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Encyclopedia > Endometrial cancer
Endometrial cancer
ICD-10 C54.1
ICD-9 182

Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). It mainly occurs after menopause, and presents with vaginal bleeding. A hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) is generally performed. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... The endometrium is the inner uterine membrane in mammals which is developed in preparation for the implantation of a fertilized egg upon its arrival into the uterus. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in species that experience such cycles. ... One of the main problems involving the female reproductive organs is vaginal bleeding. ... A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, usually done by a gynecologist. ...


It is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States, with over 35,000 women being diagnosed each year in the U.S. Because of effective screening, it is only the third most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths (behind ovarian and cervical cancer).


The same risk factors for endometrial cancer predisposes women to endometrial hyperplasia, which is a precursor lesion for endometrial cancer. An atypical complex hyperplasia carries a 30% risk of developing endometrial cancer while a typical simple hyperplasia only carries a 2-3% risk. Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ...

Contents


Epidemiology

Endometrial cancer occurs in both premenopausal (25%) and postmenopausal women (75%). The most commonly affected age group is between 50 and 59 years of age. Most tumors are caught early and thus prognosis is good and mortality is declining.


Risk Factors

Most women with endometrial cancer have a history of unopposed and increased levels of estrogen. One of estrogen's normal functions is to stimulate the buildup of the endometrial lining of the uterus. Excess estrogen administered to laboratory animals can produce endometrial hyperplasia, which is a precursor for cancer. Estrogens (also oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the oestrus cycle, functioning as the primary female sex hormone. ... The endometrium is the uterine membrane in mammals which is thickened in preparation for the implantation, of a fertilized egg upon its arrival into the uterus. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ...


Increased estrogen may be due to:

  • obesity (> 30 lb or 14 kg overweight)
  • exogenous (medication)

The incidence of endometrial cancer in women in the U.S. is 1 % to 2 %. The incidence peaks between the ages of 60 and 70 years, but 2 % to 5 % of cases may occur before the age of 40 years. Increased risk of developing endometrial cancer has been noted in women with increased levels of natural estrogen. Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George...


Associated conditions include the following:

Increased risk is also associated with the following: For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ... Polycystic Ovary by Sonography Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome), is an endocrine disorder that affects 5–10% of women. ...

  • nulliparity (never having carried a pregnancy)
  • infertility (inability to become pregnant)
  • early menarche (onset of menstruation)
  • late menopause (cessation of menstruation)

Women who have a history of endometrial polyps or other benign growths of the uterine lining, postmenopausal women who use estrogen-replacement therapy (specifically if not given in conjunction with periodic progestin) and those with diabetes are also at increased risk. Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or the inability to carry a pregnancy to term. ... Menarche is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding. ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in species that experience such cycles. ... Uterine Polyp, Sonohysterography A uterine polyp is a rather common growth within the uterine cavity, originating from the endometrium that takes up space within the uterine cavity. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Tamoxifen, a drug used to treat breast cancer, can also increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen:chemical structure Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Symptoms

  • abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal menstrual periods
  • bleeding between normal periods in premenopausal women
  • vaginal bleeding and/or spotting in postmenopausal women

in women older than 40: extremely long, heavy, or frequent episodes of bleeding (may indicate premalignant changes) One of the main problems involving the female reproductive organs is vaginal bleeding. ...

thin white or clear vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women The abdomen is a part of the body. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Diagnosis

Results from a pelvic examination are frequently normal, especially in the early stages of disease. Changes in the size, shape or consistency of the uterus and/or its surrounding, supporting structures may exist when the disease is more advanced.

  • Endometrial curettage is the diagnostic test of choice. Both endometrial and endocervical material should be sampled.
  • If endometrial curettage does not yield sufficient diagnostic material, a dilation and curettage (D&C) is necessary for diagnosing the cancer.
  • Endometrial aspiration or biopsy may assist the diagnosis.
  • A Pap smear may be either normal or show abnormal cellular changes.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound to evaluate the endometrial thickness in women with postmenopausal bleeding is increasingly being used to evaluate for endometrial cancer.
  • Routine screening of asymptomatic women is not indicated since the disease is highly-curable in those patients who are likely to have the disease detected by screening.

In surgery, the use of a curette to remove tissue by scraping or scooping. ... Dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C) is a gynaecological procedure performed on the female reproductive system, often as a form of abortion. ... See: Aspiration (phonetics) Aspiration (medicine) Aspiration (long-term hope) - see for example, Robert Goddards response to the ridicule by the New York Times, 1920: Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace. ... A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... The pap smear as we know it is an invention of Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou (1883-1962), an American of Greek birth, the father of cytopathology. ... A baby in its mothers womb, viewed in a sonogram Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kiloHertz/20,000 Hertz. ...

Pathology

Histopathology is usually an endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

Endometrial adenocarcinoma

It appears on a background of endometrial hyperplasia. Tumor cells are atypical and form irregular glands, with multiple lumens, pluristratification. The stroma is reduced, producing the "back to back" aspect. With evolution of the disease, the myometrium is infiltrated. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1536, 1161 KB) Summary Histopathologic representation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated in endometrial biopsy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1536, 1161 KB) Summary Histopathologic representation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma demonstrated in endometrial biopsy. ...


Evaluation

Patients with newly-diagnosed endometrial cancer do not routinely undergo imaging studies, such as CT scans to evaluate for extent of disease, since this is of low yield. Preoperative evaluation should include a complete medical history and physical examination, pelvic examination and rectal examination with stool guaiac test, chest X-ray, complete blood count, and blood chemistry tests, including liver function tests. Colonoscopy is recommended if the stool is guaiac positive or the women has symptoms, due to the etiologic factors common to both endometrial cancer and colon cancer. The tumor marker CA-125 is sometimes checked, since this can predict advanced stage disease.[1] CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... CA-125 is a substance that is produced by cancer cells. ...


Stages of endometrial cancer

Endometrial carcinoma is surgically staged using the FIGO cancer staging system. The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ...

  • Stage IA: tumor is limited to the endometrium
  • Stage IB: invasion of less than half the myometrium
  • Stage IC: invasion of more than half the myometrium
  • Stage IIA: endocervical glandular involvement only
  • Stage IIB: cervical stromal invasion
  • Stage IIIA: tumor invades serosa or adnexa, or malignant peritoneal cytology
  • Stage IIIB: vaginal metastasis
  • Stage IIIC: metastasis to pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes
  • Stage IVA: invasion of the bladder or bowel
  • Stage IVB: distant metastasis, including intraabdominal or inguinal lymph nodes

The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and vascular tissue. ...

Treatment

The primary treatment is surgical. Surgical treatment should consist of, at least, cytologic sampling of the peritoneal fluid, abdominal exploration, palpation and biopsy of suspicious lymph nodes, abdominal hysterectomy, and removal of both ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Lymphadenectomy, or removal of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, is sometimes performed for tumors that have high risk features, such as pathologic grade 3 serous or clear-cell tumors, invasion of more than 1/2 the myometrium, or extension to the cervix or adnexa. Sometimes, removal of the omentum is also performed. A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, usually done by a gynecologist. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


Abdominal hysterectomy is recommended over vaginal hysterectomy because it affords the opportunity to examine and obtain washings of the abdominal cavity to detect any further evidence of cancer.


Women with stage 1 disease who are at increased risk for recurrence and those with stage 2 disease are often offered surgery in combination with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may be considered in some cases, especially for those with stage 3 and 4 disease. Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


Support Groups

The stress of illness can often be helped by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems. Support groups exist to combat or legitimise conditions or behaviours. ...


Expectations

Because endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed in the early stages (70 % to 75 % of cases are in stage 1 at diagnosis; 10 % to 15 % of cases are in stage 2; 10 % to 15 % of cases are in stage 3 or 4), there is a better probable outcome associated with it than with other types of gynecological cancers such as cervical or ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ...


Survival rates

The 5-year survival rate for endometrial cancer following appropriate treatment is:

  • 75% to 95% for stage 1
  • 50% for stage 2
  • 30% for stage 3
  • less than 5% for stage 4

Complications

  • Anemia may result, caused by chronic loss of blood. (This may occur if the woman has ignored symptoms of prolonged or frequent abnormal menstrual bleeding.)
  • A perforation (hole) of the uterus may occur during a D and C or an endometrial biopsy.

This article discusses the medical condition. ...

References

  1.  Dotters DJ. Preoperative CA 125 in endometrial cancer: is it useful? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;182:1328-34. PMID 10871446.

External links

Tumors (and related structures), Cancer, and Oncology
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant

Topography: Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum - Duodenum - Endometrium - Esophagus - Eye - Gallbladder - Head/Neck - Liver - Larynx - Lung - Mouth - Pancreas - Penis - Prostate - Kidney - Ovaries - Skin - Stomach - Testicles - Thyroid Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either normally found in the brain itself: neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... Bold textA more uncommon cancer predominate in females, if found early on before symptoms, can be cured by removing Gallbladder, most often it is found after symptoms occur (abdominal pain, Jaundice) and has spread to other organs such as liver and the outlook at this point is poor. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths located in the oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and lymph nodes of the upper neck. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or liver cancer) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is represented by the growth of a malignant tumour within the small pancreas organ. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Å…ÄŸ Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by the eponym Grawitz tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... In medicine (dermatology), there are several different types of cancer referred to under the general label of skin cancer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...


Morphology: Papilloma/carcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/fibrosarcoma - Lipoma/liposarcoma - Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma - Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma - Mesothelioma - Angioma/angiosarcoma - Osteoma/osteosarcoma - Chondroma/chondrosarcoma - Glioma - Lymphoma/leukemia Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Skin cancer, close-up of level IV melanoma Melanoma is a malignant tumour of melanocytes . ... Fibroma. ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... A lipoma is a common, benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ... A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of muscle. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells arise from skeletal muscle. ... Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... An osteoma is a new piece of bone growing on another piece, typically the skull. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Lymphoma is a variety of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


Treatment: Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy - Immunotherapy - Experimental cancer treatment Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Related structures: Cyst - Dysplasia - Hamartoma - Neoplasia - Nodule - Polyp - Pseudocyst This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Dysplasia is a situation where cells have changed from their original mature differentiated type into another mature differentiated cell type as an adaptive response to exposure to chronic irritation, or to a pathogen or carcinogen. ... A hamartoma is an abnormal growth of normal cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... A pseudocyst is a pathological collection of fluid. ...


Misc: Tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes - Staging/grading - Carcinogenesis/metastasis - Carcinogen - Research - Paraneoplastic phenomenon - ICD-O - List of oncology-related terms A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand the development of cancer and identify potential therapies. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Endometrial cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1128 words)
The incidence of endometrial cancer in women in the U.S. is 1 % to 2 %.
Transvaginal ultrasound to evaluate the endometrial thickness in women with postmenopausal bleeding is increasingly being used to evaluate for endometrial cancer.
Patients with newly-diagnosed endometrial cancer do not routinely undergo imaging studies, such as CT scans to evaluate for extent of disease, since this is of low yield.
Endometrial cancer (2630 words)
Endometrial cancer (also called uterine cancer) is the fourth most common type of cancer among women and the most common gynecologic cancer.
Although endometrial cancer generally occurs in women who have gone through menopause and are 45 years of age or older, 30% of the women with endometrial cancer are younger than 40 years of age.
Endometrial cancer is categorized into four stages (I, II, III, and IV) that are subdivided (A, B, and possibly C) based on the depth or spread of cancerous tissue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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