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Encyclopedia > Encarta
Microsoft Encarta

Encarta 2007 Premium on Windows XP
Developer: Microsoft
Latest release: Encarta Premium 2008 / June 26, 2007
OS: Microsoft Windows
Genre: Virtual encyclopedia
License: Proprietary
Website: www.microsoft.com/encarta

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. As of 2005, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consisted of more than 68,000 articles, numerous images and movies, and homework tools, and is available on the World Wide Web by yearly subscription or by purchase on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs. Many articles can also be viewed online free of charge, a service supported by advertisements.[1] Image File history File links Encarta. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1023 × 767 pixel, file size: 949 KB, MIME type: image/png) Fair use for article Encarta This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software, and the copyright for its contents is most likely held by the author... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Windows redirects here. ... Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. ... The virtual is a concept applied in many fields with somewhat differing connotations, and also denotations. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... A digital system is one that uses discrete values (often electrical voltages), especially those representable as binary numbers, or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (ie, as in an analog system). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


Microsoft publishes similar encyclopedias under the Encarta trademark in various languages, including German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese language and Japanese. Localized versions may contain contents licensed from available national sources and may contain more or less content than the full English version. For example, the Dutch version has content from the Dutch Winkler Prins encyclopedia. “(TM)” redirects here. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ... Software localization is a process of translating software user interfaces from one language to another and adapting it to suit a foreign culture. ... The winkler prince is an encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch writer Anthony Winkler Prins. ...

Contents

History

Encarta 1996 with many windows open including an atlas, an article and the pinpointer

Following the first multimedia encyclopedia, Microsoft initiated Encarta by purchasing non-exclusive rights to the Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, incorporating it into its first edition in 1993. (Funk & Wagnalls continued to publish revised editions for several years independently of Encarta, but then ceased printing in the late 1990s). Microsoft had originally approached Encyclopædia Britannica in the 1980s, but Britannica, believing its print media sales would remain strong, declined. Encyclopædia Britannica, the gold standard of encyclopedias for over a century, was forced to sell the company at below book value in 1996 when its print sales could no longer compete with Encarta and the Microsoft distribution channel which gave away free copies with computer systems.[2] When first introduced, the work had about 25,000 articles.[3] Throughout the 1990s, Encarta was praised uniformly for its multimedia content. In 1995, for example, only eight percent of the data on the CD-ROM was text.[4] Other electronic encyclopedias at the time did not have very many pictures, movies, or audio clips. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x768, 138 KB) Summary Encarta 96 with Windows open including the atlas, pinpointer and the British Isles article Licensing This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software for Microsoft Windows, and copyright for it is most likely held by the author... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x768, 138 KB) Summary Encarta 96 with Windows open including the atlas, pinpointer and the British Isles article Licensing This is a screenshot of copyrighted computer software for Microsoft Windows, and copyright for it is most likely held by the author... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Funk and Wagnalls is a publisher based in New York City. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


In the late 1990s, Microsoft bought Collier's Encyclopedia and New Merit Scholar's Encyclopedia from Macmillan and incorporated them into Encarta. Thus the current Microsoft Encarta can be considered the successor of the Funk and Wagnalls, Collier, and New Merit Scholar encyclopedias. None of these formerly successful encyclopedias are still in print, being unable to adapt to the new market dynamics of electronic encyclopedias. In 1997, the work had about 30,000 articles,[5] an increase of 20% over its previous edition. By 1999, it had about 42,000 articles.[6] Colliers Encyclopedia is a U.S. encyclopedia. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...


Microsoft has introduced several regional versions of Encarta, but some of them have been discontinued. For example, the Brazilian version was introduced in 1999 and suspended in 2002.[7] The Spanish version is somewhat smaller than the English one, at 42,000 articles.


In July 2006, Websters Multimedia, a Bellevue, Washington subsidiary of London-based Websters International Publishers, took over maintenance of Encarta from Microsoft.[8] Location of Bellevue within King County, Washington, and King County within Washington. ...


In June 2007, Microsoft announced the release of Encarta Premium 2008.[9]


Contents

Encarta's Visual Browser
Encarta's Visual Browser

Encarta's standard edition[10] includes approximately 50,000 articles, with additional images, videos and sounds. The premium editions contain approximately 68,000 articles and other multimedia content, such as 25,000 pictures and illustrations, over 300 videos and animations, and an interactive atlas with 1.8 million locations. Its articles are integrated with multimedia content and may have a collection of links to websites selected by its editors. A sidebar may display alternative views or original materials relevant to the topic. Image File history File links Bold textEncartas Visual Browser (fair use). ... Image File history File links Bold textEncartas Visual Browser (fair use). ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... Editing may also refer to audio editing or film editing. ...


Encarta's Visual Browser, available since the 2004 version, presents a user with a list of related topics. Its multimedia includes virtual 3-dimensional tours of ancient structures, for example the Acropolis; 2-dimensional panoramic images of world wonders or cities; and a virtual flight program which moves the user over landscape. Acropolis (Gr. ...


Encarta also includes a trivia game called "Mouses" in which the player explores a castle by answering questions whose answers could be found in the encyclopedia's articles. For other uses, see Trivia (disambiguation). ...


For years, Encarta came in three primary software flavors: Basic, Premium, and Reference Library (price and features in that order.) Beginning in 2005, however, Microsoft added Microsoft Student as the premier Microsoft educational software program, bundling Encarta with graphing calculator software and templates for Microsoft Office. In addition, the Reference Library was discontinued, absorbed into a newer, more comprehensive Premium package. Microsoft Student is an addon product to the Microsoft Office. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft, which is available on the Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ...

Timelines in Encarta

Image File history File links Encartas timeline. ... Image File history File links Encartas timeline. ...

World Atlas

Encarta's dynamically generated globe

The dynamic maps are generated with the same engine that powered Microsoft MapPoint software. The map is a virtual globe that one can freely rotate and magnify to any location down to major streets for big cities. The globe has multiple surfaces displaying political boundaries, physical landmarks, and statistical information. One can selectively display different sized cities, various geological or man-made features and reference lines in a map. Microsoft Encarta Globe Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Microsoft Encarta Globe Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Three maps generated by MapPoint North America 2001 (outside the detailed dataset), Encarta 2005 (not very detailed) and Microsoft AutoRoute 2004 (highly detailed). ... Google Earth, a highly detailed virtual globe that comes with atmosphere and a simple star dome NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe with stars and advanced atmosphere & sunlight effects Microsoft Virtual Earth 3D within Windows Live Local site Earthsim, real-time Earth render with atmosphere modeling 3D Weather... This article is about longitude and latitude; see also UTM coordinate system Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which...


The maps contain hyperlinks to related articles ("Map Trek") and also supports a "Dynamic Sensor" that provides the latitude, longitude, place name, population and local time for any point on the globe. Encarta also generates a visible-light moon atlas with names of major craters and hyperlinks. However, it does not include a planetarium. // A hyperlink (often referred to as simply a link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... This is a list of the craters on the Moon. ... For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ...

Options for level of detail on maps.

In addition to database generated maps, many other illustrative maps in Encarta ("Historical Maps") are drawn by artists. Some more advanced maps are interactive: for example, the large African map for Africana can display information such as political boundaries or the distribution of African flora. Download high resolution version (674x633, 96 KB)Microsoft Encarta Chiba Japan Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (674x633, 96 KB)Microsoft Encarta Chiba Japan Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ...


Encarta Dictionary

When Encarta was released as part of the "Reference Suite" in 1998 (through to 2000), Microsoft bundled "Microsoft Bookshelf" with the other three programs (Encarta Encyclopedia 98 Deluxe Edition, Encarta Virtual Globe '98, and Encarta Research Organizer). However, this was problematic.


Microsoft Bookshelf (Reference Edition) already contained "Encarta Desk Encyclopedia" and "Encarta Desk Atlas", thus becoming redundant with the full editions provided as part of the suite. Microsoft Bookshelf was a reference collection introduced in 1987 as part of Microsofts pioneering work in promoting CD-ROM technology as a distribution medium for electronic publishing. ...


In later editions (Encarta Suite 2000 and onwards) Bookshelf was replaced with a dedicated Encarta Dictionary, a superset of the printed edition.


There has been some controversy over the decision, since the dictionary lacks the other books provided in Bookshelf which many found to be a useful reference, such as Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (replaced with a quotations section in Encarta that links to relevant articles and people) and an Internet Directory (although now a moot point since many of the sites listed in offline directories aren't around anymore). This article is about the Internet, the extensive, worldwide computer network available to the public. ...


Technology

Before the emergence of the world wide web for information browsing, Microsoft recognized the importance of having an engine that supported a multimedia markup language, full text search, and extensibility using software objects. The hypertext display, hyperlinking and search software was created by a team of CD-ROM Division developers in the late 1980s who designed it as a generalized engine for uses as diverse as interactive help, document management systems and as ambitious as a multimedia encyclopedia. Encarta was able to use various Microsoft technologies because it was extensible with software components for displaying unique types of multimedia information. For example, a snap in map engine is adapted from its MapPoint software. More information on the hypertext and search engine used by Encarta may be found in the Microsoft Bookshelf article. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Online Help is topic, procedural or reference information delivered through computer software. ... A document management system (DMS) is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Component-based software engineering. ... Microsoft Bookshelf was a reference collection introduced in 1987 as part of Microsofts pioneering work in promoting CD-ROM technology as a distribution medium for electronic publishing. ...


Unlike Microsoft Office, Encarta software only supports Microsoft Windows with Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Encarta 98 was the last version to be released for the Macintosh. However, an Apple Macintosh or Linux/Unix user with Internet connection may still access Encarta's website. Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft, which is available on the Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... Windows redirects here. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Encarta uses database technologies to generate much of its multimedia content. For example, Encarta generates each zoomable map from a global geographic information system database on demand. A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the earth. ...


When a user uses the copy and paste function of Microsoft Windows on Encarta on more than five words, Encarta automatically appends a copyright boilerplate message after the paste. This page is about computer text editing. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... Boilerplate refers to any text that is or can be reused in new contexts or applications without being changed much from the original. ...


User editing of Encarta

Early in 2005, the online Encarta started to allow users to suggest changes to existing articles.[11] Articles are not immediately updated. Instead, user feedback is submitted to Encarta's editors for review, copyediting, and approval.[12] Contributors are not paid for their submissions.[13]


Using Encarta via a chatbot

Encarta's content is accessible using a conversational interface on Windows Live Messenger via the MSN Bot "Encarta Instant Answers".[14] The bot can answer many encyclopedia related questions directly in the IM window. It uses short sentences from the Encarta website, and sometimes displays full articles in the Internet Explorer-based browser on the right. It also can complete simple math and advanced algebra problems. This service is also available in German,[15] Spanish,[16] French[17] and Japanese.[18] A chatterbot (also chatbot, chatterbox) is a bot program which attempts to maintain a conversation with a person. ... For the old versions of this software called MSN Messenger, see MSN Messenger. ... Internet bots, also known as web robots, WWW robots or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the internet. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ...


Access through live.com

Users can get two free hours on Encarta by using Microsoft's search engine Live.com. It is done by searching "Definition: (word)" and accessing a link leading to Encarta Online. Live. ...


Criticism

Some criticism of the encyclopedia has focused on some articles being slow to be updated. For example, an early 2005 edition of the article about the political philosopher John Rawls opens with "Rawls, John (1921- )," although he had died on November 24, 2002. Encarta failed to note the date of his passing until April 2005—about 2½ years after the event. [citation needed] As of July 2005, the web version of the Rawls article includes his date of death. [citation needed]Robert McHenry, while Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica, criticized[19] Encarta for differences in factual content between national versions of Encarta, accusing Microsoft of "pandering to local prejudices" instead of presenting subjects objectively.[20] An article written by Bill Gates addressed the nature of writing Encyclopedia for different regions.[21] Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is an American editor, encyclopedist, and writer. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ...


Kenneth Kister's Best Encyclopedias (1994) gave the Funk & Wagnalls encyclopedia very bad scores for accuracy, although Colliers scored much better. It is also uncertain how many of the errors noted by Mr. Kister were corrected during the integration of material into Encarta. Another reviewer noted numerous inaccuracies in the Spanish Encarta when comparing it to the Enciclopedia Universal from Micronet, S.A.—another digital-only encyclopedia.[22]


Notes

  1. ^ For the free service, one should use the URL http://search.msn.com/encarta/results.aspx (MSN Search Encarta) rather than http://encarta.msn.com (MSN Encarta : Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Atlas, and Homework)
  2. ^ The Crisis at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. ^ Levy, Stephen. "Encarta" Compute! (September, 1993)
  4. ^ Bopp, Richard E. Reference and Information Services: An Introduction, (1995) p. 455
  5. ^ Henricks, Mark and Stacy Stover. "Encyclopedias on CD-ROM" Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine (January, 1997)
  6. ^ McDonald, Glenn. "Encarta ready for the new millennium." PC World (December 1999)
  7. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/brasil/encarta/
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ http://media-newswire.com/release_1053023.html
  10. ^ Microsoft Encarta Product Details
  11. ^ Microsoft Encarta Adopting Wikiesque Process, Slashdot.org, April 8, 2005, accessed May 26, 2006
  12. ^ How to Edit Encarta Encyclopedia--the Easy Way!
  13. ^ Encarta Terms of Use, MSN.com, accessed May 26, 2006
  14. ^ MSN screenname: [email protected] and [email protected]
  15. ^ MSN screenname: [email protected]
  16. ^ MSN screenname: [email protected]
  17. ^ MSN screenname: [email protected]
  18. ^ MSN screenname: [email protected]
  19. ^ "The Microsoft Way", essay by Robert McHenry
  20. ^ Página
  21. ^ "The facts depend on where you are coming from", essay by Bill Gates reprinted in The Sunday Times of South Africa, April 6, 1997, accessed May 26, 2006.
  22. ^ Jacsó, Péter. Péter's Digital Reference Shelf (2003) <http://www.gale.com/servlet/HTMLFileServlet?imprint=9999&region=7&fileName=reference/archive/200309/eum.html> [Accessed May 21, 2007]

The Sunday Times is a popular South African Sunday newspaper. ...

See also

Reference software is software which emulates and expands upon print reference forms including the dictionary, translation dictionary, encyclopedia, thesaurus, and atlas. ... This article contains a list of encyclopedias, including projects to create new works. ... Microsoft Music Central was a music encyclopedia on CDROM produced by Microsoft, similar to their Cinemania product and part of the Microsoft Home range. ...

External links


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Encarta also includes a trivia game called "MindMaze" in which the player explores a castle by answering questions whose answers could be found in the encyclopedia's articles.
Encarta was able to use of various Microsoft technologies because it was extensible with software components for displaying unique types of multimedia information.
Encarta's content is accessible using a conversational interface on MSN Messenger via the MSN Bot "Encarta Instant Answers".
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