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Encyclopedia > Encyclopædia Britannica
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1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan "When in doubt - 'look it up' in the Encyclopædia Britannica"

The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) is the oldest English-language general encyclopedia. Its articles are commonly considered accurate, reliable, and well-written. Modified version of Image:EncycBrit1913. ... Modified version of Image:EncycBrit1913. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Æ, or æ, is a vowel and a grapheme used in the Icelandic, Danish, Faroese, Norwegian and Ossetian alphabets. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


A product of the Scottish enlightenment, it was originally published in Edinburgh by Adam and Charles Black beginning in the 18th century. Unlike the French Encyclopédie, Britannica was an extremely conservative publication. Later editions were usually dedicated to the reigning monarch. The publication moved from Scotland to London and became associated with The Times newspaper in the 1870s for its ninth and tenth editions. Horace Everett Hooper was publisher from 1897 to 1922. For the eleventh edition the publication became associated with the University of Cambridge, also in England. The trademark and publication rights were sold after the 11th edition to Sears Roebuck and it moved to Chicago, Illinois, United States. Sears Roebuck offered it as a gift to the University of Chicago in 1941. William Benton figured as publisher from 1943 to his death in 1973, followed by his widow Helen Hemingway Benton until her own death in 1974. In January 1996 it was purchased by billionaire Swiss financier Jacqui Safra. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Edinburghs location in Scotland Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Fig. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... The masthead of The Times The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... Events and Trends Technology Invention of the telephone (1876) and phonograph (1877) WTF Science Ludwig Boltzmanns statistical definition of thermodynamic entropy War, peace and politics Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) results in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... A trademark (Commonwealth English: trade mark)[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to identify itself and its products or services to consumers, and to set the business and its products or services apart from those of other businesses. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company (NYSE: S) was founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... The University of Chicago is a private co-educational university located in Chicago, Illinois. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Burnett Benton (April 1, 1900 - March 18, 1973) was a U.S. senator from Connecticut (1949-1953) and publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1943-1973). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Switzerland-based billionaire financier Jacqui Safra, nephew of Lebanese banker Edmund who died in a mysterious fire in Monaco in 1999, is owner of Chicago-based Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. now owns a trademark on the word "Britannica". As of 2004, the most complete version of Encyclopædia Britannica contains about 120,000 articles, with 44 million words, and a comprehensive index, the first of its kind for a major encyclopedia. It is published in paper form (32 volumes containing 65,000 articles, list price US$1400), online (120,000 articles, brief summaries of articles can be viewed for free, and the full text is available for US$11.95 per month or US$69.95 per year for individual subscribers), and on CD-ROM (more than 80,000 articles) or DVD-ROM (more than 100,000 articles, US$50). Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for storing data, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...

Encyclopaedia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM

The current version of Britannica was written by over 4,000 contributors, including noted scholars such as Milton Friedman, Carl Sagan, and Michael DeBakey. Under the influence of the director of planning, Mortimer Adler, the 15th edition, first published in 1974 and frequently reissued since, was published not as one alphabetical sequence of volumes as previously but in three parts that covered topics in different degrees of depth: a one-volume Propædia that provides a structured hierarchy to all the information in the set, a 10-volume Micropædia which contains short articles, a 19-volume Macropædia for longer articles. A two-volume index was added in 1985. Thirty-five percent of the content of the encyclopedia has been re-written within the last two years. Download high resolution version (1024x742, 204 KB)Subject: Encyclopædia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM under Mac OS X Source: Taken by User:Cantus This is a screenshot of copyrighted Macintosh computer software. ... Download high resolution version (1024x742, 204 KB)Subject: Encyclopædia Britannica 2005 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM under Mac OS X Source: Taken by User:Cantus This is a screenshot of copyrighted Macintosh computer software. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (born July 31, 1912) is a U.S. economist, known primarily for his work on macroeconomics and for his advocacy of laissez-faire capitalism. ... A respected astronomer and dogged critic of pseudoscience, Carl Sagan is best known for his enthusiastic efforts at popularizing science. ... Michael Ellis DeBakey, M.D. (born September 7, 1908), is a pioneering cardiovascular surgeon and researcher. ... Mortimer Jerome Adler (December 28, 1902 – June 28, 2001) was an American philosopher and author. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


Dale Hoiberg, a sinologist, is the publication's current editor-in-chief. Among his predecessors were Hugh Chisholm (19031913, 19201924), James Louis Garvin (19261932), Franklin Henry Hooper (19321938), Walter Yust (19381960), Harry S. Ashmore (19601963), Warren E. Preece (19641975), and Robert McHenry (19921997). Ted Pappas is the current executive editor. Earlier holders of that position were John V. Dodge (19501964) and Philip W. Goetz. Don Yannias, former CEO of the company when it was "hemorrhaging money", serves on Britannica's Board of Directors. Sinology is the study of China, which usually requires a foreign scholar to have command of the Chinese language. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... James Louis Garvin (April 12, 1868 - January 23, 1947) was a British journalist who edited both the Pall Mall Gazette (1912-1915) and The Observer (1908-42). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walter M. Yust (b. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is the editor of a number of mainly biographical works and was Vice President and Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica from 1992 to 1997. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Theodore Pappas Theodore N. Ted Pappas is the current executive editor of Encyclopædia Britannica, and a leading critic of Wikipedia. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... A board of directors is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company. ...


In the 1980s, Microsoft approached Britannica to collaborate on a CD-ROM encyclopedia. Britannica, feeling that they had a stranglehold on the market and showing strong profits (sales of the complete Britannica were priced between US$1,500 and US$2,200), turned Microsoft down. Britannica's senior management viewed their product as a luxury brand with an impeccable reputation handed down from generation to generation. They did not believe that a CD-ROM could adequately compete or supplement their business. In turn, Microsoft used content from Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia to create what is now known as Encarta. Encarta became a staple software with every computer purchase and Britannica's market share plummeted tremendously. Britannica countered by offering a CD version of their product. The sales team at Britannica was infuriated. Clearly, a CD could not generate US$500 to US$600 in sales commmisions as the print version did. In a poorly orchestrated move, Britannica decided on charging $995 for customers looking to purchase only the CD and included it in the print version for free. Britannica hoped that including the CD would entice buyers to stay with the brand while keeping the sales force happy. It didn't work. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT) headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Funk and Wagnalls is a publisher based in New York City. ... The Encarta logo Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ...


In 1994, Britannica tried again to save the brand and launched an online version with subscriptions for sale for US$2000. By 1996, the cost of the CD had dropped to US$200. Sales had plummeted to US$325 million - about half their 1990 levels (US$650 million). Over 55,000 hard copy versions were sold in 1994 vs 117,000 in 1990. By the end of 1996, Britannica was in serious trouble and was purchased by Jacqui Safra for a fraction of its book value. Switzerland-based billionaire financier Jacqui Safra, nephew of Lebanese banker Edmund who died in a mysterious fire in Monaco in 1999, is owner of Chicago-based Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


However, even though loyalties have moved towards products like Encarta and after the advent of novel knowledge disseminating resources like Wikipedia, Britannica still commands the authority and respect ascribed to the "best encyclopedia." The Encarta logo Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Wikipedia is a Web-based, free-content encyclopedia written collaboratively by volunteers and sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. ...


Edition history

Edition Published Size
1st 17681771 3 vol.
2nd 17771784 10 vol.
3rd 17881797, 1801 sup. 18 vol. + 2 sup.
4th 18011809 20 vol.
5th 1815 20 vol.
6th 18201823, 18151824 sup. 20 vol. + 2 sup.
7th 18301842 21 vol.
8th 18521860 21 vol. + index
9th 18701890 24 vol. + index 1
10th 19021903 9th ed. + 9 sup 2
11th 19101911 29 vol 3
12th 19211922 11th ed. + 3 sup.
13th 1926 11th ed.+ 6 sup.
14th 19291973 24 vol. 4
15th 19741984 30 vol. 5
1985 32 vol. 6
Edition notes

vol. = volume, sup. = supplement 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


19th ed. featured articles by notables of the day, such as James Maxwell on electricity and magnetism, and William Thomson (who became Lord Kelvin) on heat. James Clerk Maxwell(June 13, 1831–November 5, 1879) was a Scottish physicist, born in Edinburgh. ... Electricity is a property of certain subatomic particles (e. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... This article is about the physicist; there was also an Archbishop of York of the same name. ... A red-hot iron rod cooling after being worked by a blacksmith. ...


210th ed. added a maps volume and an index volume.


311th ed. Considered to be the classic edition of Encyclopædia Britannica and available in the public domain (see 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica). This was the first edition to be published all at once instead of volume by volume. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


4 This edition was the first to be kept up to date by continual (usually annual) revision.


5 The 15th edition (introduced as "Britannica 3") was published as multiple sets: the 10-volume Micropædia (containing short articles and served as an index), the 19-volume Macropædia, plus the Propædia (see text).


6In 1985 the system was modified by removing the index function from the Micropædia and adding a separate two-volume index; the Macropædia articles were further consolidated into fewer, larger ones (for example, the previously separate articles about the 50 U.S. states were all included into the "United States of America" article), with some medium-length articles moved to the Micropædia.


The first CD-ROM edition was issued in 1994. At that time also an online version was offered for paid subscription. In 1999 this was offered for free, and no revised print versions appeared. The experiment was ended, however, in 2001 and a new printed set was issued in 2002.

References

  • Herman Kogan, The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958)
  • H. Einbinder, The Myth of the Britannica (New York: Grove Press, 1964)

External links


 
 

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