out demands on electricity generation by providing energy during peak hours and storing energy during off-peak hours. Such systems save on expensive generating capacity since it only needs to meet average consumption rather than peak consumption.
  • Flywheels and springs
Energy can also be stored in mechanical systems such as springs or flywheels. Flywheel energy storage is currently being used for uninterruptible power supplies.

Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) refers to the compression of air during periods of low energy demand, for use in meeting periods of higher demand. ... Helical or coil springs designed for tension A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical energy. ... NASA G2 flywheel Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational energy. ... An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as an uninterruptible power source or a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. ...

Future energy development

World energy consumption.
World energy consumption.
An increasing share of world energy consumption is predicted to be used by developing nations. Source: EIA.
An increasing share of world energy consumption is predicted to be used by developing nations. Source: EIA.

Extrapolations from current knowledge to the future offer a choice of energy futures. Some predictions parallel the Malthusian catastrophe hypothesis. Numerous are complex models based scenarios as pioneered by Limits to Growth. Modeling approaches offer ways to analyze diverse strategies, and hopefully find a road to rapid and sustainable development of humanity. Short term energy crises are also a concern of energy development. Some extrapolations lack plausibility, particularly when they predict a continual increase in oil consumption. (Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... (Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 45 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Download high resolution version (960x720, 45 KB) Source: Energy Information Administration: International Energy Outlook 2004, http://www. ... Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population[1]. Theories of Malthusian catastrophe are... Scientific modeling is the process of generating abstract or conceptual models. ... A scenario (from the Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a brief description of an event or a series of events. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ...


Existing technologies for new energy sources, such as renewable energy technologies, particularly wind power and solar power, are promising. Nuclear fission is also promoted, and each need sustained research and development, including consideration of possible harmful side effects. Jacques Cousteau spoke of using the salinization of water at river estuaries as an energy source, which would not have any consequences for a million years, and then stopped to point out that since we are going to be on the planet for a billion years we had to be looking that far into the future. Nuclear fusion and artificial photosynthesis are other energy technologies being researched and developed. Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... This article is about the concept. ... In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Artificial photosynthesis is a research field that attempts to replicate the natural process of photosynthesis, converting sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. ...


It should be noted that between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.[44] The peaking of world hydrocarbon production (Peak oil) may test Malthus critics.[45] The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... The Rev. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal
Energy Portal
Main list: List of basic energy development topics

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide abundant and accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ... Charactaristics: percentage of the worlds supply of electricity cost per Kw pollution maintenance cost construction time infrastructure cost depreciation % per year Energy production range Production capacity Energy stability externalities - include negative and positive externalities. ... Energy planning is a term that means different things to different people. ... Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Zhan Lisheng, Date set for LPG-fueled buses, taxis China Daily, July 6, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
  2. ^ http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02c.html
  3. ^ http://www.rigzone.com/analysis/rigs/insight.asp?i_id=213
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ [4]
  8. ^ [5]
  9. ^ [6]
  10. ^ http://www.nti.org/db/china/fbrprog.htm
  11. ^ [7]
  12. ^ [8]
  13. ^ [9]
  14. ^ [10]
  15. ^ [11]
  16. ^ [12]
  17. ^ http://www10.antenna.nl/wise/537/gl/clean.html "World Information Service on Energy" 10-18 years for payback on nuclear energy ,[13]
  18. ^ [14]
  19. ^ [15]
  20. ^ [16]
  21. ^ [17]
  22. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10725454/
  23. ^ http://www.nei.org/keyissues/protectingtheenvironment/lifecycleemissionsanalysis/
  24. ^ http://dailyreferendum.blogspot.com/2007/08/go-nuclear-go-green-life-cycle.html
  25. ^ John McCarthy (2006). Facts From Choen and Others. Progress and its Sustainability. Stanford. Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  26. ^ Schwartz, J. 2004. "Emergency preparedness and response: compensating victims of a nuclear accident." Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 111, Issues 1-3, July, 89-96.
  27. ^ "TVA reactor shut down; cooling water from river too hot"
  28. ^ [18]
  29. ^ [19]
  30. ^ [20]
  31. ^ www.nwic-research.org/npsec/html/human/renew/solar.htm
  32. ^ http://ocsenergy.anl.gov/documents/docs/OCS_EIS_WhitePaper_Solar.pdf
  33. ^ Solar Revolution, by Travis Bradford
  34. ^ DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solar FAQ
  35. ^ [21]
  36. ^ Renewable Resource Data Center - PV Correction Factors
  37. ^ [22]
  38. ^ http://www.kingoftheroad.net/charge_across_america/charge_html/nimh_test2.html
  39. ^ http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/102spring2002_Web_projects/Z.Yates/Zach's%20Web%20Project%20Folder/EICE%20-%20Main.htm
  40. ^ Idaho National Laboratory (2005) "Comparing Energy Costs per Mile for Electric and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicles" Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity report at avt.inel.gov accessed 11 July 2006.
  41. ^ http://cta.ornl.gov/data/index.shtml
  42. ^ http://www.praxair.com/praxair.nsf/d63afe71c771b0d785256519006c5ea1/2a5df393598d7f3b85256baf000827be?OpenDocument&Highlight=2,hydrogen
  43. ^ Study: World May Run Out of Copper
  44. ^ Eating Fossil Fuels | EnergyBulletin.net
  45. ^ Peak Oil: the threat to our food security

It has been suggested that China Daily Hong Kong Edition be merged into this article or section. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Serra, J. "Alternative Fuel Resource Development", Clean and Green Fuels Fund, (2006).
  • Bilgen, S. and K. Kaygusuz, Renewable Energy for a Clean and Sustainable Future, Energy Sources 26, 1119 (2004).
  • Energy analysis of Power Systems, UIC Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 57 (2004).

Relevant journals

  • Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects[28]
  • Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy[29]
  • International Journal of Green Energy [30]

External links

  • RECaBS REcalculator Interactive Renewable Energy Calculator - compare renewable energy to conventional energy sources
  • White Paper Discussing Carbon Finance For Energy Development

  Results from FactBites:
 
UNDP | Environment and Energy | Sustainable Energy (1216 words)
Energy is central to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts.
Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD), a UNEP facilitated knowledge network of developing world Centres of Excellence and network partners, renowned for their work on energy, development, and environment issues.
UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program ESMAP is a global technical assistance program which helps build consensus and provides policy advice on sustainable energy development to governments of developing countries and economies in transition.
Energy development : ICT [2007/07/27] (953 words)
Perhaps the biggest news going into the conference, according to a prominent Indian energy professional that would not be identified in print, is that tribes haven't made more attempts to enter the lucrative energy production market.
He added that in the past several decades, the energy extracted from tribal lands has amounted to $10 billion worth of coal, $15.3 billion of oil, $7.96 billion of natural gas (all by 2001 prices).
With a federal government concerned with the security of its energy imports, then the fossil and renewable energy resources located on tribal lands represents a significant contribution to the energy security and independence of the United States.
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