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Encyclopedia > Endmill
Several types of endmills
Several types of endmills

An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. It is distinguished from its cousin, the drill bit, in its application, geometry, and manufacture. The term "endmill" is sometimes considered to be machinist's slang, but has come into standard usage in industry publications, trade magazines, and manufacturers catalogues. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1719x1014, 252 KB) (Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1719x1014, 252 KB) (Photograph taken by Glenn McKechnie on the 26th March 2005. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ...

Contents

Types

A broad category of end and face milling tools exists, such as flat bottom, ball nose, radius, inverted radius, and chamfer tools. Each category may be further divided by specific application and special geometry. Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ...


It is becoming increasingly more common for traditional solid endmills to be replaced by more cost-effective inserted cutting tools (which, though more expensive initially, reduce tool-change times and allow for the easy replacement of worn or broken cutting edges rather than the entire tool). A tipped tool or insert generally refers to any cutting tool where the cutting edge consists of a seperate piece of material, either brazed or clamped on to a seperate body. ...


Endmills are sold in both imperial and metric shank and cutting diameters. In the USA, metric is readily available, but not commonly used by machine shops; in Canada, due to the country's proximity to the US, much the same is true. In Asia and Europe, while imperial is readily available, metric diameters are standard.


Applications

Endmills are used in milling applications such as profile milling, tracer milling, face milling, and the like. Depending on the material being milled, and what task should be performed, different tool types and geometry may be used. For instance, when milling a material like aluminum, it may be adventageous to use a tool with a very shallow flute depth, and a pre-dulled (but polished) cutting edge. Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ...


Raw Materials

Endmills have traditionally been made from high speed steel, but are now mostly made of tungsten carbide, a rigid and wear-resistant material, usually pressed from carbide powder into rods, which are then ground into blanks of industry-standard sizes. High speed steel (HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and cutters. ... Tungsten carbide, WC, or W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ...


In the early 1990's, use of coatings to reduce wear and friction (among other things) became more common. Most of these coatings are referred to by their chemical composition, such as:

  • TiN (a basic yellowish coating that has fallen out of wide use)
  • TiCN (a popular blueish-grey coating)
  • TiAlN (an extremely popular dark purple coating)
  • TiAlCrN (PVD coating).
  • PCD veins. Though not a coating some endmills are manufactured with a 'vein' of polycrystaline diamond. The vien is formed in a High Temperature-High Pressure enviorment. The vein is formed in a blank and then the material is ground out along the vein to form the cutting edge. The tools can be very costly, however can last many times longer than other tooling.

Advances in endmill coatings are being made, however, with coatings such as Amorphous Diamond and nanocomposite PVD coatings beginning to be seen at high-end shops (as of 2004). TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ...


Manufacture

Endmills are typically made on CNC (Computer Numeric Control) machines under high-pressure lubricants such as water, water-soluble oil, and high-flashpoint oil. Grinding inside the machine is accomplished with abrasive wheels mounted on a spindle (and in some cases, multiple spindles). Depending on what material is being ground, these wheels are made with industrial diamond (when grinding tungsten carbide), cubic boron nitride (when grinding cobalt steel), and other materials (when grinding, for instance, ceramics), set in a bond (sometimes copper). For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Cutting fluid or coolant is liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces they are shaping. ... A grinding wheel is an expendable wheel that carries an abrasive compound on its periphery. ...



Metalworking:

Metalworking cutting tools: Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Broach | Burr | Chisel | Counterbore | Countersink | Cutting tool | End mill | Metalwork file | File | Hand scraper | High speed steel | Milling cutter | Reamer | Stellite | Tipped tool | Tool bit A push style 5/16 keyway broach A broach is a series of chisel points mounted on one piece of steel. ... A selection of carbide burrs Burrs are small cutters used in die grinders, rotary tools or dentists drills. ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... Two types of counter bores A counterbore can refer to a cylindrical flat-bottomed hole, which enlarges another hole, or the tool used to create that feature. ... A countersink is a tapered hole drilled with a wide outer portion. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ... A File (or Hand-File) is a metalworking hand tool used to shape material by abrasion. ... Detail of a double-cut flat file A file (or hand-file) is a hand tool used to shape material by abrasion. ... Three different engineering hand scrapers A hand scraper is a single-edged tool used to scrape metal from a surface. ... High speed steel (HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and cutters. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... A reamer or ream is a tool for enlarging holes and is used in metalworking. ... Stellite alloy is a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear resistance. ... A tipped tool or insert generally refers to any cutting tool where the cutting edge consists of a seperate piece of material, either brazed or clamped on to a seperate body. ... A tool bit generally refers to a plain High Speed Steel (HSS) tool. ...


Metalworking topics:   This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Casting | CNC | Cutting tools | Drilling and threading | Fabrication | Finishing | Grinding | Jewellery | Lathe (tool) | Machining | Machine tooling | Measuring | Metalworking | Hand tools | Metallurgy | Milling | Occupations | Press tools | Smithing | Terminology | Welding This article is about the manufacturing process. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication is an industrial term generally applied to the building of metal machines and structures. ... Metalworking finishing is the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Earring Jewellery (jewelry in American English) is any piece of fine material used to adorn the human body. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


 
 

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