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Encyclopedia > Endemic (ecology)

In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. However, it is also differentiated from indigenous: A species that is endemic is unique to a defined place or region (in other words only found in that place or region) and not naturally found anywhere else, whereas a species that is indigenous to somewhere may be native to other locations as well. Usually the term is applied to a discrete geographical unit, often an island or island group, but sometimes a country, habitat type, or other defined area or zone. For example, we can say that the Orange-breasted Sunbird, Anthobaphes violacea, is a Fynbos endemic (i.e. exclusively found in the Fynbos vegetation type of southwestern South Africa), or that the Socotra Sparrow, Passer insularis, is endemic to Socotra (only found in the Socotra island group). The Bermuda cedar, Juniperus bermudiana, and the, Bermuda Petrel, Pterodroma cahow, are both endemic to Bermuda. Although the petrel is pelagic, spending most of its life roaming far over the Atlantic, and only comes ashore to nest, Bermuda is the only place in which it does so. Biology (from Greek Βìο meaning life and Λoγος meaning the study of, see below) is the study of life. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ... A cosmopolitan distribution is a term applied to a biological category of living things meaning that this category can be found anywhere around the world. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a biocentric view. ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Genera Many: see text The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. ... Fynbos (Afrikaans for fine bush) is the natural vegetation occurring in a small belt of South Africa, mainly in the South-western Cape. ... Fynbos (Afrikaans for fine bush) is the natural vegetation occurring in a small belt of South Africa, mainly in the South-western Cape. ... Binomial name Passer insularis Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 The Socotra Sparrow (Passer insularis) is found on the islands of Socotra and Abd al Kuri in the Indian Ocean, off the Horn of Africa. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquṭra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast Somalia some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... Binomial name Juniperus bermudiana L. Juniperus bermudiana is a species of juniper endemic to Bermuda. ... Binomial name Pterodroma cahow (Nichols & Mowbray, 1916) The Bermuda Petrel is featured on the original Bermudian one dollar and ten dollar notes. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Islands are especially likely to develop endemic types or species because of their geographical isolation. This includes remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Gal├ípagos Islands and Socotra. The restricted area and vulnerability to the depredations of man and introduced species mean that endemics all too easily can become endangered or extinct. There were several millions of both petrels and 'cedars' (actually junipers) in Bermuda, when settled at the start of the 17th Century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct, and cedars were very nearly driven to extinction by centuries of shipbuilding, then an introduced parasite. Both are very rare, today, as are other species endemic or native to Bermuda. Located some 2,400 miles (4,000 km) from the nearest continental shore, the Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated group of islands on the globe. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Galápagos Map of the Galápagos archipelago showing the names of the islands. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquá¹­ra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast Somalia some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a biocentric view. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... // Prepleistocene extinctions A large number of historical orders are extinct, for example dinosaurs, pterosaurs and ammonites. ...


Endemism can also develop in other biologically isolated areas, such as the highlands of Ethiopia or large bodies of water like Lake Baikal. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Ecoregions with high endemism

According to the World Wildlife Fund, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of endemic plants: Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...

Fynbos (Afrikaans for fine bush) is the natural vegetation occurring in a small belt of South Africa, mainly in the South-western Cape. ... The Hawaiian Tropical Moist Forests ecoregion home to a high diversity of endemic species. ... Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ... The Madagascar lowland forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion, found on the eastern coast of the island of Madagascar. ... The New Caledonia rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion, located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific. ...

Threats to high endemicism regions

Some of the principal threats to these special ecosystems are:

Both factors are secondary results of world overpopulation. Loggers on break, c. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which a person uses a piece of land, only to abandon or alter the initial use a short time later. ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the China and India in the billions. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Endemic (ecology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (229 words)
In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced.
However, it is also differentiated from indigenous: a species that is endemic is unique to that place or region, found naturally nowhere else, whereas a species that is indigenous may be native to other locations as well.
Islands are especially likely to develop endemic forms because of their geographical isolation; remote island groups, such as Hawaii and the Galápagos Islands, have large numbers of endemic species.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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