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Encyclopedia > Empress Dou Miao

Empress Dou Miao (竇妙) (d. 172), formally Empress Huansi (literally, "the diligent and deep-thinking empress"), was an empress during Han Dynasty. She was the third wife of Emperor Huan. After his death in 168, she served as regent for his successor Emperor Ling, assisted by her father Dou Wu and the Confucian scholar Chen Fan (陳蕃), but Dou and Chen had a major confrontation with powerful eunuchs later in 168 and were defeated and killed. After that, she was under house arrest until her death. Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Emperor Huan of Han, ch. ... Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Emperor Ling of Han, trad. ... Dou Wu (竇武) (d. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Chinese Eunuchs A eunuch is an infertile human male whose testicles have either been removed (deliberately or by accident) or are otherwise non-functional. ...

Contents


Family background and marriage to Emperor Huan

It is not known when Dou Miao was born. Her father Dou Wu was a low level official during Emperor Huan's administration and a well-known Confucian scholar; he also came from a background of nobility, as a descendant of Dou Rong (竇融), who had contributed much to the reestablishment of Han Dynasty under Emperor Guangwu. Not much is known about her mother's family background. Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). ...


In 165, around the time that Emperor Huan deposed his second wife, Empress Deng Mengnü, Dou Miao became an imperial consort. However, Emperor Huan did not favor her. Later that year, though, when selecting a new empress, she was considered. Emperor Huan wanted to create his favorite, Consort Tian Sheng (田聖), empress, but officials, led by Chen, opposed due to Consort Tian's low birth. Rather, they pressured Emperor Huan to create Consort Dou empress. He gave in to pressure and created her empress later that year. Her father was promoted to a series of posts with increasing importance. Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ...


In 166, during the first Disaster of Partisan Prohibitions (黨錮之禍), Dou Wu interceded on behalf of the officials who were accused of wrongdoing by the powerful eunuchs and the university students who had been arrested for petitioning on their behalf, and his intercession helped to prevent them from being executed. Because of this, Dou Wu and Empress Dou were viewed by the officials as hopes for overthrowing the powerful eunuchs eventually. Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ... The Disasters of Partisan Prohibitions (黨錮之禍) refers to two incidents in which a number of Confucian scholars who served as officials in the Han imperial government and opposed to powerful eunuchs, and the university students in the capital Luoyang who supported them (collectively referred to by the eunuchs as partisans (黨人, dangren...


As empress dowager and regent

In 168, Emperor Huan died without a son. Empress Dou became empress dowager and regent. She and her father examined the potential successors within the imperial Liu clan, and they settled on the 12-year-old Liu Hong (劉宏), the Marquess of Jieduting, and he ascended the throne as Emperor Ling. Empress Dou continued to serve as regent. She trusted Chen and her father Dou Wu, and gave them great power. Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Empress Dowager (Chinese, Korean and Japanese: 皇太后; Chinese pinyin Húang Tài Hòu, Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō) was title given to the mother of a Chinese emperor. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... Emperor Ling of Han, trad. ...


Hateful that Consort Tian had Emperor Huan's greatest affection, Empress Dowager Dou had her executed, even before Emperor Huan could be buried.


As regent, Empress Dowager Dou appeared to be diligent and paying attention to many important matters, including the suppression of Qiang revolts. She supported the program of the general Duan Jiong (段熲) to suppress the Qiang with overwhelming force, and he was successful (although he was criticized, and perhaps she should be as well, for being overly cruel during this campaign); this was the end of Qiang rebellions during Han Dynasty. The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ...


Dou and Chen's confrontation with the eunuchs

After they became the leading officials, Dou and Chen did much to try to clean up government; in particular, they recalled the officials who had been victims of the first Disaster of Partisan Prohibitions and gave them authority to try to stamp out corruption, particularly by the clans of the powerful eunuchs.


The eunuchs tried to counter this by flattering Empress Dowager Dou constantly, and Empress Dowager Dou became more trusting of them as the days went by, particularly Cao Jie (曹節) and Wang Fu (王甫). Chen and Dou Wu became alarmed, and they began to set up a plan to exterminate the powerful eunuchs. In the summer of 168, they approached Empress Dowager Dou with the plan, and Empress Dowager Dou was surprised and opposed it -- reasoning that an extermination plan was unfair to those who had not committed offenses. With her opposition, the plan was delayed.


In autumn of that year, the eunuchs discovered the plan and became enraged. Zhu Yu (朱瑀), the first eunuch to discover the plan, formed a conspiracy with 17 eunuchs to strike back at Chen and Dou. They quickly took Emperor Ling into custody (claiming to him -- which he believed -- for his own protection) and issued edicts executing the military commanders who supported Chen and Dou, and then kidnapped Empress Dowager Dou. They then sent forces to capture Chen and Dou. Chen was quickly captured and executed, while Dou publicly declared that the eunuchs were rebelling and put on a resistance. The eunuchs tricked the general Zhang Huan (張奐) into believing that Dou Wu was in fact committing treason, and Zhang defeated Dou in battle. Dou killed himself after defeat, and the Dou clan was slaughtered, except that his wife was exiled to Bijing (比景, in modern northern Vietnam). Empress Dowager Dou was put under house arrest, although maintaining her title of empress dowager.


Late years

Empress Dowager Dou was never able to regain any real power, as the eunuchs controlled the political scene for years. Her position of influence was effectively taken by Emperor Ling's mother Empress Dowager Dong. Zhang, who had been tricked into defeating her father, repeatedly tried to get her released, but was unable to do so. In 171, the eunuch Dong Meng (董萌) also tried to speak on her behalf with Emperor Ling, claiming that she was innocent of wrong doing, and Emperor Ling initially believed him, and therefore repeatedly visited Empress Dowager Dou and supplied her with many things. This led Cao and Wang to despise him, and they falsely accused him of defaming Empress Dowager Dong; Dong Meng was imprisoned and executed. Events Marcomanni were finally defeated by Marcus Aurelius Births Deaths Category: ...


In 172, Empress Dowager received news that her mother had died in exile, and she became depressed and ill herself. She died in the summer of that year. The powerful eunuchs so hated the Dous that they had her body placed on a wagon for transporting luggage and exposed to the elements for a few days, and eventually wanted to bury her with the honors only due an imperial consort. At Emperor Ling's insistence, she was still buried with the ceremony of an empress dowager, with her husband Emperor Huan. Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...

Preceded by:
Empress Deng Mengnü
Empress of Eastern Han Dynasty
165168
Succeeded by:
Empress Song

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emperor Ling of Han - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1808 words)
When Emperor Huan died in 168 without a son to be heir, his wife Empress Dou Miao became empress dowager and regent, and she examined the rolls of the imperial clan to consider the next emperor.
His mother, because of Empress Dowager Dou's presence, was not honored as an empress or empress dowager, but as an imperial consort.
The empress dowager's father Dou Wu and Chen became the most important officials in the imperial government, and they sought to purge the government of eunuch influences.
mainland China - Columbia Encyclopedia® article about mainland China (9386 words)
The Opium War (1839–42), which Great Britain had provoked, forced China to grant commercial concessions (see treaty port) and to recognize the principle of extraterritoriality.
(1900), encouraged by Empress Tz'u Hsi Tz'u Hsi, Tsu Hsi, or Tse Hsi (all: ts
shē), 1834–1908, dowager empress of China (1861–1908) and regent (1861–73, 1874–89, 1898–1908).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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