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Encyclopedia > Emulsion
A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion
A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion

An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances. One substance (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase). Examples of emulsions include butter and margarine, espresso, mayonnaise, the photo-sensitive side of photographic film, and cutting fluid for metal working. In butter and margarine, a continuous liquid phase surrounds droplets of water (water-in-oil emulsion). Emulsification is the process by which emulsions are prepared. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Emulsions. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Dispersion can mean any of several things: A phenomenon that causes the separation of a wave into components of varying frequency. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Espresso brewing, with a dark reddish-brown foam, called crema or schiuma. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cutting fluid or coolant is liquid used to cool and lubricate the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces they are shaping. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ...


Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance, because the many phase interfaces (the boundary between the phases is called the interface) scatter light that passes through the emulsion. Emulsions are unstable and thus do not form spontaneously. Energy input through shaking, stirring, homogenizers, or spray processes are needed to form an emulsion. Over time, emulsions tend to revert to the stable state of oil separated from water. Surface active substances (surfactants) can increase the kinetic stability of emulsions greatly so that, once formed, the emulsion does not change significantly over years of storage. Homemade oil and vinegar salad dressing is an example of an unstable emulsion that will quickly separate unless shaken continuously. This phenomenon is called coalescence, and happens when small droplets recombine to form bigger ones. Fluid emulsions can also suffer from creaming, the migration of one of the substances to the top of the emulsion under the influence of buoyancy or centripetal force when a centrifuge is used. In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... —Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... Look up coalescence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Creaming is a cooking technique used to blend one or more dry ingredients together with shortening of some form. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a circular path at constant speed. ... This article is about the scientific device. ...


Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably, emulsion tends to imply that both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquid. A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ...


There are three types of emulsion instability: flocculation, where the particles form clumps; creaming, where the particles concentrate towards the surface (or bottom, depending on the relative density of the two phases) of the mixture while staying separated; and breaking and coalescence where the particles coalesce and form a layer of liquid. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Creaming is a cooking technique used to blend one or more dry ingredients together with shortening of some form. ... Coalescence is the process by which two or more droplets (or bubbles) merge during contact to form a single daughter droplet (or bubble). ...


Emulsion is also a term used in the oil field as untreated well production that consists primarily of crude oil and water.

Contents

Nanoemulsion

Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion in which the sizes of the particles in the dispersed phase are defined as less than 1000 nanometers. A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...


In medicine, a nanoemulsion of soybean oil to create drops of 400-600 nanometers in diameter will kill many pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. The process is not chemical, as with other types of anti-pathogenic treatments, but physical. The smaller the droplet, the greater the surface tension and thus the greater the force to merge with other lipids. The oil is emulsified with detergents to stabilize the emulsion (the droplets won't merge with one another), so when they encounter lipids on a bacterial membrane or a virus envelope, they force the lipids to merge with themselves. On a mass scale, this effectively disintegrates the membrane and kills the pathogen. Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Remarkably, the soybean oil emulsion does not harm normal human cells nor the cells of most other higher organisms. The exceptions are sperm cells and blood cells, which are vulnerable to nanoemulsions due to their membrane structures. For this reason, nanoemulsions of this type are not yet ready to be used intravenously. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


The most effective application of this type of nanoemulsion is for the disinfection of surfaces. Some types of nanoemulsions have been shown to effectively destroy HIV-1 and various tuberculosis pathogens, for example, on non-porous surfaces. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Emulsifier

An emulsifier (also known as an emulgent) is a substance which stabilizes an emulsion, frequently a surfactant. Examples of food emulsifiers are egg yolk (where the main emulsifying chemical is the phospholipid lecithin), and mustard, where a variety of chemicals in the mucilage surrounding the seed hull act as emulsifiers; proteins and low-molecular weight emulsifiers are common as well. In some cases, particles can stabilize emulsions as well through a mechanism called Pickering stabilization. Both mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce are oil-in-water emulsions that are stabilized with egg yolk lecithin. Detergents are another class of surfactant, and will chemically interact with both oil and water, thus stabilising the interface between oil or water droplets in suspension. This principle is exploited in soap to remove grease for the purpose of cleaning. A wide variety of emulsifiers are used in pharmacy to prepare emulsions such as creams and lotions. Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... Mustard seeds are small, about 1mm in diameter. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... Hollandaise sauce served over white asparagus and potatoes. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... Yellow grease is a term from the rendering industry. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... A cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin. ... A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity medicated or non-medicated topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. ...

20 ml ampule of 1% propofol emulsion suitable for intravenous injection. The manufacturers emulsify the lipid soluble propofol in a mixture of water, soy oil and egg lecithin.

Whether an emulsion turns into a water-in-oil emulsion or an oil-in-water emulsion depends on the volume fraction of both phases and on the type of emulsifier. Generally, the Bancroft rule applies: emulsifiers and emulsifying particles tend to promote dispersion of the phase in which they do not dissolve very well; for example, proteins dissolve better in water than in oil and so tend to form oil-in-water emulsions (that is they promote the dispersion of oil droplets throughout a continuous phase of water). 20ml ampule of propofol This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 20ml ampule of propofol This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent used for the induction of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 3 years of age; maintenance of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 2 months of age; and sedation in medical contexts, such as... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


See also

  • Photo emulsion
  • Water-in-water emulsion
  • Photographic emulsion
  • Interface and colloid science

Photo emulsion is a photosensitive substance used in screen printing that hardens when subjected to ultraviolet light. ... An emulsion is two immiscible liquids mixed together (by shaking for example) with small droplets of one liquid dispersed (separated and distributed throughout the space) in the other liquid. ... Silver-gelatin photographic paper, film and plates are made by coating sensitizing material called emulsion, consisting of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin, on a substrate material, which may be glass, plastic film, paper or fabric. ... Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ...

References

External links

  • Microfluidic Production of Monodispersed Submicron EmulsionsThrough Filtration and Sorting of Satellite Drops 2005-652
  • Video images of the process of membrane emulsification
  • Video image of monodisperse droplets produced by membrane emulsification
  • Explanation of the process of membrane emulsification
  • Medicine at Michigan
  • Veterinary Applications
  • Dispersion Technology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emulsion » Melodic electronic music from Chicago (434 words)
Residents Emulsion and Liz Revision DJ IDM, ambient electro and glitchy techno throughout the night.
I was also very sad to miss the Manual/Syntax/Ulrich Schnauss show here in Chicago, but I did get to see my friend Yard get married in Oregon, cruise down the 101 listening to the new Vector Lovers album and Kompakt’s new Total 8 comp, and enjoy some much needed time in San Francisco.
Residents Emulsion and Liz Revision spin throughout the night.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Emulsion (605 words)
Emulsions tend to have a cloudy appearance, because the many phase interfaces (the boundary between the phases is called the interface) scatter light that passes through the emulsion.
Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably, emulsion tends to imply that both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquid.
There are three types of emulsion instability: flocculation, where the particles form clumps; creaming, where the particles concentrate towards the surface (or bottom, depending on the relative density of the two phases) of the mixture while staying separated; and breaking and coalescence where the particles coalesce and form a layer of liquid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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