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Encyclopedia > Empress Maud
British Royalty
Normans

William I
Children
   Robert Curthose
   William Rufus
   Adela of Blois
   Henry Beauclerc
William II
Henry I
Children
   Empress Maud
   William Adelin
   Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester
Stephen

Empress Maud (1102September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. Margaret of Scotland), is known, in order to differentiate her from the many other Matildas of the period. Matilda is the Latin form of the name "Maud" (or "Maude"). The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were Scandinavian invaders (especially Danish Vikings) who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. ... This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Robert (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... Adela of Blois (c. ... Henry I (c. ... William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... Henry I (c. ... William Adelin (1103 – November 25, 1120) was the only legitimate son of Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland. ... Robert of Gloucester also frequently refers to the historian Robert_of_Gloucester Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (~1090 - October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the English Anarchy period. ... Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Henry I (c. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... King Malcolm III of Scotland, (1031? - November 13, 1093) also known as Malcolm Canmore (Malcolm with the large head), was the eldest son of King Duncan I of Scotland and first king of the House of Dunkeld. ... Saint Margaret of Scotland (circa 1045 - 1093), Edgar Athelings sister, married King Malcolm Canmore. ... Matilda is a female name, of Teutonic derivation, meaning mighty warrior. ... Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


When she was seven years old, Maud was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, and was sent to Germany in 1111 to begin her training as his consort. Maud and Henry were married at Worms on January 7, 1114 in a splendid ceremony. In March 1116 Maud and Henry visited Rome and Tuscany, and she acted as Regent in his absence. The Imperial couple had no surviving offspring; Hermann of Tournai states that Maud bore a child that lived only a short while. When Henry died in 1125, he left Maud a childless widow of twenty-three. Her brother William Adelin had perished several years before in the wreck of the White Ship, leaving Maud the only legitimate heir to the English throne. Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 - May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. ... Events Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II Baldwin VII of Flanders becomes Count of Flanders Deaths March 3 - Bohemund I, prince of Antioch Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali, muslim theologian Robert II of Flanders Categories: 1111 ... Worm can refer to: The worm, a collection of animal phyla. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events Baldwin I of Jerusalem undertakes an invasion of Egypt The modern book of separate pages stitched together is invented in China Construction starts on the Chennkesava temple The Aztecs leave Aztlán searching for the site of what will eventually become Tenochtitlán and later Mexico City Births Deaths... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... A regent is an acting governor. ... Events May 23 - Lothar of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... William Adelin (1103 – November 25, 1120) was the only legitimate son of Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland. ... The White Ship, a 12th century vessel, sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on November 25, 1120. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion...


Maud returned to England, where her father named her his heir, and arranged another marriage for her. In 1127, she was married again, at Le Mans in Anjou, to Geoffrey of Anjou, who was eleven years her junior. He was nicknamed "Plantagenet" from the broom flower (planta genista) which he took as his emblem, hence the name of the line of English kings descended from him. The marriage was not a happy one, and Maud separated from him and returned to her father. She returned to Geoffrey in 1131, and they were reconciled. They produced three sons, the eldest of whom, Henry, was born on March 5, 1133. The birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes, in 1134 was difficult and Maud nearly died in childbed. Her father King Henry came to visit and took "great delight" in his grandsons. King Henry and Geoffrey quarreled, and so when her father died on December 1, 1135 in Normandy, Maud was with Geoffrey in Anjou. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Events Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothar II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Le Mans is a city in France, located at the Sarthe River. ... For other uses, see Anjou (disambiguation). ... Geoffrey V (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called Le Bel (The Fair) or Geoffrey Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Genera Argyrocytisus:1 species Cytisus: about 30-35 species Genista: about 90 species Petteria: 1 species Podocytisus: 1 species Retama: 4 species Spartium: 1 species Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun Births 25 March - Henry II of England Honen Shonin, who later established Pure Land Buddhism as an independent sect in Japan Deaths Categories: 1133 ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... Henry I (c. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... For other uses, see Anjou (disambiguation). ...


On the death of her father in 1135, Maud expected to succeed to the throne of England, but her cousin, Stephen of Blois usurped the throne, breaking an oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Maud could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife was another Matilda: Matilda, countess of Boulogne. During the war, Maud's most loyal and capable supporter was her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester. Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... Events Alphonso I (Afonso Henriques) becomes first king of Portugal Second Council of the Lateran Births Emperor Konoe of Japan Deaths Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony Categories: 1139 ... Boulogne-sur-Mer became the centre of the County of Boulogne in the 9th century. ... Robert of Gloucester also frequently refers to Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (~1090 - October 31, 1147) Robert of Gloucester wrote a chronicle of British, English, and Norman history sometime in the mid or late thirteenth century. ...


Maud's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen, who was made a prisoner and effectively deposed. Although she now controlled the kingdom, Maud never styled herself queen but took the title "Lady of the English". Her advantage lasted only a few months. By November, Stephen was free, and a year later, the tables were turned when Maud was besieged at Oxford but escaped, supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disgusing herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1147, Maud was finally forced to return to France, following the death of Robert of Gloucester. Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Devizes is a town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...


All hope was not lost. Maud's son, Henry (later, Henry II of England), was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford. Henry II of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry II (March 5, 1133 – July 6, 1189), ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ...


She retired to Rouen, in Normandy, during her last years, where she maintained her own court. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William, were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Maud's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favorite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Thomas Becket, but was unsuccessful. Location within France Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northern France, and presently the capital of the Upper Normandy région. ... Events January 11 - Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia End of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan, also the beginning of his cloistered rule, which will last to his death in 1192. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... Saint Thomas à Becket (or Thomas Becket) (ca. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ...


Despite her tenure as "Lady of the English", Maud was never loved by the people of her native land, who found her too foreign and haughty. She spoke three languages: French, German, and Latin. Even though she gave up hope of being crowned Queen in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Maud died at Rouen, and was buried in the cathedral there; her epitaph reads: "Here lies the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry." Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Location within France Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northern France, and presently the capital of the Upper Normandy région. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... An epitaph (literally: on the grave in ancient Greek) is text honoring the dead, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ...


Sources

Gervase of Canterbury (Gervas us Dorobornensis) was an English chronicler. ... Roger of Hoveden, or Howden (fl. ... Deeds of King Stephen or Acts of Stephen or Gesta Stephani is a 12th century English history by an anonymous author. ... Walter Map (~1137-1209) was a medieval writer, probably either of Welsh origin or from Herefordshire (which at the time was almost the same thing). ...

Historical fiction

The civil war between supporters of Stephen and the supporters of Maud is the background for the popular "Brother Cadfael" books by Ellis Peters, and the films made from them starring Sir Derek Jacobi as that rare Benedictine. Brother Cadfael is a fictional character, the detective in a series of murder mysteries by Edith Pargeter writing under the name Ellis Peters. ... Edith Mary Pargeter (September 28, 1913 - October 14, 1995) was a prolific British author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction, and was also honored for her translations of Czech classics; she is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and modern. ... Sir Derek George Jacobi KBE, (born October 22, 1938), is a British actor, knighted in 1994 for his services to the theatre. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of Saint Benedict, whether belonging to the Roman Catholic Church, or to one of the Anglican or Protestant churches. ...


The novel When Christ and His Saints Slept by Sharon Penman tells the story of the civil war. Sharon Kay Penman (born 1945) is an American author of fiction, born in New York, but her ancestors were Anglo-Irish. ...


It is also an important part in the storyline of Ken Follett's most popular novel The Pillars of the Earth. Ken Follett (born June 5, 1949) is a British author of thrillers and historical novels. ... The Pillars of the Earth is a historical novel about the building of a cathedral in Kingsbridge (a fictional town located roughly where the present-day town of Marlborough, Wiltshire is) in England, written by Ken Follett. ...


 
 

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