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Encyclopedia > Endorheic
The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia
The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia

In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material. The term has Greek roots, endo, "inside" and rhein, "to flow". Any rain (or other precipitation) that falls inside an endorheic basin remains there permanently, leaving the system only by evaporation. Endorheic basins are also called "internal drainage systems". Lake Hart, South Australia, Novenber 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lake Hart, South Australia, Novenber 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lake Hart can refer to: Lake Hart, Florida Lake Hart, Indiana This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Emblems: Hairy Nosed Wombat (faunal); Leafy Seadragon (marine); Piping Shrike (bird: unofficial); Sturts Desert Pea (floral); Opal (gemstone) Motto: United for the Common Wealth Slogan or Nickname: Festival State Other Australian states and territories Capital Adelaide Government Const. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Murray River in Australia. ... Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Evaporation is one of the two forms of vaporization. ...


Although endorheic basins can occur in any climate, in practice they are most commonly found in hot desert locations. In places with a higher rainfall, the riparian erosion of the water's flow will generally carve drainage channels (particularly in times of flood), breaking through to the larger enclosing hydrological system, and breaking the watershed barrier between the endorheic system and the surrounding terrain. The Black Sea was such a lake, having once been an independent hydrological system in its own right before the Mediterranean Sea broke through the terrain separating the two. Desert view in Saudi Arabia. ... A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ... Hydrology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water on, in, and above the earth. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...


In hot deserts, the net inflow is low and loss to solar evaporation high, drastically slowing the formation of complete drainage systems. The closed nature of this water flow often leads to the concentration of salts and other minerals in the lake; minerals leached from the surrounding rocks are deposited in the endorheic basin, and left behind when the water that bore them there evaporates. Thus endorheic basins often contain extensive salt pans (also called salt flats, alkali flats or playas), salt lakes. These areas, which tend to be large, hard surfaced, and fairly flat, are sometimes used for aviation (as large cheap runways) or for breaking land speed records. A salt pan is a geological formation found in deserts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with salt pan (geology). ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... First flight, December 17, 1903 Aviation or air transport refers to the activities surrounding human flight and the aircraft industry. ... Runway 1 of El Dorado International Airport, Bogotá, D.C. Aerial picture of a runway of Chennai International Airport, Tamil Nadu A runway is a strip of land on an airport, on which aircraft can take off and land. ... 1970 land speed record being set at Bonneville Salt Flats by Gary Gabelich Land Speed Records from 1898 The information below is for self-propelled wheeled vehicles travelling over open ground. ...


Both permanent and seasonal endorheic lakes can form in endorheic basins, and some endorheic basins are essentially in stasis, the climate having changed to reduce precipitation to such an extent that a lake no longer forms. Even with endorheic lakes that exist permanently, most change size and shape dramatically over time, often becoming dramatically smaller (or breaking into several smaller parts) during the dry season. As humans have expanded into previously unliveable desert areas, the river systems that feed many endorheic lakes have been altered by the construction of dams and aqueducts. As a result many endorheic lakes in developed or developing countries have contracted dramatically. This often results in dramatic increases in salinity, higher concentrations of pollutants, and the consequent disruption of the lake's ecosystem.

A false-colour satellite photo of Australia's Lake EyreImage credit: NASA's Earth Observatory
A false-colour satellite photo of Australia's Lake Eyre
Image credit: NASA's Earth Observatory

Contents

Download high resolution version (772x772, 159 KB)Credit(s): Goddard Space Flight Center’s Landsat Team and the Australian ground receiving station teams. ... Download high resolution version (772x772, 159 KB)Credit(s): Goddard Space Flight Center’s Landsat Team and the Australian ground receiving station teams. ... Composite satellite image of Lake Eyre using shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and blue wavelengths. ...


Notable endorheic basins and lakes

Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a LAKE MY HOMIE DOGG of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Map of area around the Aral Sea. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ... Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ) (Arabic: ‎) is on the border between the West Bank, Israel, and Jordan on the Jordan Rift Valley. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Lake Eyre Basin drains about one sixth of Australia. ... Composite satellite image of Lake Eyre using shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and blue wavelengths. ... Lake Corangamite is Victoria’s largest natural lake located near Colac in South West Victoria, near Geelong, Australia. ... View from the rim The Old Man of the Lake (with extreme clarity of water apparent) Crater Lake is a lake in the U.S. state of Oregon that is 5 by 6 miles (8 by 9. ... Emblems: Pink heath (floral) helmeted honeyeater (bird) Leadbeaters possum (faunal) Motto: Peace and Prosperity Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place To Be, On The Move Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Governor Premier Const. ... Lake George from space, November 1985 The lake in August 2005 Lake George is a lake in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia and is about 30 minutes drive north-east of Canberra along the Federal Highway enroute to Sydney, state capital of New South Wales. ... Semi-arid grazing country near Burra Creek, South Australia The Murray-Darling Basin drains one-seventh of Australia and is by far the most significant agricultural area on that continent. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Lake George may refer to: Cities, towns, townships etc. ... Elephants in the Okavango Delta seen from the dubious safety of a makoro (small boat). ... The Kalahari Desert (shown in red) The Kalahari Desert is a large arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa extending to some 900,000 km² and covering much of Botswana, and parts of Namibia and South Africa. ... Lake Ngami is a lake in Botswana north of the Kalahari desert. ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... The Chari or Shari River is a 949-kilometer-long river of Chad into Lake Chad. ... The Logon River is a major tributary of the Chari River. ... The Etosha pan is a large salt pan in the north of Namibia. ... Etosha National Park in Namibia was first established in 1907, when Namibia was a German colony known as South West Africa. ... Lake Vida is an ice-covered super-concentrated saltwater endorheic lake located in Victoria Valley, one of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States, commonly defined as the contiguous watershed region, roughly between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, that has no natural outlet to the sea. ... Official language(s) None Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Area  Ranked 7th  - Total 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²)  - Width 322 miles (519 km)  - Length 490 miles (788 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... The Black Rock Desert is a dry lake bed in northwestern Nevada in the United States. ... Official language(s) None Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Area  Ranked 7th  - Total 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²)  - Width 322 miles (519 km)  - Length 490 miles (788 km)  - % water 0. ... Thrust2 is a British designed and built jet propelled car, which held the world land speed record between, 1983 and 1997. ... ThrustSSC at Black Rock Desert, Nevada, USA. The ThrustSSC is built with highly protected aluminium wheels The team with ThrustSSC. ThrustSSC (SuperSonic Car) is a British designed and built jet propelled car developed by Richard Noble and Ron Ayers, which holds the world land speed record. ... Burning Man is a week-long festival with international draw, held annually on the week prior to and including Labor Day weekend (in early September) in the United States. ... Satellite view of Area 51 from 1968. ... Satellite view of Area 51 from 1968. ... Satellite Photo of the Great Salt Lake as it looked in the summer of 2003 The Great Salt Lake as seen looking north towards Antelope Island from Sunset Beach Great Salt Lake from airspace over Salt Lake City Great Salt Lake is an endorheic saline lake in northern Utah, much... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... We dont have an article called Sevier Lake Start this article Search for Sevier Lake in. ... Pyramid Lake as seen from the Pah Rah Range Pyramid Lake from space, September 1994 Pyramid Lake and its environs Numaga chief of the Paiutes during the Pyramid Lake Paiute War. ... Mono Lake, showing nearby Lake Tahoe and Yosemite National Park Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Salton Sea (with local/regional cities) The Salton Sea is an inland saline lake, located in the Colorado Desert in Southern California, north of the Imperial Valley. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bluffs in eastern section of the Great Divide Basin The Great Divide Basin (also called the Great Divide Closed Basin) is located in south central Wyoming in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... Official language(s) None Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq. ... The Tularosa Basin is a graben basin in the basin and range area east of the Rio Grande in southern New Mexico, mostly in Otero County. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rift (geology). ... Zuni Salt Lake (also Zuñi Salt Lake and Fence Lake), located about 60 miles south of the Zuni Pueblo, is a rare, high desert lake, and a classic maar. ... Ukinrek Maars, Alaska; the result of a 10-day eruption in 1977. ... View from the rim The Old Man of the Lake (with extreme clarity of water apparent) Crater Lake is a lake in the U.S. state of Oregon that is 5 by 6 miles (8 by 9. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For other things named Devils Lake, see Devils Lake (disambiguation) Devils Lake is a freshwater lake in the U.S. state of North Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... The term Pre-Columbian is used to refer to the cultures of the New World in the era before significant European influence. ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... Lake Chalco is a lake that was located in the mexican basin. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... A storks nest typical for the region The Neusiedler See (Hungarian: Fertő) is the only steppe lake in Central Europe and is located at the border between Austria and Hungary. ... Lake Balaton - Landsat satellite photo Lake Balaton (Slovak Blatenské jazero, meaning approximately muddy lake, probable origin of the name; German Plattensee), located in Hungary, is the largest lake of Central Europe with a surface area of 592 km². ...

Ancient endorheic basins

Some of the Earth's ancient endorheic systems include:

Map of the Black Sea. ... Extent of prehistoric Lake Lahontan For the modern reservoir, see Lake Lahontan (reservoir) Ancient Lake Lahontan was an enormous endorheic lake that existed during the ice age, covering much of northwestern Nevada, extending into northeastern California and southern Oregon. ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... A butte in the Great Salt Lake Desert Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of North Americas Great Basin region. ...

References

    External link

    • Primer on endorheic lakes

     
     

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