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Encyclopedia > End of World War II in Europe
During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945.

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the capture of Berlin in 1945. ... Victory Banner (Russian: Знамя Победы, Znamya Pobedy) can refer to three things: The banner that was raised by Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag in Berlin, in 1945. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Contents

Surrender Timeline

On April 25, Soviet and American troops linked up, cutting Germany in two (see Elbe Day). The first units to make contact were from the U.S. 69th Infantry Division of the U.S. First Army and the Soviet 58th Guards Division of the 5th Guards Army near Torgau, on the river Elbe. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, was the date Soviet and American troops met at the River Elbe, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of the Second World War in Europe. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The U.S. 69th Infantry Division was a formation of the United States Army during World War II. // Activated: 15 May 1943. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


On April 27, as Allied forces closed in on Milan, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was captured by Italian Partisans. He was trying to flee Italy to Switzerland and was traveling with a German anti-air battalion. On April 28, Mussolini and several of the other Fascists captured with him were taken to Dongo and executed. The bodies were then taken to Milan and unceremoniously strung up in front of a gasoline station. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dongo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 70 km north of Milan and about 40 km northeast of Como. ...


On April 30, as the Battle of Berlin raged above him and realizing that all was lost, German dictator Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bunker along with Eva Braun, his long-term mistress and wife. Braun had married Hitler just hours before their joint suicide. In his will Hitler appointed his successors; Karl Dönitz as the new Reichspräsident ("President of Germany") and Joseph Goebbels as the new Reichskanzler (Chancellor of Germany). However, Goebbels committed suicide on May 1, 1945, leaving Dönitz to orchestrate negotiations of surrender. Dönitz asked Ludwig von Krosigk to be Reichskanzler. von Krosigk refused and the two of them agreed that von Krosigk would instead be 'First Minister' in the government. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2... Hitler redirects here. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, who was in command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and was President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Count Johann Ludwig (Lutz) Schwerin von Krosigk, EK, (August 22, 1887–March 4, 1977) was a German politician. ...


On May 1, SS General Karl Wolff and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Tenth Army, General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, after prolonged unauthorised secret negotiations with the Western Allies named Operation Sunrise, which were viewed as trying to reach a separate peace by the Soviet Union, ordered all German armed forces in Italy to cease hostilities and signed a surrender document which stipulated that all German forces in Italy were to surrender unconditionally to the Allies on May 2. May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Karl Wolff (2nd from the right) together with, from left to right: Heinrich Himmler (far l. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The German Tenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Heinrich von Vietinghoff, during World War II, was a General of the German Wehrmacht who commanded the German 10th Army in Italy. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The phrase separate peace refers to a nations agreement to cease military hostilities with another, even though the former country had previously entered into a military alliance with other states that remain at war with the latter country. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ...


The Battle of Berlin ended on May 2. On this date, General of the Artillery Helmuth Weidling, the commander of the Berlin Defense Area, unconditionally surrendered the city to General Vasily Chuikov of the Soviet army.[1] On the same day the officers commanding the two armies of Army Group Vistula north of Berlin, (General Kurt von Tippelskirch commander of the Twenty-First Army and General Hasso von Manteuffel commander of Third Panzer Army) surrendered to the Western Allies.[2] Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Army Group Vistula (also known as Army Group Weischel) was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Soviet armies marching from the Vistula river. ... Kurt von Tippelskirch (October 9, 1891 - May 10, 1957) was a general in the German Army during World War II. // Kurt von Tippelskirch was born on 9th October, 1891 in Berlin (Charlottenburg). ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ...


On May 4, 1945, the British Field Marshal Montgomery took the unconditional military surrender from General Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, and General Hans Kinzel, of all German forces "in Holland, in northwest Germany including the Frisian Islands and Heligoland and all other islands, in Schleswig-Holstein, and in Denmark… includ[ing] all naval ships in these areas."[3] on Lüneburg Heath; an area between the cities of Hamburg, Hanover and Bremen. As the operational commander of some of these forces was Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, this signaled that the European war was over.[4][5][6][7] is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (born July 15, 1895-died May 23, 1945) was the deputy commander of the U-Boat Force of Nazi germany, September 1941 until January 1943, Commanding Admiral of the U-Boat Force February 1943 until April 1945, and Commanding Admiral of the Kriegsmarine in May 1945... The Lüneburg Heath (German: Lüneburger Heide) is a region in Lower Saxony in Germany. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Hanover (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


On May 5, Dönitz ordered all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases. At 14:30, General Hermann Foertsch surrendered all forces between the Bohemian mountains and the Upper Inn river to the American General Jacob L. Devers, commander of the American 6th Army Group. At 16:00, General Johannes Blaskowitz, the German commander-in-chief in the Netherlands, surrendered to Canadian General Charles Foulkes in the small Dutch town of Wageningen in the presence of Prince Bernhard (acting as commander-in-chief of the Dutch Interior Forces).[6][7] In Dresden, Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann let it be known that a large-scale German offensive on the Eastern Front was about to be launched. Two days later, Mutschmann was captured by Soviet troops while trying to escape.[8] May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Inn is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ... The 6th Army Group was an army group of the Allies (namely the United States Army) during World War II. It was created in Corsica, Italy (specifically activated on August 1, 1944) to consolidate the combined French and American forces that were planning to invade southern France in Operation Dragoon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Charles Foulkes, CC, CB, CBE, DSO, CD, LL.D (January 3, 1903 - September 12, 1969) was a Canadian soldier. ... Wageningen is a municipality and a historical town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. ... Prince Bernhard in his later years. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Martin Mutschmann (1879-?), born in Hirschberg an der Saale in Prussia, his family moved while he was young to Plauen in Saxony. ...

Deposition of captured 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler standards by Soviet soldiers near the Kremlin Wall during the Victory Parade, June 24, 1945.
Deposition of captured 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler standards by Soviet soldiers near the Kremlin Wall during the Victory Parade, June 24, 1945.

On May 6 at 18:00, General Hermann Niehoff the commandant of Breslau, a fortress city surrounded and besieged for months, surrendered to the Soviets. Half an hour later General Alfred Jodl arrived in Rheims and, following Dönitz's instructions, offered to surrender all forces fighting the Western Allies. This was exactly the same negotiating position that von Friedeburg had initially made to Montgomery, and like Montgomery the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, threatened to break off all negotiations unless the Germans agreed to a complete unconditional surrender. Eisenhower explicitly told Jodl that he would order western lines closed to German soldiers, thus forcing them to surrender to the Soviets. Jodl sent a signal to Dönitz, who was in Flensburg, informing him of Eisenhower's position. Shortly after midnight Dönitz, accepting the inevitable, sent a signal to Jodl authorizing the complete and total surrender of all German forces.[7] Image File history File links Summary Deposition of captured Wehrmacht standards near the Kremlin walls during the Victory Parade, June 24, 1945. ... Image File history File links Summary Deposition of captured Wehrmacht standards near the Kremlin walls during the Victory Parade, June 24, 1945. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (German for Adolf Hitlers Bodyguard Regiment) was a unit of the SS. It was a Waffen SS security and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during World War II. As its name suggested, the Leibstandarte started life in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kremlin towers. ... The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hermann Niehoff was a German General during World War II. Niehoff was the garrison commander of Festung Breslau during the Battle of Breslau. ... Wrocław. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Supreme Allied Commander is the title given to the most senior commander of some multinational organisations. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Flensburg (Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town in the North of the German state Schleswig-Holstein. ...


At 02:41 on the morning of, May 7, 1945, at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims, France, the Chief-of-Staff of the German Armed Forces High Command, General Alfred Jodl, signed the unconditional surrender documents for all German forces to the Allies[9] It included the phrase "All forces under German control to cease active operations at 2301 hours Central European Time on May 8 1945."[3][10] The next day, General Wilhelm Keitel and other German OKW representatives traveled to Berlin, and shortly before midnight signed a similar document, explicitly surrendering to Soviet forces, in the presence of General Georgi Zhukov.[11] The signing ceremony took place in a villa in an eastern suburb of Berlin, in the town of Karlshorst. Currently, the villa is a museum called the "German Russian Museum in Karlshorst".[12] is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Badge of SHAEF Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced shāf), was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. General Dwight Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF throughout its existence. ... The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command) was part of the command structure of the German armed forces during World War II. In theory, it served as the military general staff for Adolf Hitlers Third Reich, coordinating the efforts of the German Army... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... The German Instrument of Surrender, 1945 refers to the legal instrument of World War II in which the High Command of Nazi Germany surrendered simultaneously to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force and to the Soviet High command. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Karlshorst (literally meaning Karls nest in German) is a district of Berlin. ...


News of the surrender broke in the West on May 8, and celebrations erupted throughout Europe. In the United States Americans awoke to the news and declared May 8 V-E Day. As the Soviet Union was to the east of Germany it was May 9 Moscow Time when German military surrender became effective, which is why Russia and many other European countries east of Germany commemorate Victory Day on May 9. May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Karl Dönitz continued to act as head of state, but his Flensburg government (so-called because it was based at Flensburg and controlled only a small area around the town) was given no regard after the surrender on May 8th. On May 23, 1945 a British liaison officer was sent to Flensburg and read to the Flensburg government Eisenhower's order dissolving the government and ordering the arrest of its members. The Allies had a problem, because they realised that although the German armed forces had surrendered unconditionally, SHAEF had failed to use the document created by the "European Advisory Commission" (EAC) and so the civilian German government had not. This was considered a very important issue, because just as the civilian, but not military, surrender in 1918 had been used by Hitler to create the "stab in the back" argument, the Allies did not want to give a future hostile German regime a legal argument to resurrect an old quarrel. Eventually they decided not to recognise Dönitz and to sign a four-power document instead, creating the Allied Control Council which included the following: The Flensburg government refers to the short-lived administration that attempted to rule Germany in May 1945 following the suicides of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels and the Fall of Berlin. ... Flensburg (Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town in the North of the German state Schleswig-Holstein. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The formation of the European Advisory Commission (EAC) was agreed on at the Moscow Conference on October 30, 1943 between the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, Anthony Eden, the United States of America, Cordell Hull, and the Soviet Union, Vyacheslav Molotov, and confirmed at the Teheran Conference in November. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in...

The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to Germany, including all the powers possessed by the German Government, the High Command and any state, municipal, or local government or authority. The assumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said authority and powers does not affect the annexation of Germany. [US Department of State, Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1520.][13]

On 5 July 1945 the four powers signed the document in Berlin and the de facto became the de jure. In July/August 1945 the Allied leaders planned the new postwar German government, resettled war territory boundaries, ordered German demilitarization, denazification and settlements of war reparations at the Potsdam Conference. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


Concentration camps and refugees

Thousands of Holocaust victims arriving at the Nazi extermination camp at Birkenau in 1944.
Thousands of Holocaust victims arriving at the Nazi extermination camp at Birkenau in 1944.

In the last months of the war and immediately afterwards, Allied soldiers discovered a number of concentration camps and other locations that had been used by the Nazis to imprison and exterminate an estimated 11 million people. The largest single group represented in this number were Jewish (roughly half the total according to the Nuremberg trials), but Gypsies, Slavs, homosexuals and various minorities and disabled persons, as well as political enemies of the Nazi regime (particularly communists) formed the remainder. The most well-known of these camps is the death camp Auschwitz in which about two million prisoners were killed. Although the Nazi genocide or Holocaust was largely unknown to the Allied soldiers fighting the war, it has become an inseparable part of the story of World War II. Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... Selection of Jews at the Birkenau Ramp, 1944 Image was downloaded from The Auschwitz Album. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


In May and June 1945 thousands of refugees from Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union were rounded up by the Western Allies in Austria and handed over to the Soviets and the Yugoslavs in Operation Keelhaul. The Soviets and the Yugoslavs executed or deported many of them (an example being the Bleiburg massacre). Also defeated Finland and neutral Sweden felt compelled to extradite Ingrian and Baltic refugees in a similar manner, some of whom committed suicide before the extradition. Operation Keelhaul was a programme carried out in Austria by British forces in May and June 1945 that decided the fate of thousands of post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... Historically Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: ) comprises the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the south-west, and Lake Ladoga in the north-east. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ...


See also

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... The immediate aftermath of the Second World War had far-reaching repercussions for the international community. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - April 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 In 1944 some 200,000 German soldiers were trapped in the Courland Pocket by the Red Army of the Soviet Union. ... Debellatio (also debellation) (lat. ... Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries. ... Council of Foreign Ministers was an organization agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 and announced in the Potsdam Agreement. ... The German Instrument of Surrender, 1945 refers to the legal instrument of World War II in which the High Command of Nazi Germany surrendered simultaneously to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force and to the Soviet High command. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Line of Contact marked the furthest advance of American and Soviet Armies into Germany at the end of World War II. This contact began with the first meeting between Soviet and American forces at Torgau, near the Elbe river on April 25, 1945. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ...

Further reading

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dollinger, Hans. The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047. p. 239
  2. ^ Ziemke, Earl F. Battle For Berlin: End Of The Third Reich, NY:Ballantine Books, London:Macdomald & Co, 1969. p. 128
  3. ^ a b The German Surrender Documents - WWII
  4. ^ The Papers of Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Imperial War Museum
  5. ^ Veteran remembers 'war of words' BBC 4 May 2005
  6. ^ a b World War II Timeline:western Europe: 1945
  7. ^ a b c Ron Goldstein Field Marshal Keitel's surrender BBC additional comment by Peter - WW2 Site Helper
  8. ^ [Page 228, "The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan", Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047]
  9. ^ General Franz Böhme announced the unconditional surrender of German troops in Norway on May 7, the same day as Jodl signed the unconditional surrender document. Although the military commanders of most German forces obeyed the order to surrender issued by the German Armed Forces High Command (German acronym OKW), not all commanders did so. The largest contingent not to do so were Army Group Centre under the command of Field Marshal Ferdinand Schörner who had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army on April 30 in Hitler's last will and testament. Like many institutions in Nazi Germany the control of the Army was split between the OKW and the German Army High Command (OKH). By 1945, the OKW commanded all German forces in every theatre apart from those on the Eastern Front which were under OKH control and which, before his suicide, had reported directly to Hitler. So it was not clear if Schörner was under the command of OKW on May 8 or if Dönitz, or von Krosigk, needed to order Schörner to surrender. In the end it was resolved by force of arms. On May 8, Schörner deserted his command and flew to Austria and the Soviet Army sent overwhelming force against Army Group Centre in the Prague Offensive forcing all German units in Army Group Centre to capitulate by May 11 (some sources state 12 May). The other forces which did not surrender on May 8 surrendered piecemeal:
    • The Second Army, under the command of General von Saucken, on the Heiligenbeil and Danzig beachheads, on the Hela Peninsula in Vistula delta surrended on May 9 as did the forces on the Greek islands; and the garrisons of St. Nazaire, La Rochelle, Lorient and La Pallice.
    • On May 13, the Soviet Army halts all offensives in Europe. Isolated resistance pockets in Czechoslovakia were mopped up by this date.
    • The garrison on Alderney, one of the Channels Islands occupied by the Germans, surrendered on May 16 one week after the garrisons on the other Channel Islands which surrendered on May 9.
    • The Georgian Uprising of Texel (April 5, 1945–May 20, 1945) was Europe's last battlefield in World War II. It was fought between Soviet Georgian POWs on Texel against the German occupiers of that Dutch island.
  10. ^ During the summers of World War II, Britain was on British Double Summer Time which meant that the country was ahead of CET time by one hour. This means that the surrender time in the UK was "effective from 0001 hours on 9 May". RAF Site Diary 7/8 May
  11. ^ Ziemke Further reading CHAPTER XV:The Victory Sealed Page 258 last paragraph
  12. ^ Museum Karlshorst
  13. ^ Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany

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World War II (3770 words)
World War II World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the world's nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing approximately 55.5 million lives (see below).
The war was fought mainly between an alliance of the British Commonwealth, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China—collectively known as the Allies; and the Axis Powers, an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan.
The war also saw the re-emergence of the United States from its isolationism, the destruction and rebuilding of Germany and Japan into major industrial powers, the advent of the atomic bomb, and the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as global superpowers.
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