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Encyclopedia > Enclave and exclave
C is A's enclave and B's exclave.
C is A's enclave and B's exclave.
D is B's exclave, but is not an enclave.
D is B's exclave, but is not an enclave.

In political geography, an enclave is a country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or wholly lying within the boundaries of another country,[1] and an exclave is one which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory.[2] Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves, but not all are simultaneously both. First version drawn by Menchi using PSP. Second version drawn by Fabiform. ... Diagram of an exclave which is not also an enclave. ... Political geography is a field of human geography that is concerned with politics. ...

(In medicine, an exclave is a detached part of an organ, as of the pancreas, thyroid, or other gland.)

The word enclave crept into the jargon of diplomacy rather late in English, in 1868, coming from French, the lingua franca of diplomacy, with a sense inherited from late Latin inclavatus meaning 'shut in, locked up" (with a key, late Latin clavis). The word exclave is a logical extension created three decades later. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Although the meanings of both words are close, an exclave may not necessarily be an enclave or vice versa. For example, Kaliningrad, an exclave of Russia, is not an enclave because it is surrounded not by one state, but by two: Lithuania and Poland; it also borders the Baltic Sea. On the other hand, Lesotho is an enclave in South Africa, but it is not politically attached to anything else, meaning that it is not an exclave. Kaliningrad (Russian: ), until 1945 known by its German name Königsberg, then briefly as Kyonigsberg (), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...

Enclaves may be created for a variety of historical, political or geographical reasons. Some areas have been left as enclaves simply due to changes in the course of a river. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ...

Since living in an enclave can be very inconvenient and many agreements have to be found by both countries over mail addresses, power supply or passage rights, enclaves tend to be eliminated and many cases that existed before have now been removed.

In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were usually called detachments. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars (see also Royal Peculiar). Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a place of worship that falls directly under the jurisdiction of the British monarch, rather than a diocese. ...

Many exclaves today have an independence movement, especially if the exclave is far away from the mainland. This is a list of currently active, autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ...


True enclaves

See List of enclaves and exclaves.

This refers to those territories where a country is sovereign, but which can't be reached without entering one particular other country. The best-known example was West Berlin, before the reunification of Germany, which was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany, and thus an East German enclave (many small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main one, some by only a few meters). De jure all of Berlin was ruled by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin couldn't send voting members to the German Parliament, and that its citizens were exempt from conscription. In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory, and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a larger piece but not actually contiguous with it. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... GDR redirects here. ... Steinstücken, a small settlement with approximately 200 inhabitants, is the southernmost territory of the Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf. ...

Most of the enclaves now existing are to be found in Asia, with a handful in Africa and Europe. While administrative enclaves are found frequently elsewhere, there are no nation-level enclaves in Australia or the Americas.

The life in such areas varies greatly from one to another. Whereas in modern times European enclaves are usually legally well defined and their population is often free to move from one country to another, Asian enclaves often result from disagreement over border treaties. This causes their inhabitants to be at worst enclosed inside, at best seriously impaired in their usual life.

Enclaved countries

Lesotho (shown in green) is completely surrounded by South Africa. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Some enclaves are countries in their own right, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist: D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ...

See also List of countries that border only one other country. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This is a list of countries that have a land border with only one other country. ...

"Practical" enclaves and exclaves

Some territories, while not geographically detached from their motherland, are more easily reached by entering a foreign country, because of their location in a hilly area, or because the only road available enters that foreign place before coming back to the mother country. These territories may be called "practical exclaves," "pene-exclaves" or "quasi-exclaves" and can be found along many borders, particularly those that are not heavily defended. They will only be attached to the motherland via an extremely small or thin slice of land.

Subnational enclaves and exclaves

Sometimes, administrative divisions of a country, due to historical or practical reasons, caused some areas to belong to a division while being attached to another one. For numerous examples, see List of enclaves and exclaves. In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory, and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a larger piece but not actually contiguous with it. ...

Ethnic enclaves

Ethnic enclaves are communities of an ethnic group inside an area where another ethnic group predominates. Jewish ghettos and shtetls, barrios and Chinatowns are examples. These areas may have a separate language, culture and economic system. A shtetl or shtetele (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot, town) was typically a small town or village with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district. ... For other uses, see Chinatown (disambiguation). ...


Embassies and military bases are usually exempted from the jurisdiction of the host country, i.e., the laws of the host nation the embassy is in do not typically apply to the land of the embassy or base itself. This exemption from the jurisdiction of the host country is defined as extraterritoriality. Areas of extraterritoriality are not true enclaves as they are still part of the host country. In addition to embassies some other areas have extraterritoriality. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...

Examples of this include:

Pavillon de Breteuil, a legal enclave of France, inaugurated by Louis XIV in 1672, and used from 1875 by the General Conference on Weights and Measures. ... The General Conference on Weights and Measures is the English name of the Conférence générale des poids et mesures (CGPM, never GCWM). ... United Nations headquarters in New York City, viewed from the East River. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Evere within the Brussels-Capital Region Evere is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... SHAPE Emblem Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Walloon Region Community French Community Province Hainaut Arrondissement Mons Coordinates Area 146. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) is an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick... Properties of the Holy See, as agreed in the 1929 Lateran Treaty. ... Suleyman Shah (Süleyman Åžah, d. ... ErtuÄŸrul (أرطغل), also ErtoÄŸrul (with title ErtuÄŸrul Gazi), (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...

Land ceded to a foreign country

Some areas of land in a country are owned by another country and in some cases it has special privileges, such as being exempt from taxes. These lands are not enclaves and do not have extraterritoriality.

Examples of this include:

For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Longwwod is a district of island of Saint Helena, where Napoleon was exiled (1916) to his death in (5th May 1821) Pop: 951 h. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Normandy American Memorial The World War II Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial honors American soldiers who died during operations in Europe during World War II. // History The cemetery is located on the site of the temporary American St. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... Göschenen is a small Swiss town on the northern end of the St. ... The Canadian National Vimy Memorial Vimy Memorial The mourning mother (Canada) The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is one of Canadas most important overseas war memorials to those who served their country in World War I and risked or gave their lives during the war. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom German Empire Austria-Hungary Commanders Arthur Currie Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 30,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,104 wounded 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey. ... Ernst Thälmann Island (German: Ernst-Thälmann-Insel, Spanish: Cayo Ernesto Thaelmann or Cayo Blanco de Sur) is a 15 kilometre long and 500 metre wide Cuban island in the Gulf of Cazones. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ...


Changes in borders can make a railway that was previously located solely within a country criss-cross the new borders. Since railways are much more expensive than roads to rebuild to avoid this problem, the criss-cross arrangement tends to last a long time. With passenger trains this may mean that doors on carriages are locked and guarded to prevent illicit entry and exit while the train is momentarily in another country.

Examples include:

  • Ireland/Northern Ireland, defunct
  • ex Soviet Union Central Asia
  • Salzburg to Innsbruck (Austria) (passes Rosenheim, Germany)
  • Trains from Neugersdorf, Saxony to Zittau pass Czech territory at Varnsdorf, while Czech trains from Varnsdorf to Chrastava pass through German territory at Zittau, and then a small part of Polish territory near the village of Porajów
  • Trains from Görlitz to Zittau, Germany, pass several times the border river Neisse (see Oder-Neisse line); the train station for Ostritz, Germany, lies in Krzewina Zgorzelecka, Poland
  • Vienna to Innsbruck, the straightest route for a high speed line would pass in tunnel under a "knob" of German Territory (see map).
  • Una railway (Unska pruga) connecting Zagreb and Split via Bihać crosses border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina many times.
  • Belgrade - Bar railway crosses into Bosnia and Herzegovina for 9 km, between stations Zlatibor and Priboj (both in Serbia). There is one station, Štrpci, but there is no border crossing facilities and trains do not call at the station.
  • During the era of the Iron Curtain, local trains between the north and south of Burgenland in Austria operated as "corridor trains" (Korridorzüge) along the border with Hungary – they had their doors locked as they traversed Hungarian territory (Győr-Sopron County [as it was then])
  • Similarly, during the Cold War, underground lines in West Berlin ran under parts of East Berlin. Ghost stations (German: Geisterbahnhöfe) were stations on Berlin's U-Bahn and S-Bahn metro networks that were closed during this period of Berlin's division.
  • The line between Farnham, Québec and Newport, Vermont crosses the US-Canada border three times
  • The Belgian Vennbahn lies on a narrow strip of Belgian territory running through Germany, creating 5 German exclaves.
  • The railway between France and Monaco briefly leaves France to enter Monaco before entering France once more. This takes place underground for around 150 metres

Also, borders have occasionally been shifted for the purpose of avoiding this sort of arrangement. The best-known example is the Gadsden Purchase, in which the United States bought land from Mexico on which it was planned to build a southern route for the transcontinental railroad. Due to the topography of the area, acquisition of the new land by New Mexico and Arizona would have been the only feasible way to construct such a railroad in the South. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...   is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria (Germany) on the river Inn, at 47°51′ N 12°8′ E. It is seat of administration of the district of Rosenheim, but is not a part of it. ... Neugersdorf is a town in the district Löbau-Zittau, in Saxony, Germany. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Zittau (Sorbian/Lusatian Žitawa, Czech Žitava) is a city in the south east of Saxony, Germany and capital of the Löbau-Zittau district close to the border triangle between Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. ... Church Varnsdorf Varnsdorf (German: Warnsdorf) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic, with a population of around 16,000. ... The townhall on the Square of May 1st Chrastava (German: ) is a town in northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic about 10 km northwest of the region capital Liberec. ... Church towers in Görlitz. ... Zittau (Sorbian/Lusatian Žitawa, Czech Žitava) is a city in the south east of Saxony, Germany and capital of the Löbau-Zittau district close to the border triangle between Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. ... Nysa (Polish Nysa, German Neiße, Czech Nisa) is a name of a few rivers and a town in Silesia. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Zagreb (pronounced ) is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 70,896 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Hamdija Lipovača (SDP) Website http://www. ... The Belgrade - Bar railway is a railway connecting the Serbian capital of Belgrade with the town of Bar, the main seaport in Montenegro. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... S-Bahn station Potsdamer Platz - formerly a ghost station and now reopened. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Oberbaumbrücke on the U1. ... Berlins S-Bahn network The Berlin S-Bahn is a metro system operated by S-Bahn Berlin GmbH, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Bahn. ... Newport is the name of a town and a city in the state of Vermont: and Vermont owns all so screw other states Newport (town), Vermont Newport (city), Vermont This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A viaduct of the Vennbahn near Bütgenbach, Wallonia, Belgium. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase is a 29,640 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in 1853. ... A transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


  1. ^ 6 results for: enclave. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  2. ^ 4 results for: exclave. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory, and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a larger piece but not actually contiguous with it. ... A panhandle is a geographic term for a long and usually thin projection of a U.S. state. ... In the legal discussions of municipalities in the United States, a flagpole annexation is a type annexation by a city, town or other municipality entity in which the entity acquires new territory that is not broadly contiguous to the existing territory, but connected to it by a thin right-of... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This is a list of countries that have a land border with only one other country. ... This is a list of ethnic enclaves in North American cities. ... During the 18th century merchants from Western Europe came to China in increasing numbers. ...

External links

  • Rolf Palmberg's Enclaves of the world
  • Provence Hideaways Enclave des Papes
  • Jan S. Krogh's Geosite
  • exclave.info
  • 'Tangled Territories' 2005 review article on exclaves and enclaves in Europe published in hidden europe magazine
  • Barry Smith's Baarle Site



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