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Encyclopedia > Endecja
Poland

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Poland
Image File history File links Herb_Polski. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

Constitution
President: Lech Kaczyński

National Assembly
Senate
Sejm Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... , (born June 18, 1949) is a Polish politician of the conservative pary Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS). ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...

Prime Minister: Jarosław Kaczyński
Council of Ministers
Ministries
Law
Supreme Court
Constitutional Tribunal
State Tribunal
Supreme Administrative Court
Supreme Chamber of Control
Attorney General
Ombudsman
Political Parties:
LPR PD PiS PO PSL

SDPL SLD SRP UP The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski (born June 18, 1949) is a Polish politician and the chairman of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party that won the last Polish parliamentary election in September 2005. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... Polish law is a legal system in Poland. ... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... The Attorney General of Poland (Polish: Prokurator Generalny) is the top prosecuting officer in Poland. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... The League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative extremist political party within the Polish Parliament, and a coalition partner in Polands current ruling government. ... The Democratic Party () is a social liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Or in English: Law and Justice) is a Polish conservative political party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish liberal (libertarian) political party. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SO or SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ...

Elections
Presidential (after 1989):
1990 1995 2000 2005
Parliamentary (after 1989):
1989 1991 1993 1997 2001 2005
European Parliament:
2004
Polish referenda
Local elections
Voivodeships
See also
Economy
Foreign relations
History
Military

EU Politics Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... The voivodeship (Polish: województwo) has been a second-level administrative unit in Poland since the 14th century. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 European states. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ...

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Endecja (from abbreviaton (ND) of its Polish name, Narodowa Demokracja (National Democrats), also known as National Movement (Ruch Narodowy)) was a Polish right-wing political movement most active from middle of the 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. Among its most important founders and ideologues was Roman Dmowski. The movement effectively ceased to exist with the end of Second World War. During the times of the Second Polish Republic it was a strong proponent of polonization policies. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ...

Contents


Origins

The origins of the endecja can be traced to the failure of the January Uprising in 1864 and the era of the positivism in Poland. After the uprisng, last in the series of several Polish uprisings in the 19th century, was bloodily crushed by the partitioners of Poland, the new generation of Polish patriots and politicians decided that Polish independece will not be won on the battlefield but through education and culture. Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... For other meanings of positivism, see Positivism. ... This is a list of Polish uprisings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


In 1886 the secret Liga Polska organization was founded, in 1893 renamed into Liga Narodowa. From 1895 Liga published its own newspaper (Przegląd Wszechpolski), and from 1897 it had an official political party, the Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne. Unlike the Polish Socialist Party, endecja advocated peaceful negotiations. The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples...


During the First World War, while PPS, now under influence of Józef Piłsudski, supported the Central Powers, endecja first allied itself with Russian Empire (supporting the creation of the Legion Puławski), and later, with the Western Powers (supporting the Blue Army). After the end of the Great War, many endecja politicians had much more influence abroad then in Poland. It forced them to share power with Piłsudski, who had much more support in the military then they had. Still, due to their support abroad, endecja politicians like Dmowski and Ignacy Paderewski were able to gain support for some Polish requests at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the Treaty of Versailles. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... General Józef Haller in front of the troops Blue Army or Hallers Army are informal names for the Polish Army formed in France during the later stages of World War I. The army was created in June of 1917 as part of the Polish units allied to the Entente. ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Second Polish Republic

In the newly independent Second Polish Republic endecja was represented first by the Związek Ludowo-Narodowy party, and from 1928 by Stronnictwo Narodowe. Among the chief characteristics of endecja policies was the stress on polonization: it was endecja politicians like Dmowski and Grabski who contributed the failure of Piłsudski's Międzymorze federation, the alliance with Symon Petlura, and the alienation of ethnic minorities in Poland. Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ...


After Piłsudski's May Coup of 1926, endecja found itself in constant opposition to the pro-Piłsudski Sanacja. To fight the Sanacja movement, endecja created the Obóz Wielkiej Polski organization. May Coup (Polish: Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup detat successfully carried out in Poland by Józef PiÅ‚sudski between May 12 and May 14, 1926. ... Flag of the Chief of State (1919-1927) Sanacja was a coalition political movement of the Second Polish Republic in the inter war years. ...


Second World War

During WWII became part of a coalition which formed the Polish Government in Exile. Closely linked with the controversial Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (National Armed Forces) an underground organization which became a small part of the Polish resistance movement. Due to endecja anti-minority policies, its armed organizations were engaged in combat not only against the Nazi Germany, but also against the Soviet Union and organizations of various Polish minorities. Due to that, they had little support and many enemies. The Government of the Polish Republic in exile was the government of Poland after the German occupation of Poland in September 1939. ... Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


After the war

After the end of the war, when Poland found itself under the control of Polish communists and the Soviet Union, remains of endecja either emigrated to the West, or continied the eventualy futile fight against the Soviet occupation. Polish communists can trace their origins to early 1900s and the works tor the first Polish Marxist, Stanisław Brzozowki (1878-1911). ...


Modern Poland

After the fall of communism when Poland became a democratic country, several political parties tried to reestabilish some traditions of the endecja movement. Currently the only significant party which declares itself a successor to endecja is the Liga Polskich Rodzin, founded in 2001. Since then, in various elections, the party has gathered from 8% to 16% of votes. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin) is a right-wing and populist opposition party in the Polish Parliament. ...


Notable members

Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Jędrzej Giertych was a Polish politician, being the son of Franciszek Giertych, grandfather of Roman Giertych and father of Maciej Giertych. ... Władysław Grabski Władysław Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ... General Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski (1866-1928) was a Polish military commander and politician, an officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then the Polish Army. ... Wojciech Korfaty in 1905 Wojciech Korfanty (1873-1939) was a Polish nationalist and activist, known for his irredentist policies after World War I. He was opposed to the policy of Germanisation in Upper Silesia before the war, and was one of the chief advocates of returning Upper Silesia to Poland...

References

  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Polish Wikipedia article as of 1 June 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Dmowski - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (877 words)
January 2, 1939, Drozdowo, Poland) was a Polish right-wing politician and statesman, and chief ideologue and co-founder of the National Democratic Party (Endecja).
In 1895 he settled in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (modern Lviv, Ukraine; known as Lwów to the Poles), and in 1897 co-founded the National-Democratic Party (Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne or Endecja).
A brilliant chemist, he won much prestige within the Polish community with his scientific accomplishments.
Rewolucja 1905 - 1906 na ziemiach polskich. - [ Sciaga-OnLinie.pl ] (1140 words)
Endecja uważała, że należy wykorzystać sytuację w Rosji do uzyskania choć ograniczonej autonomii, praw do języka polskiego w szkolnictwie i samorządzie wiejskim, rezygnując z wszelkich działań gwałtownych, żądań niepodległościowych i odcinając się od ruchów rewolucyjnych.
Ale endecja starała się, by ruch ten nie został związany z dążeniami rewolucyjnymi, próbowała nie dopuścić do przejęcia jego kierownictwa przez partie socjalistyczne, a ugodowcy zamierzali doprowadzić do tego, żeby młodzież ograniczyła się do wysyłania petycji do cara.
Endecja natomiast wysłała delegację do Petersburga w celu przedstawienia propozycji nadania przez cara autonomii Królestwu Polskiemu, w zamian za pomoc w tłumieniu ruchu rewolucyjnego.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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