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Encyclopedia > Empire of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911)
The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911)

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire"[1]. Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. ... Download high resolution version (1144x900, 272 KB)Map, The Byzantine Empire, 1265. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Tamar (Georgian: თამარი; 1160–1213), from the House of Bagrationi, was Queen of the Kingdom of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. ... Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas KomnÄ“nos), (c. ... Traditional rural Pontic house The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: Πόντιοι, Ποντιακοί or Έλληνες του Πόντου, Turkish: Pontuslular or Pontus Rumları) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from the... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ...

Contents

Foundation

When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos and a descendant of King David the Builder of Georgia through his mother Rusudan (daughter of George III of Georgia), made Trebizond (referred by Georgians as "Trapizoni") his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I Komnēnos) (c. ... David the Builder (David IV Bagrationi) (1073 - January 24, 1125) was a King of Georgia (1089-1125). ... Rusudan was the younger daughter of King Giorgi III of Georgia and of his wife, Burdukhan (Gurandukht), daughter of Khuddan, King of Ossetia. ... Giorgi III Giorgi III (გიორგი III) (d. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204. Manuel Komnenos (born 1145) was the eldest son of Andronikos Komnenos (who was Byzantine Emperor 1183-1185) by his first wife, whose name is not recorded. ... Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 - January, 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. ... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ...


The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called the Komnenian empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I...


Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214. NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Borçka is a district of Artvin Province of Turkey. ... For other meanings of Sinop/Sinope, see Sinope Sinop (also Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on the coast of the Black Sea, in the modern region of Galatia in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... Shows the Location of the Province Sinop Sinop is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. ... Location of Ordu Province Ordu is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. ... shows the Location of the Province Giresun Giresun is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Location of Trabzon Province Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Location of Bayburt Province Bayburt is a province of Turkey. ... Gumushane (Turkish Gümüşhane) is a province in north Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the East, Trabzon, to the North, Giresun and Erzincan to the west. ... Location of Rize Province Rize is a province of Turkey and is located along the eastern part of the Black Sea coast. ... Artvin Province is a province in north-eastern Turkey next to the Black Sea and Georgia (country). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Perateia (beyond the sea) was the overseas territory of the Empire of Trebizond. ... Tauric Chersonesos, Greek Χερσονασος (Chersones, Khersones, Korsun, Russian: Херсонес) was the Greek settlement founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimean (Taurian) Peninsula. ... Kerch (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: , Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, is an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... David Komnenos (c. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... Heraclea Pontica (mod. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of...


Prosperity

While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia. The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... What exactly constitutes an Empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government) is a topic of intense debate within the scholarly community. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment. Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia mainly connecting Changan (todays Xian) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas KomnÄ“nos), (October 5, 1338–March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. ...


Climax and civil war

The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Saljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas KomnÄ“nos), (c. ... David Komnenos (c. ... Manuel I, (died 1263), emperor of Trebizond, surnamed the Great Captain, was the second son of Alexius I, first emperor of Trebizond, and ruled from 1228 to 1263. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Categories: People stubs | Emperors of Trebizond | Trapezuntine Empire ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios II Megas KomnÄ“nos), (1282–1330), Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. ... Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas KomnÄ“nos), (October 5, 1338–March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. ...


Decline and fall

Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops. Manuel III Comnenus was the Emperor of Trebizond from 1390 until 1417. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field... Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios IV Megas KomnÄ“nos), (1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from March 5, 1417 to October 1429. ... Jahan Shah (died 1467), was a leader of Turkmen tribal federation Kara Koyunlu. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek Ιωάννης Η Παλαιολόγος, IōannÄ“s VIII Palaiologos) (December 18 1392 – October 31, 1448), was Byzantine Emperor from 1425 to 1448. ...


John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute. John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, IōannÄ“s IV Megas KomnÄ“nos), (c. ... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى Meḥmed-i sānÄ«, Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ...


John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. Uzun Hassan, prince of the Ak-Koyunla dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, ruled parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1435 and 1478. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ...


After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother. David Comnenus (died November 1, 1463), the last ruling member of the Comnenus Dynasty which had produced such Byzantine Emperors as Alexius I, ruled the Empire of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ...


Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461. Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ...


With the fall of Trebizond, the last territory of the Roman Empire was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine emperors

Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos), (c. ... Andronikos I Gidos or Andronicus I Gidus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α΄ Γίδος), (ruled 1222–1235), Emperor of Trebizond succeeded his father-in-law, Alexios I of Trebizond in 1222. ... John I Axuch, Grand Comnenus and Emperor of Trebizond, the eldest son of Alexius I, succeeded his uncle, Andronicus I in 1235. ... Manuel I, (died 1263), emperor of Trebizond, surnamed the Great Captain, was the second son of Alexius I, first emperor of Trebizond, and ruled from 1228 to 1263. ... Andronikos II Megas Komnenos or Andronicus II (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos II Megas Komnēnos), (c. ... George, Grand Comnenus and Emperor of Trebizond, succeeded his half brother Andronicus II in 1266. ... Categories: People stubs | Emperors of Trebizond | Trapezuntine Empire ... Theodora Comnena (before 1253 - after 1285) was a daughter of Trapezuntine Emperor Manuel I and his second wife, a Georgian princess, Rusudan. ... Categories: People stubs | Emperors of Trebizond | Trapezuntine Empire ... Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios II Megas Komnēnos), (1282–1330), Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. ... Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos), (c. ... Manuel II (c. ... Basil Comnenus (d. ... Irena Palaeologina (c. ... Anna Anachoutlou Comnena (d. ... Michael Comnenus (1285 - after 1355) was a younger son of Trapezuntine Emperor John II and Eudocia Palaeologina. ... Anna Anachoutlou Comnena (d. ... John III (c. ... Michael Comnenus (1285 - after 1355) was a younger son of Trapezuntine Emperor John II and Eudocia Palaeologina. ... Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos), (October 5, 1338–March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. ... Manuel III Comnenus was the Emperor of Trebizond from 1390 until 1417. ... Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios IV Megas Komnēnos), (1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from March 5, 1417 to October 1429. ... John IV Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos), (c. ... David Comnenus (died November 1, 1463), the last ruling member of the Comnenus Dynasty which had produced such Byzantine Emperors as Alexius I, ruled the Empire of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461. ...

List of Trapezuntine people

Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... George of Trebizond (1395- August 12, 1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond. ... Michael Panaretos (1320 - ca. ... Gregory Choniades (Choniates, Chioniades) (d. ... Joannes Xiphilinus, a native of Trebizond, also known as John Xiphilinus or John VIII, was patriarch of Constantinople from 1064-1075. ...

References

  • Michael Panaretos: Chronicle
  • Johannes Bessarion: The praise of Trebizond
  • Miller, W., Trebizond: The Last Greek Empire, (1926; repr. Chicago: Argonaut Publishers, 1968)
  • Fyodor Uspensky, From the history of the Empire of Trabizond (Ocherki iz istorii Trapezuntskoy Imperii), Leningrad, 1929, 160 pp: a monograph in Russian.
  • Levan Urushadze, The Comnenus of Trabizond and the Bagrationi dynasty of Georgia. — J. "Tsiskari", Tbilisi, No 4, 1991, pp. 144–148: in Georgian.
  • Karpov, Sergei P. L' impero di Trebisonda, Venezia, Genova e Roma, 1204-1461. Rapporti politici, diplomatici e commerciali. Roma, 1986, 321 P.
  • Karpov, Sergei P. The Empire of Trebizond and the nations of Western Europe, 1204-1461. Moscow, 1981, 231 pp (in Russian).
  • Shukurov, Rustam M. The Megas Komnenos and the Orient (1204-1461). Saint Petersburg, 2001, 446 pp (in Russian).

Fyodor Ivanovich Uspensky or Uspenskij (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Успенский) was the preeminent Russian Byzantinist in the first third of the 20th century. ...

See also

The Ayasofya museum is a former church and mosque located in the city of Trabzon in Turkey. ... The Sumela Monastery (Turkish: Sümela Manastırı) stands at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley in the region of Maçka in Trabzon Province, Turkey. ...

External links

  • Brief History of Trabzon from ancient to Medieval

  Results from FactBites:
 
Empire of Trebizond - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1160 words)
When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the so-called Despotate of Epirus.
Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gumushane, Rise and Artvin.
Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese.
Trabzon (673 words)
It remained a city under the rule of one empire or another for some time, and gained importance under Roman rule in the 1st century AD because it was the nearest port to the Armenian frontier.
Alexius Comnenus, a grandson of emperor Andronicus I Comnenus, made Trebizond the seat of an empire, and because of this connection the polity was sometimes referred to as the Comnenus Empire.
Trebizond controlled an area across the southern Black Sea coast, and parts of the Crimean peninsula and Kerch briefly in the thirteenth century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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