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Encyclopedia > Employment

Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee may be defined as: "A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed." Black's Law Dictionary page 471 (5th ed. 1979). Employment is the debut album by Leeds-based British rock band Kaiser Chiefs. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition Blacks Law Dictionary is the definitive law dictionary for the law of the United States. ...


In a commercial setting, the employer conceives of a productive activity, generally with the intention of creating profits, and the employee contributes labour to the enterprise, usually in return for payment of wages. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ...


Employment also exists in the public, non-profit and household sectors. < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


In the United States, the standard employment contract is considered to be at-will meaning that the employer and employee are both free to terminate the employment at any time and for any cause, or for no cause at all. However, if a termination of employment by the employer is deemed unjust by the employee, there can be legal recourse to challenge such a termination. In unionised work environments in particular, employees who are receiving discipline, up to and including termination of employment can ask for assistance by their shop steward to advocate on behalf of the employee. If an informal negotiation between the shop steward and the company does not resolve the issue, the shop steward may file a grievance, which can result in a resolution within the company, or mediation or arbitration, which are typically funded equally both by the union and the company. In non-union work environments, in the United States, unjust termination complaints can be brought to the United States Department of Labor. In the Canadian province of Ontario, formal complaints can be brought to the Ministry of Labour (Ontario). In the province of Quebec, grievances can be filed with the Commission des normes du travail. An employment contract is an agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the commencement of the period of employment and stating the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed. ... At-will employment is an employment relationship in which either party can terminate the employment relationship at-will with no liability if there was not an express contract for a definite term governing the employment relationship. ... Fired and Firing redirect here. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... Union Steward (aka Shop Steward) is the title of an official position within the organizational hierarchy of a labor union. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... A grievance is a formal statement of complaint, generally against an authority figure. ... For statistical mediation, see Mediation (Statistics). ... Arbitration is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons (the arbitrators or arbitral tribunal), by whose decision (the award) they agree to be bound. ... The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Ministry of Labour is responsible for labour issues in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


To the extent that employment or the economic equivalent is not universal, unemployment exists. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Employment is almost universal in capitalist societies. Opponents of capitalism such as Marxists oppose the capitalist employment system, considering it to be unfair that the people who contribute the majority of work to an organization do not receive a proportionate share of the profit. However, the Surrealists and the Situationists were among the few groups to actually oppose work, and during the partially surrealist-influenced events of May 1968 the walls of the Sorbonne were covered with anti-work graffiti. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Max Ernst. ... The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


Labourers often talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of "land" as a possession (real estate) or intellectual rights as a possession (intellectual property). The Online Etymology Dictionary explains that the origin of "job" is from the obsolete phrase "jobbe of work" in the sense of "piece of work", and most dictionaries list the Middle English "gobbe" meaning "lump" (gob) as the origin of "jobbe". Attempts to link the word to the biblical character Job seem to be folk etymology.[citation needed] Conceptual metaphor: In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain; for example, using one persons life experience to understand a different persons experience. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Intellectual rights (from the French droits intellectuels) is a term sometimes used to refer to the legal protection afforded to owners of intellectual capital. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Web content. ... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...

Contents

Employer

Look up employer in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An employer is a person or institution that hires employees or workers. Employers offer wages or a salary to the workers in exchange for the worker's labor power, depending upon whether the employee is paid by the hour or a set rate per pay period. A salaried employee is typically not paid more for more hours worked than the minimum, whereas wages are paid for all hours worked, including overtime. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Labor power (in German: Arbeitskraft, or labor force) is a crucial concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. ... Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours; these may be determined in several ways, by custom (what is considered healthy or reasonable by society), by practices of a given trade or profession, by legislation, or by agreement between employers and workers or their representatives. ...


Employers include everything from individuals hiring a babysitter to governments and businesses which may hire many thousands of employees. In most western societies governments are the largest single employers, but most of the work force is employed in small and medium businesses in the private sector. Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ...


Note that although employees may contribute to the evolution of an an enterprise, the employer maintains autonomous control over the productive base of land and capital, and is the entity named in contracts. The employer typically also maintains ownership of intellectual property created by an employee within the scope of employment and as a function thereof. These are known as "works for hire". Land in economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed (i. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... A work for hire (sometimes expressed as work made for hire) is an exception to the general rule that the person who actually creates a work is the legally-recognized author of that work. ...


An employers’ relative level of power over employees is dependent upon numerous factors; the most influential being the nature of the employment relationship. The relationship employers share with employees is affected by three significant factors – interests, control and motivation. It is up to employers to effectively manage and balance these factors to ensure a harmonious and productive working relationship.


Interests can be best described as monetary constraints and economic pressures placed on organizations in their pursuit of profits. It covers facets such as labour productivity, wages and the effect of financial markets on businesses.


Wood et al (2004, p 355) describe control can as being either output focused, focusing on desired targets with within managers defining, and using, their own methods for reaching targets, or process controls, which specify the manner in which tasks will be achieved (Ibid, p. 357). Employer and managerial control within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between desired outcomes and actual processes. Thus employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labour productivity in order to achieve a prolific employment relationship.


Motivation is the third and most difficult of the factors in the employment relationship for employers to effectively manage. Employee motivation can often be in direct conflict with control mechanisms of employers, and can be broadly defined as that which energizes, directs and sustains human behaviour ( Stone, 2005, p 412). Dubin (1958, p 213) further elaborates on this, noting motivation as “something that moves a person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.”


The employment relationship is thus a difficult challenge for employers to manage, as all three facets are often in direct competition with each other, with interests, control and motivation often clashing in the equally important quest for individual employee autonomy ,employer command and ultimate profits.


Employee

Look up employee in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An employee contributes labour and expertise to an endeavour. Employees perform the discrete activity of economic production. Of the three factors of production, employees usually provide the labour. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services, including land, labor, and capital. ...


Specifically, an employee is any person hired by an employer to do a specific "job". In most modern economies the term employee refers to a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which differs from those of customer, or client. Most individuals attain the status of employee after a thorough process of interviews with several departments within a company. If the individual is determined to be a satisfactory fit for the position, he is given an official offer of employment within that company for a defined starting salary and position. This individual then has all the rights and privileges of an employee, which may include medical benefits and vacation days. The relationship between a corporation and its employees is usually handled through the human resources department, which handles the incorporation of new hires, and the disbursement of any benefits which the employee may be entitled, or any grievances that employee may have. An offer of employment, however, does not guarantee employment for any length of time and each party may terminate the relationship at any time. This is referred to as at will employment. While the terms accountant, lawyer and photographer might refer to professions, they are not employee titles, which may include Controller, Vice President of Legal Affairs, and Head of Media Development. Customers are waiting in front of a famous fashion shop for its grand opening in Hong Kong. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... “Newcomer” redirects here. ... At-will employment is an employment relationship in which either party can terminate the employment relationship at-will with no liability if there was not an express contract for a definite term governing the employment relationship. ... Accountant, or Qualified Accountant, or Professional Accountant, is a certified accountancy and financial expert in the jurisdiction of many countries. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... A photographer at the Calgary Folk Music Festival Paparazzi at the Tribeca Film Festival A photographer is a person who takes a photograph using a camera. ... Publicly and privately held for-profit corporations often confer corporate titles or business titles on company officials as a means of identifying their function in the organization. ...


There are differing classifications of workers within a company. Some are full-time and permanent and receive a guaranteed salary, while others are hired for short term contracts or work as temps or consultants. These latter differ from permanent employees in that the company where they work is not their employer, but they may work through a temp-agency or consulting firm. In this respect, it is important to distinguish independent contractors from employees, since the two are treated differently both in law and in most taxation systems. A full time job usually has benefits (such as health insurance) and are often considered careers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering... An independent contractor is a person or business which provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Employees can organize into labor unions (American English), or trade unions (British English), who represent most of the available work force in a single organization. They utilize their representative power to collectively bargain with the management of companies in order to advance concerns and demands of their membership. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


Associate is a term used by some companies instead of employee. Big box retailers like Wal-Mart and Home Depot, for example, use this term for non-management employees. Other firms use terms such as teammate or team member instead of employee. To join as a partner, ally, or friend. ... A big box is a box that is big. ... A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... The Home Depot (NYSE: HD) is an American retailer of home improvement and construction products and services. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ...


Many companies further classify employees as exempt or non-exempt. This designation is used to separate employees that are eligible for overtime from those that are not. An exempt employee is one that is typically salaried and is not eligible to earn overtime. Non-exempt employees are typically paid hourly and are eligible for overtime pay.


Alternatives

When an individual entirely owns the business for which he or she labours, this is known as self-employment. Self-employment often leads to incorporation. Incorporation offers certain protections of one's personal assets. Laws of incorporation vary from state to state with Delaware having the most incorporated businesses of any state in the U.S. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Incorporation (abbreviated Inc. ...


Workers who are not paid wages, such as volunteers, are generally not considered as being employed. One exception to this is an internship, an employment situation in which the worker receives training or experience (and possibly college credit) as the chief form of compensation. For other uses, see Volunteer (disambiguation). ... For information about a medical intern, see the article on Medical residency. ...


Those who work under obligation for the purpose of fulfilling a debt, such as an indentured servant, or as property of the person or entity they work for, such as a slave, do not receive pay for their services and are not considered employed. Some historians suggest that slavery is older than employment, but both arrangements have existed for all recorded history. An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Globalisation and employment relations

The balance of economic efficiency and social equity is the ultimate debate in the field of employment relations. By meeting the needs of the employer; generating profits to establish and maintain economic efficiency; whilst maintaining a balance with the employee and creating social equity that benefits the worker so that he/she can fund and enjoy healthy living; proves to be a continuous revolving issue in westernised societies.


Globalisation has effected these issues by creating certain economic factors that disallow or allow various employment issues. Economist Edward Lee (1996) studies the effects of globalisation and summarizes the four major points of concern that effect employment relations: (1) International competition, from the newly industrialized countries, will cause unemployment growth and increased wage disparity for unskilled workers in industrialized countries. Imports from low-wage countries exert pressure on the manufacturing sector in industrialized countries and foreign direct investment (FDI) is attracted away from the industrialized nations, towards low-waged countries. (2) Economic liberalization will result in unemployment and wage inequality in developing countries. This happens as job losses in un-competitive industries outstrip job opportunities in new industries. (3) Workers will be forced to accept worsening wages and conditions, as a global labour market results in a “race to the bottom”. Increased international competition creates a pressure to reduce the wages and conditions of workers. (4) Globalization reduces the autonomy of the nation state. Capital is increasingly mobile and the ability of the state to regulate economic activity is reduced.


What also result’s to Lee’s (1996) findings is that in industrialized countries an average of almost 70 per cent of workers are employed in the service sector, most of which consists of non-tradable activities. As a result workers are either forced to become more skilled an develop sought after trades or become of this sector. Ultimately this is a result of changes and trends of employment, an evolving workforce and globalisation that is represented by a more skilled and increasing highly diverse labour force, that are growing in non standard forms of employment (Markey, R. et.al. 2006).


Films

  • Death on the Job, Filmmakers: William Guttentag and Vince DiPersio,1991
  • Office Space, written and directed by Mike Judge.

Office Space is an American comedy film written and directed by Mike Judge. ... Michael Craig Judge (born 17 October 1962 in Guayaquil, Ecuador) is an American animator, actor, voice actor, writer, director, and producer, best-known as the creator and star of the hit animated television series Beavis and Butt-head and King of the Hill. ...

References

  • Lee, E. (1996), "Globalization and employment", International Labour Review, Vol. 135 No.5, pp.485-98.
  • Raymond Markey, Ann Hodgkinson, Jo Kowalczyk (2002), “Gender, part-time employment and employee participation in Australian workplaces” Employee Relations, Vol. 24 Iss. 2 Pp. 129 - 150
  • Wood , J, Wallace, J, Zeffane, R, CHampan, J, Fromholtz, M, Morrison V( 2004), Organisational Behaviour:A global perspective, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, QLD, Australia.p 355-357.
  • Stone, R, (2005), Human Resource Management, 5th edition, John Wiley and Sons, QLD Australia.p 412-414
  • Dubin, R, ( 1958) The World Of Work: Industrial Society and Human Relations, Prentice – Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ, p 213

See also

Colin Clark (1905–1989) was a British economist and statistician who taught in the United Kingdom and Australia, and who pioneered the use of the gross national product (GNP) as the basis for studying national economies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Workplace safety. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... President Lyndon Baines Johnson The term Equal Opportunity Employment was created by President Lyndon Baines Johnson when he signed Executive Order 11246 which was created to prohibit federal contractors from discriminating against employees on the basis of age, race, sex, religion, color, or national origin. ... Job Analysis refers to various methodologies for analyzing the requirements of a job. ... A job fair is also referred commonly as a career fair or career expo. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an essay. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Labor power (in German: Arbeitskraft, or labor force) is a crucial concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. ... Matching means: In graph theory, a matching in a graph is a set of edges without common vertices. ... Personnel selection is the process used to hire (or, less commonly, promote) individuals. ... Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy. ... Fired and Firing redirect here. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function, usually undertaken by recruiters. ... Referral recruitment is a process whereby vacancies are promoted and filled by recommendations rather than by traditional methods such as direct classified job advertisements or by employing a headhunter. ... Employment rate : The proportion of working age adults employed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Occupational Illness. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Look up Employment in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • NBER, Science and Engineering Workforce Project
  • UK gov Local Business Link
  • International guidelines and resolutions on employment related concepts

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