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Encyclopedia > End of civilization

The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale. These are risks that would imperil humankind as a whole and/or have major adverse consequences for the course of human civilization.[1] The term existential risk is sometimes used in this context. Human extinction would be the extinction of the human species, Homo sapiens. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Hazard is a term used in evaluating safety: A hazard is a potential unwanted event. ... The adjective global and adverb globally imply that the verb or noun to which they are applied applies to the entire Earth and all of its species and regions. ... In futurology, an existential risk is a risk that is both global and terminal. ...

The prediction of future events is known as futures studies. Futures studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ...


Types of risks

Various risks exist for mankind and civilization, but not all risks are equal. Risks can be roughly categorized into six types based on the scope of the risk (Personal, Regional, Global) and the intensity of the risk (Endurable or Terminal). This chart provides some examples. Look up Mankind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Mankind may refer to: Human beings and their society The morality play Mankind An alias of professional wrestler Mick Foley An MMORTS (massively multiplayer online real-time strategy); see Mankind (MMORTS) A French Demoscene group : m4nkind (web) Spelt thus: ManKind, it can... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ...

Typology of risk[1]
Endurable Terminal
Global Thinning of Ozone Layer "End of civilization"
Regional Economic recession Genocide
Personal House burns down Death

The risks discussed in this article are those in the Global-Terminal category. This type of risk is one where an adverse outcome would either annihilate intelligent life, or permanently and drastically curtail its potential.

Future scenarios

There are many scenarios that have been suggested that could happen in the future. Some are certain to happen and will almost certainly end humanity, but will only happen on a very long timescale. Others are likely to happen on a shorter timescale, but will probably not completely destroy civilization. Still others are extremely unlikely, and may even be impossible. For example, Nick Bostrom writes:[2]

Some foreseen hazards (hence not members of the current category) which have been excluded from the list of bangs on grounds that they seem too unlikely to cause a global terminal disaster are: solar flares, supernovae, black hole explosions or mergers, gamma-ray bursts, galactic center outbursts, supervolcanos, buildup of air pollution, gradual loss of human fertility, and various religious doomsday scenarios.

See also: Societal collapse Societal collapse is the large scale breakdown or long term decline of the culture, civil institutions or other major characteristics of a society or a civilization, on a temporary or permanent basis. ...


It is certain that events in space will cause life on Earth to come to an end. The certain events, however, will happen at an extremely long timescale measured in billions of years. Projections indicate that the Andromeda Galaxy is on a collision course with the Milky Way. Impact is predicted in about 3 billion years, and so Andromeda will approach at an average speed of about 140 kilometres (87 miles) per second; the two galaxies will probably merge to form a giant elliptical. This merging could eject the solar system in a more eccentric orbit[citation needed] and an unwanted position in the merged galaxy causing our planet to become uninhabitable (an actual collision is unnecessary)[citation needed]. In about 5 billion years, stellar evolution predicts our sun will exhaust its core hydrogen and become a red giant. In so doing, it will become thousands of times more luminous.[3] Even in its current phase of stellar evolution, the sun is increasing in luminosity (at a very slow rate). Many scientists predict that in fewer than one billion years, the runaway greenhouse effect will make Earth unsuitable for life. M31 in a small telescope The Andromeda Galaxy (IPA: , also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224; older texts often called it the Andromeda Nebula) is a spiral galaxy approximately 2. ... In astronomy, stellar evolution is the sequence of changes that a star undergoes during its lifetime; the hundreds of thousands, millions or billions of years during which it emits light and heat. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Artists conception of the remains of artificial structures on the Earth after the Sun enters its red giant phase and swells to roughly 100 times its current size. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ...

On an even longer time scale, the universe may come to an end. The current age of the universe is estimated as being 13.7 billion years. There are several competing theories as to the nature of our universe and how it will end, but in all cases, there will be no life possible. These scenarios take place on a considerably longer timescale than the expanding of the sun. The ultimate fate of our universe is a topic in physical cosmology. ... The age of the universe, according to the Big Bang theory, is defined as the largest possible value of proper time integrated along a time-like curve from the Earth at the present epoch back to the Big Bang. The time that has elapsed on a hypothetical clock which has... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ...

Meteorite impact

In the history of the Earth, it is widely accepted that several large meteorites have hit Earth. The Cretaceous-Tertiary asteroid, for example, is theorized to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. If such an object struck the Earth it could have a serious impact on civilization. It's even possible that humanity would be completely destroyed: for this, the asteroid would need to be at least 1 km (0.6 miles) in diameter, but probably between 3–10 km (2–6 miles).[4] Asteroids with a 1 km diameter impact the Earth every 0.5 million years[4] on average. Larger asteroids are more rare. The last large (>10 km) impact happened 65 million years ago. So-called Near-Earth asteroids are regularly being observed. The history of the World is human history from the dawn of humanity to the present. ... A meteorite is an extraterrestrial body that survives its impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are asteroids whose orbits are close to Earths orbit. ...

Some scientists believe there are patterns in the amount of meteorites hitting Earth. An interesting explanation of such a pattern is given by the hypothetical star Nemesis. This hypothesis states that a star named Nemesis regularly passes through a denser part of the Oort cloud, causing meteorite rains to collide onto Earth. However, the very existence of this pattern is not widely accepted, and the existence of the Nemesis star is highly controversial. Nemesis is a hypothetical red dwarf star or brown dwarf, orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 50,000 to 100,000 AU, somewhat beyond the Oort cloud. ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ...

A star passage that will cause an increase of meteorites is the arrival of a star called Gliese 710. This star is probably moving on a collision course with the Solar System and will likely be at a distance 1.1 light years from the Sun in 1.4 million years. Some models predict that this will send large amounts of comets from the Oort cloud to the Earth.[5] Other models, such as the one by García-Sánchez, predict an increase of only 5%. Gliese 710 is a red dwarf star in the constellation Serpens Cauda, with visual magnitude 9. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt containing the dwarf planet Ceres, outermost there is the dwarf planet Pluto (the dwarf planet Eris not shown), and a comet. ... A light-year or lightyear, symbol ly, is the distance light travels in vacuum in one Julian year. ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ...

Less likely cosmic threats

A number of other scenarios have been suggested. A Black Hole could enter the solar system.[6] If this happened, the result would be catastrophic. Another threat might come from Gamma ray bursts; some scientists believe this may have caused mass extinction 450 million years ago.[7] Both are very unlikely.[2] Still others see Extraterrestrial life as a possible threat to mankind;[8] although alien life has never been found, scientists such as Carl Sagan have postulated that the existence of extraterrestrial life is very likely. Even NASA sterilizes items returning from space to kill any potential extraterrestrial life forms that might threaten humanity, like viruses. Scientists consider such a scenario technically possible, but unlikely.[9] A black hole is an object predicted by general relativity[1] with a gravitational field so strong that nothing can escape it — not even light. ... In astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours, the longer ones being followed by several days of X-ray afterglow. ... The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, currently used by the SETI project in the search for extraterrestrial life Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside the planet Earth, the only place in the universe currently known by humans to support life. ... Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, astrobiologist, and highly successful science popularizer. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


In the history of the Earth, many ice ages have occurred. More ice ages will almost certainly come at an interval of 40,000–100,000 years. This would have a serious impact on civilization as we know it today, because vast areas of land (mainly in North-America and Europe) could become uninhabitable. It would still be possible to live in the tropical regions, but with possible loss of humidity/water. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...

A less predictable scenario is a global pandemic. For example, if HIV mutates and becomes as transmissible as the common cold, the consequences would be disastrous, but probably not fatal to the human species,[10] as some people are immune to HIV.[11] This particular scenario would also contradict the observable tendency for pathogens to become less fatal over time as a natural function of biological pressure. A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ...

Another possibility is the megatsunami. A megatsunami could, for example, destroy the entire east coast of the United States of America (see La Palma). The coastal areas of the entire world could be flooded in case of the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.[12] While none of these scenarios could possibly destroy humanity completely, they could regionally threaten civilization as we know it. Megatsunami (often hyphenated as mega-tsunami, also known as iminami or wave of purification) is an informal term used mostly by popular media and popular scientific societies to describe a very large tsunami-like wave significantly beyond the size reached by tsunamis (typically around 10 meters). ... Satellite image of La Palma, with the Caldera de Taburiente visible. ... The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) blankets the continent of Antarctica west of the Transantarctic Mountains, covering the area called Lesser Antarctica. The WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies well below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. ...

When the supervolcano at Yellowstone last erupted, 600,000 years ago, the magma and ash covered roughly all of the area of North America west of the Mississippi river. Another such eruption could threaten civilization. Such an eruption could also release large amounts of gases that could alter the balance of the planet's carbon dioxide and cause a runaway greenhouse effect, or enough pyroclastic debris and other material may be thrown into the atmosphere to partially block out the sun and cause a natural nuclear winter, similar to 1816, the Year Without A Summer. A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the western states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. ... Nuclear winter is a hypothetical global climate condition that is predicted to be a possible outcome of a large-scale nuclear war. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Probably the biggest threat for humanity comes from humanity itself.[13] The scenario that has been explored most is a nuclear war or another weapon with similar possibilities. It is difficult to predict whether it would exterminate humanity, but very certainly could alter civilization as we know it, in particular if there was a nuclear winter event.[14] The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Team 3D (formerly Dudley Boyz) perform the Dudley Device on James Storm during an episode of TNA iMPACT! Doomsday Device, often shortened to Device, is a term used in professional wrestling to reference a tandem move in which one wrestler hoists the opponent on their shoulders so that they are... Nuclear winter is a hypothetical global climate condition that is predicted to be a possible outcome of a large-scale nuclear war. ...

Another category of disasters are unforeseen consequences of technology. It has been suggested that learning computers take unforeseen actions or that robots would out-compete humanity.[15] Biotechnology could lead to the creation of a pandemic, Nanotechnology could lead to grey goo - in both cases, either deliberately or by accident.[16] It has also been suggested that physical scientists might accidentally create a device that could destroy the earth and the solar system.[17] In string theory, there are some unknown variables. If those turn out to have an unfortunate value, the universe may not be stable and alter completely, destroying everything in it,[18] either at random or by an accidental experiment. This is called Quantum Vacuum Collapse by some.[19] Another kind of accident is the Ice-9 Type Transition, in which our planet including everything on it becomes a strange matter planet in a chain reaction. Some do not view this as a credible scenario.[20] When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... // Hondas intelligent humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... Molecular gears from a NASA computer simulation. ... // Grey goo refers to a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects (strings) rather than the zero-dimensional points (particles... String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects (strings) rather than the zero-dimensional points (particles) that are the basis of the Standard Model of particle physics. ... A term used to describe a runaway chain reaction, usually cataclysmic, such as that created by the fictional material ice-nine invented by Kurt Vonnegut. ...

It has been suggested that runaway global warming might cause the climate on Earth to become like Venus, which would make it uninhabitable. In less extreme scenarios it could cause the end of civilization as we know it.[21] Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ...

Other scenarios that have been named are:

  • Antibiotic resistance. Natural selection would create super bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, devastating the world population and causing a global collapse of civilization.[citation needed]
  • Demography. Demographic trends create a "baby bust" that threatens the order of civilization as we know it.[22]
  • Mutual assured destruction A full scale Nuclear war could kill billions, and the risiding Nuclear fallout effectivly crush any form of civilization.
  • Dysgenics. A lack of natural selection and the tendency of the more intelligent to have fewer children would lower the average health and intelligence enough to lead to an eventual collapse of civilization, associated with controversial eugenics theories.[23]
  • Ecology. Natural resources are used up, or the environment is so damaged through pollution and destruction that civilization fails.[citation needed]
  • Finance. Markets fail worldwide, resulting in economic collapse: mass unemployment, rioting, famine, and death.[citation needed]
  • Infertility. Human fertility continues to decline, eventually ending with no fertile humans left to continue the species.[citation needed]
  • Gray Goo. Out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves.[citation needed]
  • Overpopulation.World population may increase to such an extent in the future that it would lead to lack of space for habitation.[citation needed]
  • Peak oil. Oil runs out before an economically viable replacement is devised, leading to global chaos.[24]
  • Quantum energy. In the search for new quantum particles, scientists accidentally destroy the universe. This, however, is highly unlikely; a Chernobyl style disaster is much more possible.[citation needed]
  • Telomere. Some researchers theorize a tiny loss of telomere length from one generation to the next, mirroring the process of aging in individuals. Over thousands of generations the telomere erodes down to its critical level. Once at the critical level we would expect to see outbreaks of age-related diseases occurring earlier in life and finally a population crash.[25]

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Map of hypothetical fallout dispersal after a large-scale nuclear attack against the United States. ... Dysgenics is the evolutionary weakening an of organism relative to its surroundings, often due to relaxation of selectionary pressures. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to full term. ... Grey goo refers, usually in a science fictional context, to a hypothetical end-of-the-world event involving nanotechnology, in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all life on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the China and India in the billions. ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil production and depletion. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... A telomere is a region of highly repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome that functions as a disposable buffer. ...


See main article Eschatology.

// Look up eschatology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See main article Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic science fiction.

Apocalyptic science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that is concerned with the end of civilization, through nuclear war, plague, or some other general disaster. ...

Historical scenarios

Every generation has faced its own fears of an unknown future; the historical record of prior end of civilization scenarios is plentiful. Some of these include:

  • Many fictional (and non-fictional) stories from the era of the Cold War were based on the belief that a nuclear war was inevitable, and that this would result in the destruction of all life on the planet Earth (see World War III for a list)
  • Nostradamus wrote a prediction that a great catastrophe would occur in the seventh month (July, or some argue September, the seventh month of the pre-modern calendar) of the year 1999. Many followers of his writings took this to mean that the end of the world would occur. When the chosen date came and went without incident, translators of his works began revising them with new interpretations of what the prediction actually meant. (Many now believe that this prediction referred to September 11, 2001.) Despite this, some people also believe according to Nostradamus, that the world will end in the year 3797. One leading Nostradamus scholar believes that is the year the Sun will explode as a Red Giant, possibly because of extraterrestrial intervention.[citation needed]
  • The Y2K bug, was supposed to wreak havoc on computer systems and disrupt life as we know it. It didn't. See also Millennialism.
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), who was involved in alchemy and many other things in addition to science and mathematics, studied old texts and surmised that the end of the world would be in 2060, although he was reluctant to put an exact date on it.[26]
  • Many mistakenly believe that the Maya civilization's long count calendar ends abruptly on 21 December (or 23 December) 2012. This misconception is due to the Maya practice of abbreviating their dates to five decimal places. On monuments where the full date is shown the end of the last creation is said to happen much farther in the future. However, the Mayas did believe that there will be a baktun ending in 2012. A baktun marks the end of a 400 year period and was a significant event on the Maya calendar. In the Aztec calendar, 2012 marks the end of a 26,000 year planetary cycle.

The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nostradamus original portrait by his son Cesar Nostradamus (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), Latinized name of Michel de Nostredame, was one of the worlds most famous publishers of prophecies. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... (3rd millennium – 4th millennium – 5th millennium – other millennia) The fourth millennium is a period of time which will begin on January 1, 3001 and will end on December 31, 4000. ... Extraterrestrial, as an adjective, refers to something that originates, occurs, or is located outside Earth or its atmosphere. ... The Year 2000 problem (also known as the Y2K problem, the millennium bug, and the Y2K Bug) was the result of a practice in early computer program design that caused some date-related processing to operate incorrectly for dates and times on and after January 1, 2000. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... The Maya civilization is a culture Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, its spectacular art and monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... The Maya calendar is actually a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ...


  1. ^ a b Bostrom, Nick (March 2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards". Journal of Evolution and Technology 9.
  2. ^ a b Nick Bostrom, section 4.7.
  3. ^ Red Giants
  4. ^ a b Nick Bostrom, section 4.10
  5. ^ http://www.exitmundi.nl/Gliese710.htm
  6. ^ Eaten by a black hole, exit mund.
  7. ^ Explosions in Space May Have Initiated Ancient Extinction on Earth, NASA.
  8. ^ Twenty ways the world could end suddenly, Discover Magazine
  9. ^ Nick Bostrom, section 7.2.
  10. ^ Nick Bostrom, section 4.9.
  11. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/4/l_104_06.html
  12. ^ US West Antarctice Ice Sheet initiative
  13. ^ Nick Bostrom, section 8.6.
  14. ^ Nick Bostrom, section 4.2.
  15. ^ Bill Joy, Why the future doesn't need us. In:Wired magazine. See also technological singularity.
  16. ^ Eric Drexler, Engines of Creation, ISBN 0-385-19973-2, available online
  17. ^ Nick Bostrum, section 4.8
  18. ^ Malcolm Perry, Quantum Tunneling towards an exploding Universe? in: Nature, 24 April 1986. available online.
  19. ^ The day the Quantum Vacuum Collapsed
  20. ^ Frank Wilczek, in an e-mail, This available online.
  21. ^ Isaac M. Held, Brian J. Soden, Water Vapor Feedback and Global Warming, In: Annu. Rev. Energy Environ 2000. available online. Page 449.
  22. ^ Phillip Longman "The Global Baby Bust" in Foreign Affairs magazine.
  23. ^ Richard Lynn, Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations (1996). Cf. Colum Gillfallen (1970), "Roman Culture and Dysgenic Lead Poisoning" in: The Fall of Rome: Can it be Explained?.
  24. ^ James Howard Kunstler "The Long Emergency", in Rolling Stone Magazine
  25. ^ "What a way to go", The Guardian (April 14, 2005). See External links.
  26. ^ "Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D.", by Stephen D. Snobelen, University of King’s College, Halifax

Nick Bostrom (Boström in the original Swedish) is a philosopher at the University of Oxford, and known for his work on the anthropic principle. ... NASA Insignia Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Bill Joy (left) with Paul Saffo. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... K. Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Phillip Longman (born April 21, 1956, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) is a renowned demographer. ... This article is about a journal. ... Richard Lynn Richard Lynn (born 1930) is a British emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Ulster, known for his work on intelligence and differential psychology. ... James Howard Kunstler (born 1948) is an American author, social critic, and blogger who is perhaps best known for his book The Geography of Nowhere, a history of suburbia and urban development in the United States. ... This article is about the music magazine. ...


Discover Magazine is a science magazine that publishes articles about science. ... The Right Honourable Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... Our Final Hour is a 2003 book by the British Astronomer Royal Sir Martin Rees. ... Jean-François Rischard is a Luxembourgish economist, and was the World Banks vice president for Europe from 1998 to 2005. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ...

Further reading

  • Derrick Jensen (2006) Endgame. ISBN 1-583-22730-X
  • Jared Diamond (2005). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. ISBN 0-670-03337-5
  • John Leslie (1996). The End of the World. ISBN 0-415-14043-9

Derrick Jensen, an American author who lives in Northern California, has published several books which challenge contemporary society and cultural values, including The Culture of Make Believe (2002), and many essays. ... Endgame: Volume 1: The Problem of Civilization Endgame: Volume 2: Resistance Endgame is a two-volume work by Derrick Jensen, published in 2006, which argues that civilization is inherently unsustainable and addresses the resulting normative question of what to do about it. ... Jared Mason Diamond (born 10 September 1937) is an American evolutionary biologist, physiologist, biogeographer and nonfiction author. ...

External links

  • Last Days On Earth (TV documentary) ABC News 2-hour Special Edition of 20/20 on 7 real end-of-the-world scenarios (Wed. Aug 30 2006)
  • Exit Mundi A Collection of End-Of-World scenarios.
  • Armageddon Online A collection and resource for End-Of-World scenarios and events.
  • Library of Date Setters of The End of the World. Over 200 past dates when the End of the World was going to happen.
  • It's The End Of The World As We Know It...Again. A humorous look at apocalyptic prophecy and the history of Doomsday hysteria.
  • "What a way to go" from The Guardian. Ten scientists name the biggest danger to Earth and assesses the chances of it happening. April 14, 2005.
  • Sam's Geocide page Tongue-in-cheek guide to ways that Earth could be destroyed.
  • End Day The theories of the end of world into a television programme presented by BBC television.
  • Applied Foresight Network
  • Preventing the End of Civilization Academic paper
  • "Confronting the New Misanthropy", by Frank Furedi in Spiked, April 18 2006
  • 2012 Eschaton End-of-the-world articles and speculations

  Results from FactBites:
end of civilization: Information From Answers.com (2365 words)
The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale.
A baktun marks the end of a 400 year period and was a significant event on the Maya calendar.
End Day The theories of the end of world into a television programme presented by BBC television.
  More results at FactBites »



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