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Encyclopedia > Energetics

Energetics is the scientific study of energy flows under transformation. Because energy flows at all scales, from the quantum level, to the biosphere and cosmos, energetics is therefore a very broad discipline, encompassing for example thermodynamics, chemistry, biological energetics, biochemistry and ecological energetics. Where each branch of energetics begins and ends is a topic of constant debate. Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Biological thermodynamics (Greek: bios = life and logikos = reason + Greek: thermos = heat and dynamics = power) is the study of energy transformation in the biological sciences. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Contents

Aims

In general energetics is concerned with seeking principles that accurately describe the useful and non-useful tendencies of energy flows under transformation. Principles are understood here as phenomena which behave like historical invariants under multiple observations. When some critical number of people have observed such invariance, such a principle is usually then given the status of a 'fundamental law' of science. Like in all science, whether or not a theorem or principle is considered a fundamental law appears to depend on how many people agree to such a proposition. The ultimate aim of energetics therefore is the description of fundamental laws. Philosophers of science have held that the fundamental laws of thermodynamics can be treated as the laws of energetics, (Oliver L. Reiser, 1926, Probability, Natural Law, and Emergence: I. Probability and Purpose, The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 23, No. 16, pp. 421-435 p.432) . A physical law, scientific law, or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior. ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ...


History

Energetics has a controversial history. Some authors maintain that the origins of energetics can be found in the work of the ancient Greeks, but that the mathematical formalisation began with the work of Leibniz. Liet.-Col. Richard de Villamil (1928) said that Rankine formulated the Science of Energetics in his paper Outlines of the Science of Energetics published in the Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow in 1855. W. Ostwald and E. Mach subsequently developed the study and in the late 1800s energetics was understood to be incompatible with the atomic view of the atom forwarded by Boltzmann's gas theory. Proof of the atom settled the dispute but not without significant damage. In the 1920's Lotka then attempted to build on Boltzmann's views through a mathematical synthesis of energetics with biological evolutionary theory. Lotka proposed that the selective principle of evolution was one which favoured the maximum useful energy flow transformation. This view subsequently influenced the further development of ecological energetics, especially the work of Howard T. Odum. Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Richard de Villamil (1850-1936) was a british officer and scientist physician). ... William John Macquorn Rankine (July 2, 1820 - December 24, 1872) was a Scottish engineer and physicist. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... Alfred James Lotka (March 2, 1880 - December 5, 1949) was a US mathematician and statistician, most famous for his work in population dynamics. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ...


De Villamil attempted to clarify the scope of energetics with respects to other branches of physics by contriving a system that divides mechanics into two branches; energetics (the science of energy) and "pure", "abstract" or "rigid" dynamics (the science of momentum). According to Villamil energetics can be mathematically characterised by scalar equations, and rigid dynamics by vectorial equations. In this division the dimensions for dynamics are space, time and mass, and for energetics, length, time and mass (Villamil 1928, p.9). This division is made according to fundamental pressuppositions about the properties of bodies which can be expressed according to how one answers to following two questions: Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ...


1. Are particles rigidly fixed to together?


2. Is there any machinery for stopping moving bodies?


In Villamil's classification system, dynamics says yes to 1 and no to 2, whereas energetics says no to 1 and yes to 2. Therefore, Villamil's in system, dynamics assumes that particles are rigidly fixed together and cannot vibrate, and consequently must all be at zero temperature. The conservation of momentum is a consequence of this view, however it is considered valid only in logic and not to be a true representation of the facts (Villamil, p. 96). In contrast energetics does not assume that particles are rigidly fixed together, particles are therefore free to vibrate, and consequently can be at non-zero temperatures. In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves. ...


Principles of energetics

As a general statement of energy flows under transformation, the principles of energetics include the first four laws of thermodynamics which seek a rigorous description. However the precise place of the laws of thermodynamics within the principles of energetics is a topic currently under debate. If the ecologist Howard T. Odum was right, then the principles of energetics take into consideration a hierarchical ordering of energy forms, which aims to account for the concept of energy quality. Odum proposed 3 further energetic principles and one corollary that take energy hierarchy into account. The first four principles of energetics are related to the same numbered laws of thermodynamics, and are expanded upon in that article. The final four principles are taken from the ecological energetics of H.T. Odum. The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... Energy quality the contrast between different forms of energy, the different trophic levels in ecological systems and the propensity of energy to convert from one form to another. ... Energy quality the contrast between different forms of energy, the different trophic levels in ecological systems and the propensity of energy to convert from one form to another. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

  • Zeroth principle of energetics
    If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium.
  • First principle of energetics
    The increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by heating, minus the amount lost in the form of work done by the system on its surroundings.
  • Second principle of energetics
    The total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value.
  • Third principle of energetics
    As a system approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value or zero for the case of a perfect crystalline substance.
  • Fourth principle of energetics
    There seem to be two opinions on the fourth principle of energetics:
    • The Onsager reciprocal relations are sometimes called the fourth law of thermodynamics. As the fourth law of thermodynamics Onsager reciprocal relations would constitute the fourth principle of energetics.
    • In the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power, the fourth principle of energetics. Odum also proposed the Maximum empower principle as a corollary of the maximum power principle, and considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary self-organisation.
  • Fifth principle of energetics
    The energy quality factor increases hierarchically. From studies of ecological food chains, Odum proposed that energy transformations form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase (Odum 2000, p. 246). Flows of energy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system" — (Odum 1994, p. 251)
  • Sixth principle of energetics
    Material cycles have hierarchical patterns measured by the emergy/mass ratio that determines its zone and pulse frequency in the energy hierarchy. (Odum 2000, p. 246). M.T. Brown and V. Buranakarn write, "Generally, emergy per mass is a good indicator of recycle-ability, where materials with high emergy per mass are more recyclable" (2003, p. 1).

Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... In thermodynamics, the Onsager reciprocal relations express the equality of certain relations between flows and forces in thermodynamical systems out of equilibrium, but where a notion of local equilibrium exists. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The concpet of maximum power has been proposed as the fourth principle of energetics. ... The principle of maximum empower has been proposed as a corrolary of the fourth principle of energetics, and is assumed to describe the organisational law of evolution. ... Like the emergy concept,the concept of transformity was first introduced by Dr.D.M.Scienceman in collaboration with the late Howard T. Odum. ... Like the emergy concept,the concept of transformity was first introduced by Dr.D.M.Scienceman in collaboration with the late Howard T. Odum. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ...

See also

Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... The zeroth law of thermodynamics may be succintly stated as: If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium. ...

References

  • S.W.Angrist and L.G.Helper (1973) Order and Chaos: Laws of Energy and Entropy, Penguin, Australia, p. 34
  • H.Hertz (1956) Principles of Mechanics, Dover, U.S.A.
  • H.T. Odum and R.T.Pinkerton (1955) 'Time's Speed Regulator', American Scientist, Vol. 43, No. 2, p. 331.
  • H.T. Odum (1994) Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology, Colorado University Press.
  • H.T. Odum (2000) 'An Energy Hierarchy Law For Biogeochemical Cycles', in Brown, M.T. (Ed.), Emergy Synthesis: Theory and Applications of the Emergy Methodology. Proceedings of the First Biennial Emergy Analysis Research Conference, Centre for Environmental Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  • J. R. Partington (1989) A Short History of Chemistry, Dover, New York
  • M.Tribus (1961) Thermostatics and Thermodynamics, Van Nostrand, University Series in Basic Engineering, pp. 619-622.
  • De Villamil, R. (1928) Rational mechanics.

James Riddick Partington (June 20, 1886 - 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry. ... Doctor Myron Tribus was at the origin or promoted many concepts with often strong and sometimes less successful results. ...

External links

  • Energetics - Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 ed.
  • A history of energetics
  • Journal of Energetic Materials

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