FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Encephalitis" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Encephalitis
Encephalitis
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A83.-A86., B94.1, G05.
ICD-9 323
DiseasesDB 22543
eMedicine emerg/163 
MeSH D004660

Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. Sometimes, encephalitis can result from a bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis, or it may be a complication of other infectious diseases like rabies (viral) or syphilis (bacterial). Certain parasitic or protozoal infestations, such as toxoplasmosis, malaria, or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, can also cause encephalitis in people with compromised immune systems. Brain damage occurs as the inflamed brain pushes against the skull, and can lead to death. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes (G04) Encephalitis, myelitis... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Binomial name Naegleria fowleri Carter (1970) Naegleria fowleri (pronounced nuh-GLEER-e-uh) is a free living amoeba typically found in warm fresh water, from 25-35 degrees Celsius in a flagellated stage. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

Contents

Symptoms

Patients without encephalitis dont suffer from fever, headache and photophobia with weakness (but they might) and seizures are also common. Less commonly, stiffness of the neck can occur with rare cases of patients also suffering from stiffness of the limbs, slowness in movement and clumsiness depending on which specific part of the brain is involved. The symptoms of encephalitis are caused by the brain's defense mechanisms activating to get rid of the infection. Another symptom of Encephalitis is hallucination. Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ...


Etiology

Encephalitis may be caused by a variety of afflictions. One such affliction is rabies.


Diagnosis

Adult patients with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. Younger children or infants may present with irritability, anorexia and fever.


Neurological examinations usually reveal a drowsy or confused patient. Stiff neck, due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain, indicates that the patient has either meningitis or meningeoncephalitis. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by a lumbar puncture procedure usually reveals increased amounts of protein and white blood cells with normal glucose, though in a significant percentage of patients, the cerebrospinal fluid may be normal. CT scan often is not helpful, as cerebral abscess is uncommon. Cerebral abscess is more common in patients with meningitis than encephalitis. Bleeding is also uncommon except in patients with herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging offers better resolution. In patients with herpes simplex encephalitis, electroencephalograph may show sharp waves in one or both of the temporal lobes. Lumbar puncture procedure is performed only after the possibility of prominent brain swelling is excluded by a CT scan examination. Diagnosis is often made with detection of antibodies against specific viral agent (such as herpes simplex virus) or by polymerase chain reaction that amplifies the RNA or DNA of the virus responsible. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ... It has been suggested that Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy, X-ray tomography be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the disease. ... “MRI” redirects here. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Treatment

Treatment is usually symptomatic. Reliably tested specific antiviral agents are available only for a few viral agents (e.g. acyclovir for herpes encephalitis) and are used with limited success for most infection except herpes simplex encephalitis. In patients who are very sick, supportive treatment, such as mechanical ventilation, is equally important. In medicine, a disease is symptomatic when it is at a stage when the patient is experiencing symptoms. ... Aciclovir (INN) or aciclovir (USAN), marketed as Zovirax®, is one of the main antiviral drugs. ...


Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis which caused an epidemic from 1917 to 1928. There have only been a small number of isolated cases since, though in recent years a few patients have shown very similar symptoms. The cause is now thought to be either a bacterial agent or an autoimmune response following infection. Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Limbic system encephalitis

In a small number of cases, called limbic encephalitis, the pathogens responsible for encephalitis attack primarily the limbic system (a collection of structures at the base of the brain responsible for basic autonomic functions). Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis. ... The limbic system (Latin limbus: border or edge) includes the structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating energy needed to cope with stressful...


See also

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is a central nervous system disease caused by certain species of amoeba, especially Balamuthia mandrillaris. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese Encephalitis (日本脳炎 Nihon-nōen) is a disease caused by the mosquito borne Japanese Encephalitis Virus. ... St. ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Rasmussens encephalitis is a rare, progressive neurological disorder, characterized by frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, hemiparesis (paralysis on one side of the body), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), dementia, and mental deterioration. ... La Crosse Encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector (Aedes triseriatus). ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Causes encephelitis in human biengs. ... Meningoencephalitis is a type of infection that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... This article is about the disease. ...

External links

  • http://www.encephalitis.info resource providing evidence based support to people affected and professionals
  • WHO: Encephalitis
  • eMedicine-1 and eMedicine-2 Information on the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for Encephalitis.
  • Encephalitis Global, Inc. Website offering information and support to encephalitis survivors, caregivers and loved ones. Encephalitis Global Inc. is a USA 501(c)(3) public charity; annual FACES Encephalitis Conference information available at the website.
  • A case study of a Limbic Encephalitis patient

http://www.garrettmtaylor.com/" a website about Garrett Taylor a 2 year old who lost his life after a battle with encephalitis


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encephalitis - Overview - neurologychannel (605 words)
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain.
Primary encephalitis may occur in isolated cases (sporadic) or occur in many people at the same time in the same area (epidemic).
St. Louis encephalitis is the most prevalent type of arboviral encephalitis in the United States, and Japanese encephalitis is the most prevalent type in other parts of the world.
Encephalitis Basics (343 words)
Encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain tissue, is rare, affecting about 1 in 200,000 people each year in the United States.
In parainfectious encephalitis, a form of encephalitis more common in adults, the brain and spinal cord become inflamed within 5-10 days of contracting a viral or bacterial infection.
Viral encephalitis may develop during or after infection with any of several viral illnesses including influenza, herpes simplex, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, chickenpox and arbovirus infection including west nile virus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m