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Encyclopedia > Encyclopedia Britannica
1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan "When in doubt — 'look it up' in the Encyclopædia Britannica"
1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan "When in doubt — 'look it up' in the Encyclopædia Britannica"

The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 17681771 as Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled upon a new plan. The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still regarded as one of the most important reference books in the English language. It is published today by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., a privately held company. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia, also (rarely) encyclopædia,[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


From the late 18th century to the early 20th century, the Britannica's articles were often judged as the foremost authority on a topic, and sometimes included new research or theory intended for a scholarly audience. During this era, the Britannica gained its reputation and had a unique position in English-speaking culture. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


The role of the encyclopedia changed substantially in the early 20th century, and the Britannica reflected these changes, from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, onward. One key change was a shift away from attempting to encompass the cutting edge of human knowledge, a goal made impractical by, among other things, the rapid expanding of scientific knowledge around the turn of the century. A second change reflected a changing readership. As the use of the encyclopedia as a general reference grew, readers expected shorter, more readable articles, rather than the primary authoritative scholarship which had defined earlier versions. Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia, also (rarely) encyclopædia,[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


Today, new reference sources, including academic journals, textbooks, specialized publications and electronic resources have redefined, and, more recently nearly eliminated, the demand for the print encyclopedia. The Britannica has evolved primarily into electronic versions available on CD-ROM and via the World Wide Web, though a print edition is still available. It has survived fierce competition from an ever-increasing number of alternative information sources. The articles in the Britannica are commonly considered accurate, reliable, and well-written, and it continues to be widely consulted as a work of general reference. The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global, read-write information space. ...

Contents


History

A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, the Britannica was originally published in Edinburgh in the second-half of the 18th century. The first Britannica was the brainchild of Colin Macfarquhar, a bookseller and printer, and Andrew Bell, an engraver, who published the reference work pseudonymously as a "Society of Gentlemen." The editor was scholar William Smellie, then twenty-eight years old, who was offered £200 to produce the Encyclopaedia in 100 parts and three volumes. The first part appeared in December 1768, priced six pence. By 1771, the Encyclopedia was complete with 2,391 pages and 160 engraved illustrations, and an estimated 3,000 copies were sold. It consisted of three equally sized volumes covering A-B, C-L and M-Z. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is Scotlands capital, and its second-largest city. ... Colin Macfarquhar (1745? - April 2, 1793) was a Scottish printer. ... Andrew Bell (1726 - 1809), Scottish printer; co-founded Encyclopædia Britannica with Colin Macfarquhar. ... A pseudonym (Greek: false name) is a fictitious name used by an individual as an alternative to his or her legal name. ... William Smellie (1740-1795) was a Scottish encyclopedist and naturalist and the editor of the first edition of Encyclopædia Britannica (1768-1771). ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation rate 2. ... British penny from 1967. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

It was compiled, as the title-page says, on a new plan. The different sciences and arts were "digested into distinct treatises or systems," of which there are 45 with cross headings, that is, titles printed across the page, and about 30 other articles more than three pages long. The longest are "Anatomy," 166 pages, and "Surgery," 238 pages. "The various technical terms, etc., are explained as they occur in the order of the alphabet." "Instead of dismembering the sciences, by attempting to treat them intelligibly under a multitude of technical terms, they have digested the principles of every science in the form of systems or distinct treatises, and explained the terms as they occur in the order of the alphabet, with references to the sciences to which they belong." This plan, as the compilers say, differs from that of all the previous dictionaries of arts and sciences. Its merit and novelty consist in… on the one hand keeping important subjects together, and on the other facilitating reference by numerous separate articles.[1]

Owing to the success of the first edition, a more ambitious second edition followed. This time Smellie declined as editor, and Macfarquhar took over the role himself, aided by James Tytler. The second edition was eventually published 17771784 in ten volumes with 8,595 pages. James Tytler (Balloon Tytler) (1747? - 1804) was a Scottish aviator, eccentric, and editor. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

The plan of the work was enlarged by the addition of history and biography, which encyclopaedias in general had long omitted. "From the time of the second edition of this work, every cyclopaedia of note, in England and elsewhere, has been a cyclopaedia, not solely of arts and sciences, but of the whole wide circle of general learning and miscellaneous information " (Quarterly Review, cxiii. 362).[1]

However, it was the third edition, published 1788–1797 and edited by Macfarquhar and after his death by George Gleig, which finally realized the encyclopedic vision. Not only broader in scope, with 18 volumes plus a two volume supplement totalling over 16,000 pages, the third edition was also the first to include articles written specifically for the Britannica by experts and academics, many recruited by Gleig. The third edition established the foundation of the Britannica as an important, and in many cases the definitive, reference on many topics for much of the next century. George Gleig (May 12, 1753 - March 9, 1840), Scottish divine, was born at Boghall, Kincardineshire, the son of a farmer. ...


In general, the major articles in the editions through the tenth edition were far longer and more scholarly than the articles in modern encyclopedias. For an example, see ELIOHS' online version of the article History from the third edition (in the external links section below). Nineteenth century editions of the Britannica regularly included notable new or major works from its authors.


The extraordinary French Encyclopédie is widely considered to have inspired the publication of the Britannica. But unlike the Encyclopédie, the Britannica was an extremely conservative publication. Later editions were usually dedicated to the reigning monarch. In dedicating the supplement to the third edition to the King, Gleig wrote, Fig. ... Fig. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The French Encyclopédie had been accused, and justly accused, of having disseminated far and wide the seeds of anarchy and atheism. If the Encyclopaedia Britannica shall in any degree counteract the tendency of that pestiferous work, even these two volumes will not be wholly unworthy of your Majesty's attention.[1]

Archibald Constable was involved in the publication to varying degrees from 1788 and after Macfarquhar's death in 1793. In 1812 he acquired the Britannica from its trustees, and published the Britannica through 1826. The fourth through sixth editions, and the supplement to them, included works by a number of highly-regarded Scottish and English authors and scientists: William Hazlitt, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, Walter Scott, and Thomas Young, whose article on Egypt included the translation of the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone. Archibald Constable (February 24, 1774 - July 21, 1827), was a Scottish publisher. ... William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Rev. ... David Ricardo (April 18, 1772 – September 11, 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists. ... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (14 August 1771–21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773 – May 10, 1829) was an English scientist, researcher, physician and polymath. ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum The Rosetta Stone is dark grey-pinkish granite stone (originally thought to be basalt in composition) with writing on it in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, using three scripts, Hieroglyphic, Demotic Egyptian and Greek. ...


In the late 1820s, rights to the Britannica were acquired by the Edinburgh publishing firm of Adam & Charles Black, who published the seventh and eighth editions, and included new chapters, such as 'Architecture' by William Hosking. The landmark ninth edition, often called the Scholar's edition, was published from 1875 to 1889. The ninth edition included numerous in-depth, scholarly articles by pre-eminent authors, and therefore is considered by some to mark the high point in the history of English-language encyclopedias. Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is Scotlands capital, and its second-largest city. ... Adam Black (February 10, 1784 - January 24, 1874) , Scottish publisher, founder of the firm of A & C Black, the son of a builder, was born in Edinburgh. ... The Royal Academy where William Hosking exhibited in the 1820s William Hosking FSA (November 26, 1800 - August 2, 1861) was a writer, lecturer, and architect who had an important influence on the growth and development of London in Victorian times. ...


A & C Black moved to London in 1895. The Britannica later became associated with The Times newspaper, and was sold in 1901. The tenth edition of eleven volumes including map and index volumes was issued in effect as a large supplement to the ninth edition. The American Horace Everett Hooper was publisher from 1897 to 1922. From 1909, and for the eleventh edition, the publication became associated with the University of Cambridge, in England. London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom, and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Horace Everett Hooper was the former editor of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004...


The substantially rewritten eleventh edition of 19101911 is also a classic edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, but reflected the new goals of its new owners. The edition balances scholarly accuracy and scope with a readability intended to gain a wider audience and increased sales, using less lengthy but still thorough articles. Sometimes called the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, this edition is available in the public domain. The 11th edition was the first edition to be published substantially at one time, instead of volume by volume. The complete text is freely available online. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


The trademark and publication rights were sold after the 11th edition to Sears Roebuck and it moved to Chicago, Illinois, United States. The 12th and 13th editions each took the form of a three volume supplement or update, meant to be used in conjunction with the 11th edition. The 14th edition of 1929 marked a major shift, with fewer volumes and shorter articles, meant to be more accessible as a reference to a wider range of readers. However, the 14th edition was criticised by priest-turned-atheist Joseph McCabe, who claimed that it had been stripped of unfavourable content about the Catholic Church.[2] A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company (NYSE: S) was founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Joseph Martin McCabe (12 November 1867 - 10 January 1955) was a well-known atheist. ...


Sears Roebuck offered the rights to the Britannica as a gift to the University of Chicago in 1941. William Benton figured as publisher from 1943 to his death in 1973, followed by his widow Helen Hemingway Benton until her own death in 1974. The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... William Burnett Benton (April 1, 1900 - March 18, 1973) was a U.S. senator from Connecticut (1949-1953) and publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1943-1973). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


In January 1996, the Britannica was purchased by billionaire Swiss financier Jacob Safra. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Jacob (Jacqui) Safra is a billionaire scion of the Swiss-Lebanese Safra banking family. ...


In October 2002, Esquire editor A.J. Jacobs set out to read all 33,000 pages of the Britannica. He chronicled this quest for knowledge in the 2004 book The Know-It-All (see References below for full citation). October 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December // Events October 31, 2002 The Russian Health Minister Yuri Shevchenko has now stated that the incapacitating agent used in the storming of the Moscow theatre siege was a fentanyl derivative. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Cover of an issue of Esquire magazine. ... Jacobs on the cover of Mensa Bulletin Arnold Stephen Jacobs, Jr. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


CD-ROM edition and Britannica Online

Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM
Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM

In the 1980s, Microsoft approached Britannica Inc. to collaborate on a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Britannica Inc., feeling that they had control of the market and showing strong profits (sales of the complete Britannica were priced between $1,500 and $2,200), turned Microsoft down. Britannica Inc.'s senior management viewed their product as a luxury brand with an impeccable reputation handed down from generation to generation. They did not believe that a CD-ROM could adequately compete or supplement their business. In turn, Microsoft used content from Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia to create what is now known as Encarta. Download high resolution version (1024x742, 204 KB)Subject: Encyclopædia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM under Mac OS X Source: Taken by User:Cantus This is a screenshot of copyrighted Macintosh computer software. ... Download high resolution version (1024x742, 204 KB)Subject: Encyclopædia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM under Mac OS X Source: Taken by User:Cantus This is a screenshot of copyrighted Macintosh computer software. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive, informally sometimes including the years 1979, 1990 and 1991. ... The Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with 2005 global annual sales of US$39. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Funk and Wagnalls is a publisher based in New York City. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published and updated frequently by Microsoft Corporation. ...


In 1990, the Britannica's sales reached all-time high of $650 million. But Encarta, released in 1993, became a software staple with almost every computer purchase and the Britannica's market share plummeted. Britannica Inc. countered by offering a CD-ROM version of their product, although a CD-ROM could not generate $500 to $600 in sales commissions as the print version did. Britannica Inc. decided on charging $995 for customers looking to purchase only the CD-ROM while at the same time bundling a free disc with the print version. Britannica Inc. hoped that including the CD-ROM would entice buyers to stay with the brand. This article is about the year. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


In 1994, Britannica Inc. launched an online version of their encyclopedia, with subscriptions for sale for $2000. By 1996, the cost of the CD-ROM had dropped to $200. Sales had plummeted to $325 million - about half their 1990 levels. Only 55,000 hard copy versions were sold in 1994, compared with 117,000 in 1990, and sales later fell to 20,000.[3] Facing financial pressure, Britannica Inc. was purchased by Swiss financier Jacob Safra in 1996 for $135 million, a fraction of its book value. Since then Safra has introduced massive price-cutting measures in an effort to compete with Encarta, even offering the entire reference free of charge for a time (around 18 months, from October 1999 to March 2001) on the internet. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... This article is about the year. ... Jacob (Jacqui) Safra is a billionaire scion of the Swiss-Lebanese Safra banking family. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: March 3 - A U.S. Air Force Materials Command C-23 Sherpa transport crashes during stormy weather in the U.S. state of Georgia, killing 21. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Former editor-in-chief Robert McHenry believes that Britannica failed to exploit its early advantages in the market for electronic encyclopedias. Britannica had, for example, published the second multimedia encyclopedia titled Compton's MultiMedia Encyclopedia as early as 1989 (the first one being Academic American Encyclopedia published by Grolier), but did not launch Britannica CD until 1994, one year after Microsoft launched their Encarta encyclopedia. McHenry believes these failures were due to a reluctance among senior management to fully embrace new technology, caused largely by the overriding influence of the sales staff and management. The sales personnel earned commissions from door-to-door selling of the print encyclopedias, which McHenry believes led to decisions about the distribution and pricing of the electronic products, being driven by the desires of the sales personnel, rather than market conditions and customer expectations.[4] Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is an American editor, encyclopedist, and writer. ... Multimedia is the use of several media (e. ... Comptons Encyclopedia and Fact-Index is the title of an encyclopedia published in Chicago, Illinois since the 1920s. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ...


Competition

Today, one of the biggest challenges to the Britannica is the ease with which people can find information online. Many people simply prefer to find information with the help of a search engine, such as Google, Yahoo! or Ask.com. While the information available on the internet is typically not as structured and well-vetted as that contained in Britannica, this is compensated for somewhat by convenience and the sheer volume of information typically available on any subject. Advanced searching algorithms, such as page rank algorithm used by Google, also assist an experienced user to quickly narrow down an investigation to relevant pages. A search engine or search service is a program designed to help find information stored on a computer system such as the World Wide Web, inside a corporate or proprietary network or a personal computer. ... Google Inc. ... Yahoo! Inc. ... Ask. ... PageRank is a patented method to assign a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the set. ... Google Inc. ...


Online alternatives to the Britannica include Wikipedia, a Web-based free-content encyclopedia. Wikipedia is free to use; however, the print and electronic versions of Britannica are available at libraries for checkout (either directly or through ILL) and can be accessed from home using some library web sites. Wikipedia (IPA: , or , else ) is an international Web-based free-content encyclopedia project. ... The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global, read-write information space. ... Interlibrary loan (abbreviated ILL and in some countries called interloan, document delivery, or document supply etc) is a service whereby a user of one library can borrow books, videos, DVDs, sound recordings, microfilms, or receive photocopies of articles in magazines that are owned by another library. ...


Substantive comparisons between the Britannica and Wikipedia may be hard to draw. The journal Nature reported on December 14, 2005 that of the 41 science articles it reviewed, there were 162 mistakes in Wikipedia versus 123 for Britannica.[5] Britannica Inc. attacked Nature's study as flawed and misleading [6] and demanded a retraction. It mentioned that two of the articles in the study were actually from a Britannica year book, and not the encyclopedia. Another two were from Compton's Encyclopedia (called the Britannica Student Encyclopedia on the company's web site) and yet another researcher comment is regarding an unknown publication. Encyclopaedia Britannica went on to mention that some of the articles presented to reviewers were actually combinations of several articles. Britannica continued by citing several facts that were classified as errors by Nature but were actually not incorrect (e.g. spelling Crotona as Crotone). Nature defended its story and declined to retract it, stating that as it was comparing Wikipedia with the web version of Britannica it used whatever relevant material was available on Britannica's website.[7] First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Comparing Encyclopaedia Britannica to other print encyclopedias also provides a mixed picture. Kenneth Kister's Kister's Best Encyclopedias, 2nd edition (1994) compared the accuracy of several encyclopedias. Britannica--although more accurate than many--was ranked lower than Encyclopedia Americana, World Book Encyclopedia, and Compton's Encyclopedia, all of which received perfect scores. Another area in which Britannica lags when compared to other print reference works is recency. Kister's ranked Britannica lower in this respect than the same three aforementioned works, as well. The Encyclopedia Americana is a reference work targeted at young teenagers (grade 8 in the US Educational system). ... World Book Encyclopedia is, according to the publisher, the number-one selling print encyclopedia in the world [1]. The first edition (1917) contained 8 volumes. ... Comptons Encyclopedia and Fact-Index is the title of an encyclopedia published in Chicago, Illinois since the 1920s. ...


Current version

Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. now owns a trademark on the word "Britannica." The current version of Britannica was written by over 4,000 contributors, including noted scholars such as Milton Friedman, Michael DeBakey and the late Carl Sagan. Under the influence of the director of planning, Mortimer Adler, the 15th edition, first published in 1974 and frequently reissued since, was published not as one alphabetical sequence of volumes as previously but in three parts that covered topics in different degrees of depth: a one-volume Propædia that provides a structured hierarchy to all the information in the set, a 12-volume Micropædia which contains short articles (most of them from one to five paragraphs), and a 17-volume Macropædia for longer articles, which range from a few pages to over three hundred pages. The Micropædia provides cross-references from articles to more extended treatment in the Macropaedia or to other related Micropædia coverage. Macropædia articles deal with topics such as countries, individual sciences and surveys of broad divisions of culture. They contain many subsections which would be covered by individual articles in most encyclopedias. Britannica's intention is to provide systematic surveys of knowledge and to put detail into context. A two-volume index was added in 1985. The print edition continues to be produced, with each version being an updated printing of the 15th edition. Forty-six percent of the content of the encyclopedia has been revised within the last three years.[1] A new revised print set was issued in 2005.[2] A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (born July 31, 1912) is an American economist, known for his work on macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history, statistics, and for his advocacy of laissez-faire capitalism. ... Michael Ellis DeBakey, M.D. (born September 7, 1908), is a pioneering cardiovascular surgeon and researcher. ... Dr. Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, astrobiologist, and highly successful science popularizer. ... Mortimer Adler around 1963 Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher and author. ... A Propaedia is an information resource providing a birds-eye view on different aspects of any given topic. ...


The Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2006 DVD contains over 55 million words and just over 100,000 articles. This includes 73,645 regular Encyclopædia Britannica articles, with the remainder drawn from the Britannica Student Encyclopedia, the Britannica Elementary Encyclopedia and the Britannica Book of the Year (1993-2004), plus a small number of "classic" articles from early editions of the encyclopedia. The package also includes a range of supplementary content including maps, videos, sound clips, animations and web links. It also offers study tools and dictionary and thesaurus entries from Merriam-Webster.[3] Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ...


The online version has 118,000+ articles[4] and is updated daily. It also has daily features and updates and links to news articles from New York Times and the BBC. Subscriptions cost $69.95 per year in the United States and £39.99 per annum in the United Kingdom.[5] Weekly and monthly plans are also available. Special subscription plans are offered to schools, colleges and libraries and this is an important part of Britannica's business. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, sometimes also known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, founded in 1922. ...


Dale Hoiberg, a sinologist, is the publication's current editor-in-chief. Among his predecessors were Hugh Chisholm (1903–1913, 1920–1924), James Louis Garvin (1926–1932), Franklin Henry Hooper (1932–1938), Walter Yust (1938–1960), Harry Ashmore (1960–1963), Warren E. Preece (1964–1975), and Robert McHenry (1992–1997). Ted Pappas is the current executive editor. Earlier holders of that position were John V. Dodge (1950–1964) and Philip W. Goetz. Don Yannias, former CEO of the company when it was in financial difficulties, serves on Britannica's Board of Directors. Dale Hoiberg is a sinologist and, as of 2004, the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Sinology is the study of China using a combination of western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. ... Hugh Chisholm, (1866-1924),journalist and editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, a son of Henry Williams Chisholm, Warden of the Standards at the Board of Trade. ... James Louis Garvin (April 12, 1868 - January 23, 1947) was a British journalist who edited both the Pall Mall Gazette (1912-1915) and The Observer (1908-42). ... Walter M. Yust (b. ... Harry Scott Ashmore (1916-1998) was an American journalist who won a Pulitzer Prize for his editorials in 1957 on the school integration conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is an American editor, encyclopedist, and writer. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Theodore Pappas Theodore N. Ted Pappas is the current executive editor of Encyclopædia Britannica, and a leading critic of Wikipedia. ... A chief executive officer (CEO), or chief executive, is the highest-ranking corporate officer or executive officer of a corporation, or agency. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Among the members of an international editorial council planning a new (16th) edition [citation needed] are such notable figures as Nobel laureate in Physics Murray Gell-Mann, biologist and Nobel laureate David Baltimore, cognitive scientist Donald Norman, economist Amartya Sen, philosopher Thomas Nagel, former Ecuadorian president Rosalía Arteaga and Pritzker Architecture Prize winner Zaha Hadid. Murray Gell-Mann at Harvard University Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and a winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. ... Donald A. Norman is a professor emeritus of cognitive science at University of California, San Diego and a Professor of Computer Science at Northwestern University, but nowadays works mostly with cognitive science in the domain of usability engineering. ... Amartya Sen Dr Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (born November 3, 1933 in India), is an economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (sometimes referred to informally as the Nobel Prize for Economics) for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the... Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937, in Belgrade, Serbia) is University Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University and member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Rosalía Arteaga Serrano de Fernández de Córdova is an Ecuadorian politician. ... The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually to honor a living architect by the Hyatt Foundation, run by the Pritzker family. ... Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) (born October 31, 1950) is a notable British deconstructivist architect. ...


There are several abbreviated Britannica encyclopedias. The single-volume Britannica Concise Encyclopedia has 28,000 articles; Compton's by Britannica, which incorporates the former Compton's Encyclopedia, consists of 26 volumes with a total of 11,000 pages,[6] and is aimed at secondary school age children; My First Britannica is aimed at 6 to 12 year olds; and the Britannica Discovery Library is targeted at pre-school children. Since 1938 Britannica has published annually a Book of the Year chronicling the past year's events, also available online back to the 1994 edition (covering the events of 1993). Britannica Inc also publishes a number of specialist reference works. Comptons Encyclopedia and Fact-Index is the title of an encyclopedia published in Chicago, Illinois since the 1920s. ...


Edition history

Edition Published Size Editor(s)
1st 1768–1771 3 vol. William Smellie
2nd 1777–1784 10 vol. James Tytler
3rd 1788–1797, 1801 sup. 18 vol. + 2 sup. Colin Macfarquhar and George Gleig
4th 1801–1809 20 vol. James Millar
5th 1815 20 vol. James Millar and Thomas Bonar
6th 1820–1823, 1815–1824 sup. 20 vol. + 6 sup. 1 Charles Maclaren and Macvey Napier
7th 1830–1842 21 vol. Macvey Napier
8th 1853–1860 22 vol. 2 Thomas Stewart Traill
9th 1875–1889 25 vol. 3 Thomas Spencer Baynes (to 1880, then W. Robertson Smith)
10th 1902–1903 9th ed. + 11 sup 4 Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, Hugh Chisholm, and Arthur T. Hadley with Franklin H. Hooper
11th 1910–1911 29 vol Hugh Chisholm
12th 1921–1922 11th ed. + 3 sup. 5 Hugh Chisholm
13th 1926 11th ed. + 3 sup. 6 James Louis Garvin
14th 1929–1973 24 vol. 7 James Louis Garvin with Franklin Henry Hooper
15th 1974–1984 30 vol. 8 Mortimer J. Adler, William Benton, and Charles E. Swanson
1985– 32 vol. 9
Edition notes
  • vol. = volume
  • sup. = supplement

1 Supplement to the fourth, fifth, and sixth editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. With preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


2 8th to 14th editions included a separate index volume.


3 9th ed. featured articles by notables of the day, such as James Maxwell on electricity and magnetism, and William Thomson (who became Lord Kelvin) on heat. James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, GCVO, OM, PC, PRS (26 June 1824–17 December 1907) was an Irish-Scottish mathematical physicist, engineer, and outstanding leader in the physical sciences of the 19th century. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ...


4 10th ed. included a maps volume and a cumulative index volume for the 9th and 10th edition volumes: the new volumes, constituting, in combination with the existing volumes of the 9th ed., the 10th ed. ... and also supplying a new, distinctive, and independent library of reference dealing with recent events and developments


5 Vols. 30-32 ... the New volumes constituting, in combination with the twenty-nine volumes of the eleventh edition, the twelfth edition


6 This supplement replaced the previous supplement: The three new supplementary volumes constituting, with the volumes of the latest standard edition, the thirteenth edition.


7 This edition was the first to be kept up to date by continual (usually annual) revision.


8 The 15th edition (introduced as "Britannica 3") was published as multiple sets: the 10-volume Micropædia (containing short articles and served as an index), the 19-volume Macropædia, plus the Propædia (see text).


9 In 1985 the system was modified by removing the index function from the Micropædia and adding a separate two-volume index; the Macropædia articles were further consolidated into fewer, larger ones (for example, the previously separate articles about the 50 U.S. states were all included into the "United States of America" article), with some medium-length articles moved to the Micropædia.


The first CD-ROM edition was issued in 1994. At that time also an online version was offered for paid subscription. In 1999 this was offered for free, and no revised print versions appeared. The experiment was ended, however, in 2001 and a new printed set was issued in 2002.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Quoted from: Online Encyclopedia article on encyclopaedia
  2. ^ McCabe, Joseph. Lies and Fallacies of the Encyclopedia Britannica: How Powerful and Shameless Clerical Forces Castrated a Famous Work....
  3. ^ "Sales plummeted from 100,000 a year to just 20,000. " Encyclopaedia Britannica changes to survive
  4. ^ The Building of Britannica Online. howtoknow.com. Retrieved on 2005-12-30.
  5. ^ Nature 438, 900-901 (15 December 2005) | doi:10.1038/438900a
  6. ^ Britannica: Fatally Flawed (PDF)
  7. ^ Nature: Encyclopedia Britannica: a response (PDF)

Joseph Martin McCabe (12 November 1867 - 10 January 1955) was a well-known atheist. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ...

References

  • Herman Kogan, The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958)
  • H. Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica (New York: Grove Press, 1964)
  • A.J. Jacobs, The Know-It-All : One Man's Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004)

See also

  • Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  • Images from Encyclopædia Britannica

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Encyclopædia Britannica
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Encyclopaedia history
  • The history of the encylopaedia on The Scotsman's Heritage and Culture pages
Earlier editions
Modern editions
Business history

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