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Encyclopedia > Endorphin
proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-endorphin)
Identifiers
Symbol POMC
Entrez 5443
HUGO 9201
OMIM 176830
RefSeq NM_000939
UniProt P01189
Other data
Locus Chr. 2 p23

Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. They are polypeptides produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. In other words, they might work as "natural pain killers." Using drugs may increase the effects of the endorphins. The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Look up Hugo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Endorphin can mean: Endorphin, the chemical. ... RUNNERS HIGH, the pillows ninth album was released on January 22, 1999 under the King Records label. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scoring the poppy pod. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ...


The term "endorphin" implies a pharmacological activity (analogous to the activity of the corticosteroid category of biochemicals) as opposed to a specific chemical formulation. It consists of two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are short forms of the words endogenous and morphine, intended to mean "a morphine-like substance originating from within the body." [1] Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...


The term endorphin rush has been adopted in popular speech to refer to feelings of exhilaration brought on by pain, danger, or other forms of stress,[2] supposedly due to the influence of endorphins. However, this term does not occur in the medical literature.

Contents

History

Opioid neuropeptides were first discovered in 1975 by two independent groups of investigators. Opioid Peptides are short sequences of amino acids which mimic the effect of opiates in the brain. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Around the same time in the calf brain, Rabi Simantov and Solomon H. Snyder of the United States found[5] what Eric Simon (who independently discovered opioid receptors in the brain) later termed "endorphin" by an abbreviation of "endogenous morphine", which literally means "morphine produced naturally in the body". Importantly, recent studies have demonstrated that diverse animal and human tissues are in fact capable of producing morphine itself, which is not a peptide. [6] [7]

Hans Kosterlitz is a British biologist, best known for his work on endorphins. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ... Dr. Solomon Snyder (born December 26, 1938) is an American neuroscientist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ...

Mechanism of action

Beta-endorphin is released into the blood (from the pituitary gland) and into the spinal cord and brain from hypothalamic neurons. The beta-endorphin that is released into the blood cannot enter the brain in large quantities because of the blood-brain barrier. The physiological importance of the beta-endorphin that can be measured in the blood is far from clear: beta-endorphin is a cleavage product of POMC which is the precursor hormone for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), so it will be released whenever ACTH is released. The behavioural effects of beta-endorphin are exerted by its actions in the brain and spinal cord, and probably the hypothalamic neurons are the major source of beta-endorphin at these sites. In situations where the level of ACTH is increased (e.g. Addison disease), the level of endorphins also increases slightly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism) is a rare endocrine disorder, first described by British physician Thomas Addison. ...


Beta-endorphin has the highest affinity for the μ1-opioid receptor, slightly lower affinity for the μ2- and δ-opioid receptors and low affinity for the κ1-opioid receptors. μ-receptors are the main receptor through which morphine acts. Classically, μ-receptors are presynaptic, and inhibit neurotransmitter release; through this mechanism, they inhibit the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, and disinhibit the dopamine pathways, causing more dopamine to be released. By hijacking this process, exogenous opioids cause inappropriate dopamine release, and lead to aberrant synaptic plasticity which causes addiction. Opioid receptors have many other and more important roles in the brain and periphery however, modulating pain, cardiac, gastric and vascular function as well as possibly panic and satiation, and receptors are often found at postsynaptic locations as well as presynaptically. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength. ...


Activity

Scientists debate whether specific activities release measurable levels of endorphins. Much of the current data comes from animal models which may not be relevant to humans. The studies that do involve humans often measure endorphin plasma levels, which do not necessarily correlate with levels in the CNS. Other studies use a blanket opioid antagonist such as usually naloxone, to indirectly measure the release of endorphins by observing the changes that occur when any endorphin activity that might be present is blocked. Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ...


Capsaicin (the active chemical in chili peppers) also has been shown to stimulate endorphin release. [8] Topical capsaicin has been used as a treatment for certain types of chronic pain. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ...


Runner's high

Another widely publicized effect of endorphin production is the so-called "runner's high", which is said to occur when strenuous exercise takes a person over a threshold that activates endorphin production. Endorphins are released during long, continuous workouts, when the level of intensity is between moderate and high, and breathing is difficult. This also corresponds with the time that muscles use up their stored glycogen and begin functioning with only oxygen. Workouts that are most likely to produce endorphins include running, swimming, cross-country skiing, long distance rowing, bicycling, weight lifting, aerobics, or playing a sport such as basketball, soccer, or football. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the sport. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, some scientists question the mechanisms at work, their research possibly demonstrating the high comes from completing a challenge rather than as a result of exertion.[9] Studies in the early 1980s cast doubt on the relationship between endorphins and the runner's high. There were a couple of reasons for this doubt.

  • The first was that when an antagonist (pharmacological agent that blocks the action for the substance under study) was infused (eg naloxone) or ingested (naltrexone) the same changes in mood state occurred that happened when the person exercised with no blocker.
  • A second piece of evidence is much more simple. It turns out that scientists cannot make a runner's high occur in the lab with any certainty. This makes it very difficult to study, much less prove that endorphins cause the runners high.

In recent years, the connection between the "Runner's High" phenomenon and endorphins has been severed completely. A study in 2004 by Georgia Tech found that Runner's High was likely triggered by a release of another naturally produced body chemical, the endocannabinoid anandamide. Anandamide is similar to the active chemical THC in Marijuana. The body produces this chemical to deal with prolonged stress and pain from strenuous exercise, similar to the original theory attached to endorphins. Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a...


Acupuncture

In 1999, clinical researchers reported that inserting acupuncture needles into specific body points triggers the production of endorphins.[10] In another study, higher levels of endorphins were found in cerebrospinal fluid after patients underwent acupuncture.[11] In addition, naloxone appeared to block acupuncture’s pain-relieving effects. However, skeptics say that not all studies point to that conclusion,[12] and that in a trial of chronic pain patients, endorphins did not produce long-lasting relief. Endorphins may be released during low levels of pain and physical stimulation when it lasts over 30 minutes. Questions remain as to whether the prolonged low level of pain stimulation as in Capsaicin, acupuncture and running or physical activity alone are the threshold that activates endorphin release. This article is about the year. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


References

  1. ^ Goldstein, A. &. Lowery, P.J. "Effect of the opiate antagonist naloxone on body temperature in rats." Life Science. 1975 Sep 15;17(6):927-31. PMID 1195988
  2. ^ http://www.sportsmedicine.upmc.com/MySportRunningHigh.htm#Endorphin
  3. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dh75en.html
  4. ^ Hughes J, Smith T, Kosterlitz H, Fothergill L, Morgan B, Morris H (1975). "Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity". Nature 258 (5536): 577-80. PMID 1207728. 
  5. ^ Simantov R, Snyder S (1976). "Morphine-like peptides in mammalian brain: isolation, structure elucidation, and interactions with the opiate receptor". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73 (7): 2515-9. PMID 1065904. 
  6. ^ Poeaknapo C, Schmidt J, Brandsch M, Drager B, Zenk MH. "Endogenous formation of morphine in human cells." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2004 Sep 28;101(39):14091-6. PMID 15383669
  7. ^ Kream RM, Stefano GB. "De novo biosynthesis of morphine in animal cells: an evidence-based model." Med Sci Monit. 2006 Oct;12(10):RA207-19. Review. PMID 17006413
  8. ^ http://www.chronogram.com/issue/2005/11/wholeliving/index.php
  9. ^ Hinton E, Taylor S (1986). "Does placebo response mediate runner's high?". Percept Mot Skills 62 (3): 789-90. PMID 3725516. 
  10. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s27924.htm
  11. ^ Clement-Jones V, McLoughlin L, Tomlin S, Besser G, Rees L, Wen H (1980). "Increased beta-endorphin but not met-enkephalin levels in human cerebrospinal fluid after acupuncture for recurrent pain". Lancet 2 (8201): 946-9. PMID 6107591. 
  12. ^ Kenyon J, Knight C, Wells C (1983). "Randomised double-blind trial on the immediate effects of naloxone on classical Chinese acupuncture therapy for chronic pain". Acupunct Electrother Res 8 (1): 17-24. PMID 6135300. 

External links


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