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Encyclopedia > Energy crisis
Energy Portal

An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. Image File history File links Portal. ... Oil crisis may refer to: 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1990 spike in the price of oil Oil price increases of 2004 and 2005 Hubbert peak theory Energy crisis This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... Rise may mean: Rise, a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire Rise, an album by Bad Brains Rise, an album by Gabrielle Rise, an album by SPEED Rise, an EP by NON Rise, an album by Anoushka Shankar RISE is an earthquake information sharing web portal Rise Technology, a... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ...


The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs. A recession is traditionally defined in macroeconomics as a decline in a countrys real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more successive quarters of a year (equivalently, two consecutive quarters of negative real economic growth). ...


For the consumer, the price of gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises, leading to reduced consumer confidence and spending, higher transportation costs and general price rises. Gasoline is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913), inventor of the diesel engine. ...

Contents

Economy

During the oil crisis in 1979, coupons for gasoline rationing were printed, but never used.

In a market economy, the price of energy supplies such as oil, gas or electricity is driven by the principle of supply and demand which can cause sudden changes in the price of energy if either supply or demand changes. However in some cases an energy crisis is brought on by a failure of the market to adjust prices in response to shortages. In other cases, the crisis might be influenced by the lack of a free market. Some economists have argued that the 1973 energy crisis was worsened by price controls. Image File history File links Gasoline ration coupons were printed for emergency use (but never issued) during the energy crisis in 1979. ... Image File history File links Gasoline ration coupons were printed for emergency use (but never issued) during the energy crisis in 1979. ... Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ...


Oil supply is largely controlled by the national oil companies of nations with significant reserves of cheap oil, including the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Norway and Kuwait. Many of these countries have formed a cartel known as OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). Since OPEC controls a large proportion of oil output, it exerts a strong influence on the global price of oil. When OPEC decides to reduce the output quotas of its member countries, this will tend to drive up the price of oil as the supply diminishes. Similarly, OPEC can boost oil production in order to increase supplies and drive down the price. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A cartel is a group of legally independent producers whose goal it is to fix prices, limit supplies and limit competition. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ...


There are, however, limits on the actions of OPEC. If OPEC raises the price of oil too high, demand decreases and production of oil from less productive fields or unconventional sources such as tar sands becomes profitable. In addition, the economies of oil exporting nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. Athabasca Oil Sands Oil sands, also referred to as tar sands or bituminous sands, are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. ...


Historical crises

Image File history File links Summary Government file from the DoE website. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The 1990 (or third) energy crisis was the mildest and most brief of them all. ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Peter de la Billière Khalid bin Sultan Saleh Al-Muhaya Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 250,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February... The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 followed a failed partial-deregulation, in 1996, of the electricity market in the state. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove restrictions on business in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Enron Corporation was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... The term UK fuel protest refers to a series of protests held in the United Kingdom over the cost of petrol. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... This article contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ...

Future and alternative sources of energy

Kuwait's Al Burqan Oil Field, the world's second largest oil field, is starting to run out of oil.
Kuwait's Al Burqan Oil Field, the world's second largest oil field, is starting to run out of oil.[1]

It is possible that the world is heading towards a global energy crisis due to a decline in the availability of cheap oil and recommendations to a decreasing dependency on fossil fuel. This has led to increasing interest in alternate power/fuel research such as fuel cell technology, hydrogen fuel, biomethanol, biodiesel, Karrick process, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy and wind energy , and fusion energy. To date, only hydroelectricity and nuclear power have been significant alternatives to fossil fuel (see Future energy development), with big ecological problems (residues and water spending). Hydrogen gas is currently produced at a net energy loss from natural gas, which is also experiencing declining production in North America and elsewhere. When not produced from natural gas, hydrogen still needs another source of energy to create it, also at a loss during the process. This has led to hydrogen being regarded as a 'carrier' of energy rather than a 'source'. Download high resolution version (626x640, 167 KB)Kuwait City, Al Burqan Oil Field, Kuwait - November 1996 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Kuwait City Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (626x640, 167 KB)Kuwait City, Al Burqan Oil Field, Kuwait - November 1996 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Kuwait City Categories: NASA images ... Much of western and southern Kuwait is home to some of the largest oil fields in the world. ... This list of oil fields includes major fields of the past and present. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical future economy in which energy, for mobile applications (vehicles, aircraft) and electrical grid load balancing (daily peak demand reserve), is stored as hydrogen (H2). ... The methanol economy is a hypothetical future economy in which methanol has replaced fossil fuels as a means of transportation of energy. ... Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived from biological sources (such as vegetable oils), which can be used in unmodified diesel-engined vehicles. ... Karrick Process, from U.S. Patent #1,958,918. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Tidal power is a means of electricity generation achieved by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator. ... A nuclear power station. ... Coal rail cars in Ashtabula, Ohio Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a much-discussed end to fossil fuels. ... Ecology is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. ... A residue, broadly, is anything left behind by a reaction or event. ... Impact of a drop of water. ...


There have been alarming predictions by groups such as the Club of Rome that the world would run out of oil in the late 20th century. Although technology has made oil extraction more efficient, the world is having to struggle to provide oil by using increasingly costly and less productive methods such as deep sea drilling, and developing environmentally sensitive areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The world's population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. The per capita energy consumption of China, India and other developing nations continues to increase as the people living in these countries adopt more energy intensive lifestyles. At present a small part of the world's population consumes a large part of its resources, with the United States and its population of 300 million people consuming far more oil than China with its population of 1.3 billion people. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ...


Efficiency mechanisms such as Negawatt power can encourage significantly more effective use of current generating capacity. It is a term used to describe the trading of increased efficiency, using consumption efficiency to increase available market supply rather than by increasing plant generation capacity. As such, it is a demand-side as opposed to a supply-side measure. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Demand Side economics is a type of economics which believes increasing demand will in turn cause businesses to produce more output which will then cause bussineses to expand and create a favorable economic situation. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ...


See also

Julian Simon and Paul Ehrlich entered in a famous wager in 1980, betting on a mutually agreed upon measure of resource scarcity over the decade leading up to 1990. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a much-discussed end to fossil fuels. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas prices are now strongly influenced by worldwide markets, since the development of large pipeline networks in North America, Europe and Asia and of long distance ocean shipment of liquified natural gas beginning in the 1960s. ... Tree limbs create a short circuit in electrical lines during a storm. ... World renewable energy in 2005 (except 2004 data for items marked* or **). Enlarge image to read exclusions. ... The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is an emergency petroleum store maintained by the United States Department of Energy. ... Nuclear energy policy is national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy, such as mining for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, enriching and storing spent nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel reprocessing. ... Crude oil prices, 2004-2006 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the Swedish government announced their intention to become the first country to break their countrys dependence on oil and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020 [1]. As of 2005, oil supplies provided about 32% of the countrys... Dehydrogenate is a term used for any material which can seperate hydrogen from any compound. ... World energy consumption in TW (=1012 Watt), 1980-2004. ...

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