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Encyclopedia > Encephalitis lethargica
Encephalitis lethargica
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A85.8
ICD-9 049.8

Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. Also known as sleeping sickness (though different from the sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly), EL is a devastating illness that swept the world in the 1920s and then vanished as quickly as it had appeared. First described by the neurologist Constantin von Economo in 1916, EL attacks the brain, leaving some victims in a statue-like condition, speechless and motionless.[1] Between 1917 and 1928, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica spread throughout the world, but no recurrence of the epidemic has since been reported, though isolated cases continue to occur.[2] During the outbreak over 5 million died from disease-related causes. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... Binomial name Glossina morsitans The tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, is a fly (order Diptera) that eats blood from animals, including humans. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during...

Contents

Symptoms

Encephalitis lethargica is characterized by high fever, sore throat, headache, double vision, delayed physical and mental response, sleep inversion, catatonia and lethargy.[1] In acute cases, patients may enter a coma-like state (akinetic mutism). Patients may also experience abnormal eye movements, parkinsonism, upper body weakness, muscular pains, tremors, neck rigidity, and behavioral changes including psychosis. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Double vision may refer to: Diplopia, the perception of two images from a single object. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... Akinetic mutism is a medical term describing patients who tend neither to speak (mutism) nor move (akinesia). ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinsons syndrome, atypical Parkinsons, or secondary Parkinsons) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration...


Postencephalitic Parkinson's disease may develop after a bout of encephalitis, sometimes as long as a year after the start of the illness. This disease is believed to have been caused by a viral illness, stimulating degeneration of the nerve cells in the substantia nigra, leading to clinical parkinsonism. ...


Cause

The cause of encephalitis lethargica is not known for certain. However, recent research suggests that the disease is due to a massive immune reaction to an infection by the streptococcus-like bacterium, diplococcus.[1] There is also some evidence of an autoimmune origin with antibodies (IgG) from patients with EL binding to neurons in the basal ganglia and mid-brain. It had been hypothesised that encephalitis lethargica, Sydenham's chorea and PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) are mediated by the same post-streptococcal immune response. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Streptococcus is a genus of spherical shaped Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[1] and the lactic acid bacteria group. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A diplococcus is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in pairs of two joined cells. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... Sydenhams chorea (or Rheumatic chorea) is a disease characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements affecting primarily the face, feet and hands. ...


A BBC Horizon television programme on the potential for a world-wide outbreak of H5N1 Bird Flu broadcast on November 7, 2006 postulated that the 1920s outbreak of encephalitis lethargica might have been as a direct, delayed pathological result of the Spanish Flu pandemic. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Horizon is a long-running BBC popular science and history documentary programme, notable for coining the term supervolcano. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Avian influenza (also known as bird flu) is a type of influenza virulent in birds. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


Treatment

Treatment for encephalitis lethargica in the early stages is patient stabilization, which may be very difficult. There is little evidence so far of a consistent effective treatment for the initial stages, though some patients given steroids have seen improvement.[3] Other patients have been less fortunate, and the disease then becomes progressive, with evidence of brain damage similar to Parkinson's disease. Treatment is then symptomatic. Levodopa (L-dopa) and other anti-parkinson drugs often produce dramatic responses. However in most of the patients who were given L-Dopa in the 1960s, the amelioration of the disease was short lived. In chemistry and biology, Steroids are a type of lipid, characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... L-DOPA (levodopa, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine). ...


The course of encephalitis lethargica varies depending upon complications or accompanying disorders.


Popular culture

The discovery that levodopa could produce some amelioration of the symptoms was described in the book Awakenings by Oliver Sacks in 1973. The book was used by Harold Pinter as the basis of his one-act play A Kind of Alaska, performed in 1982 starring Judi Dench. Awakenings (1973, rev. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ...


The disease is also mentioned in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman. In this fictional comic book series, the disease is in some way caused by the capture and imprisonment of Morpheus, the King of Dreams. In his absence, people on Earth mysteriously fall prey to the sleeping sickness as he cannot be there to maintain and restore order. Neil Richard Gaiman () (born November 10, 1960) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... The Sandman, in folklore, is a figure who brings good sleep and dreams by sprinkling magic sand onto sleeping children. ...


The disease is researched and mentioned in the Canadian television show ReGenesis. ReGenesis is a Canadian television program produced by The Movie Network and Movie Central in conjunction with Shaftesbury Films. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Dale RC, Church AJ, Surtees RA, et al (2004). "Encephalitis lethargica syndrome: 20 new cases and evidence of basal ganglia autoimmunity". Brain 127 (Pt 1): 21-33. DOI:10.1093/brain/awh008. PMID 14570817. 
  2. ^ Reid AH, McCall S, Henry JM, Taubenberger JK (2001). "Experimenting on the past: the enigma of von Economo's encephalitis lethargica". J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60 (7): 663-70. PMID 11444794. 
  3. ^ Blunt SB, Lane RJ, Turjanski N, Perkin GD (1997). "Clinical features and management of two cases of encephalitis lethargica". Mov. Disord. 12 (3): 354-9. DOI:10.1002/mds.870120314. PMID 9159730. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encephalitis lethargica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (560 words)
Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis.
Encephalitis Lethargica, also known as sleeping sickness (though different from the sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly), is a devastating illness that swept the world in the 1920's and then, vanished as soon as it had appeared.
The cause of encephalitis lethargica is not yet known for certain, but on the basis of research by British doctors Russell Dale and Andrew Church, the disease is now thought to be due to a massive immune reaction to an infection by the streptococcus-like bacterium, diplococcus.
Encephalitis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (765 words)
Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection.
Sometimes, encephalitis can result from a bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis, or it may be a complication of other infectious diseases like rabies (viral) or syphilis (bacterial).
Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis which caused an epidemic from 1917 to 1928.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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