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Encyclopedia > Ems Ukaz

The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Russian: Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Ukrainian: Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language (the so-called Little Russian dialect) in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. The ukaz also forbade the import of Ukrainian publications and the staging of plays or lectures in Ukrainian. It was named after the city of Bad Ems, Germany, where it was promulgated. Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Bad Ems is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ...

Contents

Background

In the 1860s, a decade and a half after the Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius was broken up in Kiev, and its founder Nikolay Kostomarov and other prominent figures exiled or arrested, Ukrainian intellectuals were gaining further awareness of their cultural background. Hromada cultural associations were started in a number of cities, named after the traditional village assembly, and Sunday schools in the cities and towns (education had been neglected by the Russian Imperial administration). This was partly driven by publication in both Russian and Ukrainian, including journals (such as Kostomarov's Osnova, 1861–62, and Hlibov's Chernyhosvs’kyy Lystok, 1861–63), historical and folkloristic monographs (Kostomarov's biography of Cossack hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Kulish's two-volume Zapiski o Yuzhnoy Rusi, ‘Notes on Southern Rus’’, 1856–57), and elementary primers (Kulish's Hramatka, 1857, 1861, Shevchenko's Bukvar Yuzhnoruskiy, 1861). In Osnova, Kostomarov published his influential article "Dve russkiye narodnosti", ‘Two Russian Nationalities’. The Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius was a short-lived secret political society that existed in Kiev, Ukraine, at the time a part of the Russian Empire. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (May 16, 1817, vil. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий (Bogdan Khmelnitsky)) ( 1595 — August 6, 1657) was a famous and a somewhat controversial leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine. ...


Although Ukrainianism (or Little Russianism) had been considered popular and somewhat chic in Russian cultural circles, a debate began at the time over its relation to the ideology of Russian Pan-Slavism—epitomized by a quotation of Pushkin: "will not all the Slavic streams merge into the Russian sea?"—and a rhetoric of criticism emerged. Conservative Russians called the Ukrainian movement a "Polish intrigue", while Polish commentators had been complaining that Ukrainianism had been used as a weapon against Polish culture in right-bank Ukraine. Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a...


After the 1861 emancipation of serfs in the Russian Empire, many landowners were unhappy with the loss of their serfs, while peasants were generally displeased with the terms of the emancipation. In this atmosphere of distrust, increasing reports reached the imperial government that Ukrainian leaders were plotting to separate from Russia. The 1863 January Uprising in Poland raised tensions around the issue of ethnic separatism in general even further. Several Ukrainian activists were arrested, Sunday schools and hromadas were closed and their publication activities stopped. The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ...


A new Ukrainian translation by Pylyp Morachevsky of parts of the New Testament was vetted and passed by the Imperial Academy of Sciences, but rejected by the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox church, because it was considered politically suspect.[1] In response, Interior Minister Count Pyotr Valuyev issued an internal document on July 18, 1863, the Valuyev circular, which implemented a policy based on his opinion voiced in his earlier letter, that "the Ukrainian language never existed, does not exist, and shall never exist". It banned publication of secular and religious books (apart from belles-lettres), on the premise that not only is the content of such publications potentially questionable, but their very existence implied the anti-imperial idea that a Ukrainian nation could exist. Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Headquarters of the Holy Synod of the Russian Empire in St. ... Portrait by Ivan Kramskoi. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Valuyevsky Ukaz (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) of 18 July 1863 was a secret decree (ukaz) of the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire Pyotr Valuev, in which all publications in Ukrainian language were stopped. ... Belles lettres literary works, esp essays and poetry, valued for their aesthetic qualities (i. ...


Ems Ukaz

In the 1870s, the Kiev Hromada and the South-Western Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society began to publish important works in Kiev, in Russian, about Ukrainian ethnography. Authors included Mykhailo Drahomanov, Volodymyr Antonovych, Ivan Rudchenko, and Pavlo Chubynsky. They held an Archaeological Congress in 1874, and published in the Russian-language paper Kievskiy telegraf. It was an establishment set up by Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel. ... Mykhailo Petrovych Drahomanov (August 30, 1841, Hadiach â€“ July 2, 1895, Sofia; Ukrainian: ) was a famous Ukrainian political theorist, economist, historian, philosopher, ethnographer and public figure in Kiev. ... Volodymyr Antonovych (1834-1908), was a prominent Ukrainian historian and a leader of the Ukrainian national movement in the Russian Empire. ... Pavlo Chubynsky (1839 -January 26, 1884) was a Ukrainian poet and ethnographer whose poem Shche ne vmerla Ukraina (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished) was set to music and adapted as the Ukrainian national anthem. ...


A member of the Geographic Society, Mikhail Yuzefovich, sent two letters to St Petersburg warning of separatist activity. Tsar Alexander II appointed an Imperial Commission on Ukrainophile Propaganda in the Southern Provinces of Russia, which found evidence of a danger to the state, and recommended extending the scope of the Valuyev decree. While enjoying a spa in Bad Ems, Germany, in May 1876, the Tsar signed what would come to be called the "Ems Ukaz", extending the publication ban to apply to all books and song lyrics in the "Little Russian dialect", and to prohibit the importation of such materials. Public lectures, plays, and song performances in Ukrainian were forbidden, suspect teachers removed from teaching, and dangerous organizations and newspapers shut down. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... Bad Ems is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Lyrics are the words in songs. ... Import has a number of definitions: To import goods is to take part in International trade Import can be used as a general adjective to refer to the Import Scene in computer software, to import is to transform data into the native file format of an application that one is...


The ukaz coincided with other actions against Ukrainian culture. Drahomanov and fellow activist Mykola Ziber were sacked from their posts at Kiev's University of St Vladimir, and emigrated along with other cultural leaders such as Fedir Vovk and Serhiy Podolynsky. The situation was exposed by professor Mykhailo Drahomanov in 1878 at the International Literary Congress in Paris. Ukraine is a country with a well-defined national identity, but also an assortment of strong culturally-identified ethnic groups. ... For other uses, see Kiev University (disambiguation). ... Fedir Vovk (1847-1918) was Ukraines greatest anthropologist-archaeologist. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


In 1881, the new Tsar Alexander III amended the ukaz. Ukrainian lyrics and dictionaries would be allowed, but the Kulishivka Ukrainian alphabet was still not allowed, and such publications would have to employ Russian orthography (disparagingly called the Yaryzhka by some Ukrainians, after the Russian letter yery, ы). Performance of Ukrainian plays and humorous songs could be approved by local authorities, but Ukrainian-only theatres and troupes could not be established. Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... The Ukrainian Alphabet (Украї́нська абе́тка, Ukrajins′ka abetka, or алфаві́т, alfavit in Ukrainian) is used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. ... Yery (Ы, Ñ‹) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


Many illegal performances and publications were delivered through ingenuity and bribery, but Ukrainian cultural development practically ceased. Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


Aftermath

After the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Imperial Academy of Sciences recommended that the ukaz' restrictions be lifted. Ukrainian-language newspapers began publication, Prosvita (‘Enlightenment’) educational societies were formed, some university professors lectured in Ukrainian, and the Orthodox bishop of the Podolia vicariate, Parfeniy Levytsky, allowed the language to be used in services and church schools there. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ...


In 1910, concerned about potential revolutionary activity, Interior Minister Pyotr Stolypin restored the ukaz's restrictions and shut down the Prosvita societies and Ukrainian-language publications. Russian-language press and intellectuals launched a campaign against the idea of Ukrainian autonomy or separatism. Pyotr Stolypin Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Russian: Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) (April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1862—September 18 [O.S. September 5] 1911) served as Nicholas IIs Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) from 1906 to 1911. ...


Thus, self-aware Ukrainians remained a small intelligentsia in Dnieper Ukraine, out of touch with a much larger rural population who lacked the opportunity for a cultural education. Russian imperial ideology dominated the schools and the army, and the Russian language was the only one used for official business in the urban workplace, government offices, and public services. In the meantime, Ukrainian self-identity would grow in Austro-Hungarian Galicia, out of reach of Russian imperial authorities. Dnieper Ukraine (Ukrainian: ), was the territory of Ukraine in the Russian Empire (Little Russia), roughly corresponding to the current territory of Ukraine, with the exceptions of Crimea (made part of Soviet Ukraine in 1954) and Galicia, which was a province of the Austrian Empire. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ...


The ukaz was never cancelled, but became void along with all other imperial Russian laws in the February Revolution of 1917–18. After the Revolution, Ukrainian language, education and culture was allowed to flower in the Ukrainian National Republic, the Hetmanate, and under the Ukrainization policies of Soviet Ukraine before 1931. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived provisional government of Ukraine, installed by Germany after disbanding the Central Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ...


Text of the ukaz

Partial translation of the Ukaz:

  1. The importation into the Russian Empire, without special permission of the Central Censorship over Printing, of all books and pamphlets in the Little Russian dialect, published abroad, is forbidden,
  2. The printing and publishing in the Empire of original works and translations in this dialect is forbidden with the exception of (a) historical documents and monuments; (b) works of belles-lettres but with the provision that in the documents the orthography of the originals be retained; in works of belles-lettres no deviations from the accepted Russian orthography are permitted and permission for their printing may be given only by the Central Censorship over Printing.
  3. All theatrical performances and lectures in the Little Russian dialect, as well as printing of text to musical notes, are forbidden.[2]

Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Belles lettres literary works, esp essays and poetry, valued for their aesthetic qualities (i. ... Russian orthography (правописание ) is formally considered to encompass spelling (орфография ) and punctuation (пунктуация ). Russian spelling, which is quite phonetic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ (Russian)/(Ukrainian) Volodymyr Kozyrsky, Vasyl Shenderovsky, "The spiritual valour of Pylyp Morachevsky (to the bicentenary anniversary of his birth)", Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), August 5-19, 2006, in Russian, in Ukrainian.
  2. ^ Radians’kyi knyhar 1930, quoted in Luckyj 1990, pp 24–25. A full version, with five points addressed "for the Ministry of the Interior", five "for the Ministry of Education", and one "for the Third Section [secret police] of His Majesty's Supreme Chancellory" is published in Magocsi 1996, pp 372–3, translated from Savchenko 1970, p 381.

Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ...

References

  • Drahomanov, Mykhailo, La littérature oukrainienne, proscrite par le gouvernement russe: rapport présenté au Congrès littéraire de Paris (Ukrainian Literature Banned by the Russian Government: Report Presented at the Literary Congress in Paris), Geneva, 1878.
  • Luckyj, George S.N. ([1956] 1990). Literary Politics in the Soviet Ukraine, 1917–1934, revised and updated edition, Durham and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1099-6.
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.
  • I.R., "Ne dozvoliaiu," Radians’kyi knyhar, 8 (April 1930):8
  • Savchenko, Fedir (1970). Zaborona ukrayinstva 1876 r., 2nd ed. Munich.

Mykhailo Petrovych Drahomanov (August 30, 1841, Hadiach â€“ July 2, 1895, Sofia; Ukrainian: ) was a famous Ukrainian political theorist, economist, historian, philosopher, ethnographer and public figure in Kiev. ... George Stephen Nestor Luckyj (1919 - November 21, 2001) was a scholar of Ukrainian literature, who greatly contributed to the awareness of Ukrainian literature in the English-speaking world and to the continuation of legitimate scholarship on the subject during the post-war period. ...

External links

  • Емский указ, full text of the Ems Ukaz (Russian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ems Ukaz - definition of Ems Ukaz in Encyclopedia (185 words)
Ems Ukaz (sometimes Ems Ukase) was a secret ukaz of tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876 banning the use of Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
It was named after the city of Bad Ems, Germany.
The Ems Ukaz was issued in response of the growing Ukrainian nationalism movement and unrest of Ukrainian cossacks.
Encyclopedia: Alexander II of Russia (5153 words)
Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law.
Alexander II resolved to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms in an attempt to quell the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he caused an ukase to be prepared creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
The Ems Ukase or Ems Ukaz, named after the city of Bad Ems, Germany, where it was promulgated, was a secret ukase of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
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