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Encyclopedia > Endocrine system

The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth, development and puberty, tissue function, and also plays a part in mood.[1] The field of medicine that deals with disorders of endocrine glands is endocrinology, a branch of the wider field of internal medicine. For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ...

Contents

Function

The Endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system. However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. Glands located in many regions of the body release into the bloodstream specific chemical messengers called hormones. Hormones regulate the many and varied functions of an organism, e.g., mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sending messages and acting on them. The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Types of signaling

The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine signaling. However, there are also other modes, i.e., paracrine, autocrine, and neuroendocrine signaling [2]. Purely neurocrine signaling between neurons, on the other hand, belongs completely to the nervous system. The endocrine system is a group of organs that helps you grow, make your voice deeper and other changes that occur during puberty. Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ...


Endocrine

A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for example the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ...


Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and usually the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules storing their hormones. In contrast exocrine glands such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Exocrine gland refers to glands that secrete their products and temporarily store their secretions in a duct. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... In humans, there are four kinds of sudoriferous or sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... Gut redirects here. ... artery anatomy, showing lumen The lumen (pl. ...

Main article: Endocrine signaling

Other signaling can target the same cell.


Paracrine

Main article: Paracrine signalling

Paracrine signaling is where the target cell is nearby. Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which the target cell is close to (para = alongside of or next to, but this strict prefix definition is not meticulously followed here) the signal releasing cell. ...


Juxtacrine

Main article: Juxtacrine signalling

Juxtacrine signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent. In biology, juxtacrine signalling is a type of intercellular communication which is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid or protein components of a cell membrane and may affect either the emitting cell or immediately adjacent cells. ...


Role in disease

Main article: Endocrine diseases

Diseases of the endocrine system are common,[3] including diseases such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, and obesity. Endocrine disease is characterised by dysregulated hormone release (a productive Pituitary adenoma), inappropriate response to signalling (Hypothyroidism), lack or destruction of a gland (Diabetes mellitus type 1, diminished erythropoiesis in Chronic renal failure), or structural enlargement in a critical site such as the neck (Toxic multinodular goitre). Hypofunction of endocrine glands can occur as result of loss of reserve, hyposecretion, agenesis, atrophy, or active destruction. Hyperfunction can occur as result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic, or neoplastic change, or hyperstimulation. Among the hundreds of endocrine diseases (or endocrinological diseases) are: Adrenal disorders: Adrenal insufficiency Addisons disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Glucose homeostasis disorders: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Metabolic bone disease: Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Pagets... Among the hundreds of endocrine diseases (or endocrinological diseases) are: Adrenal disorders: Adrenal insufficiency Addisons disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Glucose homeostasis disorders: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Metabolic bone disease: Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Pagets... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, Type I diabetes, T1D, IDDM) is a form of diabetes mellitus. ... Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ... Chronic renal failure (CRF, or chronic kidney failure, CKF, or chronic kidney disease, CKD) is a slowly progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years and defined as an abnormally low glomerular filtration rate, which is usually determined indirectly by the creatinine level in blood serum. ... Toxic multinodular goitre (also known as toxic nodular goitre, toxic nodular struma) is a form of hyperthyroidism - where there is excess production of thyroid hormones. ... Agenesis is the medical term for the failure of an organ to develop during embrionic growth and development. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen in e. ... ...


Endocrinopathies are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary endocrine disease inhibits the action of downstream glands. Tertiary endocrine disease is associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus and its releasing hormones.


Cancer can occur in endocrine glands, such as the thyroid, and hormones have been implicated in signalling distant tissues to proliferate, for example the Estrogen receptor has been shown to be involved in certain breast cancers. Endocrine, Paracrine, and autocrine signalling have all been implicated in proliferation, one of the required steps of oncogenesis.[4] The estrogen receptor is a receptor for estradiol (the main endogenous estrogen); it is located intracellularly, in parallel with other steroid hormone receptors. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... We dont have an article called Oncogenesis Start this article Search for Oncogenesis in. ...


Table of endocrine glands and secreted hormones

This is a table of the glands of the endocrine system, and their secreted hormones


Hypothalamus

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons Release thyroid-stimulating hormone from anterior pituitary (primarily)
Stimulate prolactin release from anterior pituitary.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH Neuroendocine cells of the Preoptic area Release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone GHRH Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus Release GH from anterior pituitary
Corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons Release ACTH from anterior pituitary
Vasopressin Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons Increases permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water in the nephrons of the kidney, thus increasing water reabsorbiton.
Somatostatin, also growth hormone-inhibiting hormone SS or GHIH Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus Inhibit release of GH and TSH from anterior pituitary
Prolactin inhibiting hormone or Dopamine PIH or DA Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus Inhibit release of prolactin and TSH from anterior pituitary
Prolactin-releasing hormone PRH Release prolactin from anterior pituitary

The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus which produces many hormones. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone is a hormone released from the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus that stimulates the release of growth hormone. ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus which produces many hormones. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus which produces many hormones. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The Periventricular nucleus is a composite structure of the hypothalamus. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The arcuate nucleus is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ...

Pineal body

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Melatonin (Primarily) Pinealocytes antioxidant and causes drowsiness

The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland located near the middle of the brain. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Pinealocytes are the main cells of the pineal gland. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ...

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

| Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ...

Anterior pituitary lobe (adenohypophysis)

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Growth hormone GH Somatotropes stimulates growth and cell reproduction

Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Somatotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce growth hormone. ... Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...

Prolactin PRL Lactotrophss milk production in mammary glands
sexual gratification after sexual acts
Adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticotropin ACTH Corticotropes synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells
Lipotropin Corticotropes lipolysis and steroidogenesis,
stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin
Thyroid-stimulating hormone or thyrotropin TSH Thyrotropes stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH Gonadotropes In female: stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles in ovary.

In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Lactotrophs (also known as lactotrope, mammatroph, mammotroph, epsilon acidophil, prolactin cell, and lactotropic cell) are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce prolactin in response to signals including dopamine and estrogen. ... Mammary glands are milk-secreting adaptations of sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. ... // An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtrÉ’pɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn, əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtroÊŠpɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Corticotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... Corticotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... Steroidogenesis is the process of steroid production in living organism. ... Melanocytes are cells located in the bottom layer of the skins epidermis. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Thyrotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce thyroid stimulating hormone. ... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Gonadotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. ... Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ... Androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a glycoprotein (beta-globulin) produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis that binds specifically to testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17-beta-estradiol. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ...

Luteinizing hormone LH Gonadotropes In female: ovulation

In male: stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Gonadotropes are cells in the anterior pituitary which produce the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...

Posterior pituitary lobe (neurohypophysis)

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Oxytocin Magnocellular neurosecretory cells Contraction of cervix and vagina

Involved in orgasm, trust between people.[5] and circadian homeostasis (body temperature, activity level, wakefulness) [6]. release breast milk The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... // An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... The circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ...

Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone AVP or ADH Magnocellular neurosecretory cells retention of water in kidneys

moderate vasoconstriction Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...

Oxytocin and Anti-Diuretic Hormone are not secreted in the posterior lobe, merely stored.


Intermediate pituitary lobe (pars intermedia)

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH Melanotroph melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair.

Pars intermedia is the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... A Melanotroph (or melanotrope) is a cell in the pituitary gland which generates melanocyte-stimulating hormone from its precursor Proopiomelanocortin. ... Melanogenesis is the production of the pigment melanin, responsible for skin colour. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ...

Thyroid

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Triiodothyronine T3 Thyroid epithelial cell potent form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroid epithelial cells are cells in the thyroid gland which produce and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ...

Thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine T4 Thyroid epithelial cells less active form of thyroid hormone: increase the basal metabolic rate & sensitivity to catecholamines,

affect protein synthesis, often functions as a prohormone Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Thyroid epithelial cells are cells in the thyroid gland which produce and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... A prohormone is a chemical compound that is a precursor to an actual hormone (usually an anabolic like testosterone or some variant), which is taken in order to boost the body’s available hormone supply. ...

Calcitonin Parafollicular cells Construct bone

reduce blood Ca2+ Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Parafollicular cells also called C cells, are cells in the thyroid which produce and secrete calcitonin. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...

Parathyroid

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Parathyroid hormone PTH Parathyroid chief cell increase blood Ca2+: *indirectly stimulate osteoclasts

(Slightly) decrease blood phosphate: Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Parathyroid chief cells are cells in the parathyroid glands which produce parathyroid hormone. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...

  • (decreased reuptake in kidney but increased uptake from bones
  • activate vitamin D)

The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...

Heart

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Atrial-natriuretic peptide ANP Cardiac myocytes Reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a peptide hormone that is released by walls of the cardiac atrium in response to high NaCl concentration, high extracellular fluid volume, or high blood volume. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Vascular resistance is a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. ...

Brain natriuretic peptide BNP Cardiac myocytes (To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats Brain natriuretic peptide (also known as B-type natriuretic peptide or GC-B) is a 32-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of myocytes (heart muscles cells) in the ventricles. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Vascular resistance is a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system. ...

Striated muscle

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Thrombopoietin Myocytes stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... Myocyte is the technical term for a muscle cell. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

Skin

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) Inactive form of Vitamin D3

For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Calcidiol, calcifediol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25–hydroxy–vitamin D, is a prehormone which is produced by the metabolism of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and which is converted by the kidneys into calcitriol (1,25-vitamin D), a steroid hormone. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is also a steroid much like testosterone, cholesterol and cortisol. ...

Adipose tissue

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Leptin (Primarily) Adipocytes decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.
Estrogens[8] (mainly Estrone) Adipocytes

Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Estriol. ... Estrone (also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ...

Stomach

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Gastrin (Primarily) G cells Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells
Ghrelin P/D1 cells Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... Cells lining the fundus of the human stomach that produce ghrelin. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ...

Neuropeptide Y NPY increased food intake and decreased physical activity
Secretin S cells Secretion of bicarbonate from liver, pancreas and duodenal Brunner's glands

Enhances effects of cholecystokinin Stops production of gastric juice Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... S cells are cells which release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ...

Somatostatin D cells Suppress release of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin, motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), enteroglucagon

Lowers rate of gastric emptying Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine [9] Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ...

Histamine ECL cells stimulate gastric acid secretion
Endothelin X cells Smooth muscle contraction of stomach [10]

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Enterochromaffin-Like (ECL) Cells Enterochromaffin-like or ECL cells are a distinctive type of neuroendocrine cell in the gastric mucosa underlying the epithelium. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Endothelin is a 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key part in vascular homeostasis. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ...

Duodenum

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Cholecystokinin I cells Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas

Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Cholecystokinin (CCK; from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ...

Liver

Secreted hormone Abbreviation From cells Effect
Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin) (Primarily) IGF Hepatocytes insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ...

Angiotensinogen and angiotensin Hepatocytes vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... A dipsogen is an agent that causes thirst. ...

Thrombopoietin Hepatocytes stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

Pancreas

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Insulin (Primarily) ß Islet cells Intake of glucose, glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood

intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes Other anabolic effects The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Some common lipids. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... Anabolism is the metabolic process that builds larger molecules from smaller ones. ...

Glucagon (Also Primarily) α Islet cells glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

increases blood glucose level Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Alpha cells are endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...

Somatostatin d Islet cells Inhibit release of insulin [11]

Inhibit release of glucagon[11] Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Delta cells are somatostatin producing cells. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ...

Pancreatic polypeptide PP cells Unknown

Pancreatic polypeptide is an enzyme secreted by PP cells in the tail of pancreas. ... PP cells are pancreatic polypeptide producing cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. ...

Kidney

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Renin (Primarily) Juxtaglomerular cells Activates the renin-angiotensin system by producing angiotensin I of angiotensinogen
Erythropoietin (EPO) Extraglomerular mesangial cells Stimulate erythrocyte production
Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... The juxtaglomerular cells are specialized cells that stimulate the secretion of the adrenal hormone aldosterone and play a major role in renal autoregulation, the kidneys self-governance. ... Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells) are light-staining cells in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole and macula densa. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D. Vitamin D3 is also a steroid much like testosterone, cholesterol and cortisol. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Gut redirects here. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ...

Thrombopoietin stimulates megakaryocytes to produce platelets[7]

Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... The megakaryocyte is a bone marrow cell responsible for the production of blood platelets when its cytoplasm becomes fragmented. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ...

Adrenal glands

In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...

Adrenal cortex

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...

Mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone) Zona glomerulosa cells Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney. Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Blood volume is a term describing the amout of blood (including both red blood cells and plasma) in a persons circulatory system. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+. Nomenclature According to IUPAC ion nomenclature, it should be referred to as oxonium. ...

Androgens (including DHEA and testosterone) Zona fasciculata and Zona reticularis cells Virilization, anabolic

Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the development of changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Anabolic is an adjective referring to processes of metabolism that result in growth of cells or organisms. ...

Adrenal medulla

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells Fight-or-flight response:
Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin cells Fight-or-flight response:
Dopamine Chromaffin cells Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Enkephalin Chromaffin cells Regulate pain

In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Some common lipids. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Some common lipids. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ...

Testes

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Androgens (chiefly testosterone) Leydig cells Anabolic: growth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,

Virilizing: maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair. Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. ... Anabolic is an adjective referring to processes of metabolism that result in growth of cells or organisms. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Bone density is a medical term referring to the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the biological development of sex differences, changes which make a male body different from a female body. ... Maturation is the increase in the state of maturity. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... For the slang term, see Beard (female companion). ... Armpit Hair Underarm hair is the composition of hair in the underarm area. ...

Estradiol Sertoli cells Prevent apoptosis of germ cells[12]
Inhibin Sertoli cells Inhibit production of FSH

Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a nurse cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ...

Ovary

These originate either from the ovarian follicle or the corpus luteum. // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ...

Secreted hormone From cells Effect
Progesterone Granulosa cells, theca cells Support pregnancy[13]:

Other: Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... In biology, folliculogenesis refers to the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely-packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... The endometrium is the uterine membrane in mammals which is thickened in preparation for fertilization, and into which a fertilized egg is implanted upon its arrival into the uterus. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Childbirth in a hospital. ...

Anti-inflammatory Epidermal growth factor or EGF is a growth factor that plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Mucus cells. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...

Androstenedione Theca cells Substrate for estrogen
Estrogens (mainly estradiol) Granulosa cells Structural:

Protein synthesis: The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... For the band, see Resilience (band). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The gingiva (sing. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Myelin is an electrically insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... In biology, folliculogenesis refers to the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely-packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte. ... Estriol. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... Height is the measurement of distance between a specified point and a corresponding plane of reference. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...

  • Increase hepatic production of binding proteins

Coagulation: This article is about the clotting of blood. ...

Fluid balance: Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor VII (formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3. ... Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3. ... Image:Antithrombin. ... Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Height is the measurement of distance between a specified point and a corresponding plane of reference. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...

Gastrointestinal tract: For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. ...

  • Reduce bowel motility
  • Increase cholesterol in bile

Melanin: Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ...

Cancer: Melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. ... Melanin is a polymer of either or both of two monomer molecules: indolequinone, and dihydroxyindole carboxylic acid. ...

  • Support hormone-sensitive breast cancers [16] (Suppression of production in the body of estrogen is a treatment for these cancers.)

Lung function: Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...

The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ...

References

  1. ^ Collier, Judith. et.al (2006). Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties 7th edn.. Oxford, 350 -351. ISBN 0-19-853085-4. 
  2. ^ University of Virginia - HISTOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS
  3. ^ Kasper et al. (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw Hill, 2074. ISBN 0-07-139140-1. 
  4. ^ Bhowmick NA, Chytil A, Neilson EG, Moses HL (2004). "TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts modulates the oncogenic potential of adjacent epithelia.". Science Feb 6 303(5659): 848-51.
  5. ^ Kosfeld M et al. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673-676. PDF PMID 15931222
  6. ^ Scientific American Mind, "Rhythm and Blues"; June/July 2007; Scientific American Mind; by Ulrich Kraft
  7. ^ a b c Kaushansky K. Lineage-specific hematopoietic growth factors. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2034-45. PMID 16687716.
  8. ^ The adipose tissue as a source of vasoactive factors. Frühbeck G. (Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents. 2004 Jul;2(3):197-208.)
  9. ^ http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/somatostatin.html Colorado State University - Biomedical Hypertextbooks - Somatostatin
  10. ^ Diabetes-related changes in contractile responses of stomach fundus to endothelin-1 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Journal of Smooth Muscle Research Vol. 41 (2005) , No. 1 35-47. Kazuki Endo1), Takayuki Matsumoto1), Tsuneo Kobayashi1), Yutaka Kasuya1) and Katsuo Kamata1)
  11. ^ a b Physiology at MCG 5/5ch4/s5ch4_17
  12. ^ Pentikäinen V, Erkkilä K, Suomalainen L, Parvinen M, Dunkel L. Estradiol Acts as a Germ Cell Survival Factor in the Human Testis in vitro. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2006;85:2057-67 PMID 10843196
  13. ^ a b Placental Hormones
  14. ^ Physiology at MCG 5/5ch9/s5ch9_13
  15. ^ Hould F, Fried G, Fazekas A, Tremblay S, Mersereau W (1988). "Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility". J Surg Res 45 (6): 505-12. PMID 3184927.
  16. ^ Hormonal Therapy
  17. ^ Massaro D, Massaro GD (2004). "Estrogen regulates pulmonary alveolar formation, loss, and regeneration in mice". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 287 (6): L1154-9. PMID 15298854 url=http://ajplung.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/287/6/L1154.
This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ... In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Endocrine system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (491 words)
The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete chemical "instant messengers" called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant cells within specific organs.
The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction.
Diseases of the endocrine system are common, such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease.
Endocrine System - MSN Encarta (2279 words)
The primary glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body, and reproductive glands—the ovary and testis.
The pancreas, an organ often associated with the digestive system, is also considered part of the endocrine system.
One of the most common diseases of the endocrine systems is diabetes mellitus, which occurs in two forms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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