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Encyclopedia > Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. It lasted from 1204 to 1261. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, conquered the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of...

Contents


Foundation

The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain.
The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain.

In 1204, Byzantine emperor Alexius V fled Constantinople rather than face the crusader army in battle. Theodore Lascaris, the son-in-law of Emperor Alexius III, was proclaimed emperor, but he too fled, to the city of Nicaea in Bithynia, realizing the situation in Constantinople was hopeless. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... ![ crionica | http://crionica. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Alexius V Ducas Murtzouphlos, Byzantine emperor, was proclaimed emperor on February 5, 1204, during the siege of Constantinople by the Latins (Fourth Crusade). ... This article is about the medieval Crusades . ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Alexius III Angelus, Byzantine emperor, was the second son of Andronicus Angelus, nephew of Alexius I. In 1195, while his brother Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, he was proclaimed emperor by the troops; he captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and kept him henceforth... Nicaea (now İznik) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Bithynia was an ancient province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Black Sea (Euxine). ...


The Latin Empire which was established by the crusaders in Constantinople had poor control over former Byzantine territory, and Byzantine successor states sprang up in Epirus and Trebizond as well as Nicaea. Nicaea, however, was the closest to the Latin Empire and was in the best position to attempt to re-establish the Byzantine Empire. Theodore Lascaris was not immediately successful, as he was defeated at Poemanenum and Bursa in 1204, but he was able to capture much of northwestern Anatolia after the Latin Emperor Baldwin I had to defend against invasions from Kaloyan of Bulgaria. Theodore also defeated an army from Trebizond, as well as other minor rivals, leaving him in charge of the most powerful of the successor states. In 1206 Theodore proclaimed himself emperor at Nicaea. The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... ![ crionica | http://crionica. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish associated with Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion... Baldwin I (1172 - 1205), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ...


Numerous truces and alliances were formed and broken over the next few years, as the Byzantine successor states, the Latin Empire, the Bulgarians, and the Seljuks of Iconium (whose territory also bordered Nicaea) fought each other. Theodore tried to validate his claim by naming a new Patriarch of Constantinople in Nicaea. In 1219 he married the daughter of Latin Empress Yolanda of Flanders, but he died in 1222 and was succeeded by his son-in-law John III Ducas Vatatzes. The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Frederick II the Quarrelsome, last Babenberg Duke of Austria Deaths Jayavarman VII, ruler of the Khmer Empire Minamoto no Sanetomo, third shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan Monarchs/Presidents... Yolanda of Flanders (d. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... John III Ducas Vatatzes (1193 - November 3, 1254) was Byzantine Emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1222 to 1254. ...


Expansion

In 1224 the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica was captured by the Despot of Epirus, but Epirus itself came under Bulgarian control in 1230. With Trebizond lacking any real power, Nicaea was the only Byzantine state left, and John III expanded his territory into the Aegean Sea. In 1235 he allied with Ivan II of Bulgaria, allowing him to extend his influence over Thessalonica and Epirus. In 1242 the Mongols invaded Seljuk territory to the west of Nicaea, and although John III was worried they may attack him next, they ended up eliminating the Seljuk threat to Nicaea. In 1245 John allied with the Holy Roman Empire by marrying Constance Anna, daughter of Frederick II. By 1248 John had defeated the Bulgarians and surrounded the Latin Empire. He continued to take land from the Latins until his death in 1254. Events Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Holy See... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... the Aegean Sea The Aegean sea as seen from the island of Santorini The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίον Πέλαγος, Aigaion Pelagos; Turkish: Ege Denizi) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Greek peninsula and Anatolia (Asia Minor, now part of Turkey). ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... ... Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... Events Louis IX of France departs on the Seventh Crusade for Egypt Kingdom of Castile captures city of Seville from Muslims Cologne cathedral: old cathedral burns down April 30; foundation stone to current cathedral laid August 15 Births Deaths January 4 - King Sancho II of Portugal, in exile in Toledo... Events December 2 - Manfred of Sicily defeats army of Pope Innocent IV at Foggia. ...


Theodore II Lascaris, John III’s son, faced invasions from the Bulgarians in Thrace, but successfully defended the territory. Epirus also revolted and allied with Manfred of Sicily, and Theodore II died in 1258. John IV Lascaris succeeded him, but as he was still a child he was under the regency of the general Michael Palaeologus. Michael proclaimed himself co-emperor (as Michael VIII) in 1259, and soon defeated a combined invasion by Manfred, the Despot of Epirus, and the Latin Prince of Achaea at the Battle of Pelagonia. Theodore II Lascaris (died August 1258) was Byzantine emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1254 to 1258. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Manfred (c. ... Events= February 10 - Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing 800,000 citizens Llywelyn the Last declares himself Prince of Wales. ... John IV Lascaris was only a boy of 8 years when he was elevated as emperor of the Nicaean Empire in 1258 on the death of his father Theodore II Lascaris. ... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The Principality of Achaea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Battle of Pelagonia took place in September of 1259, between the Empire of Nicaea and the Principality of Achaea. ...


Recapture of Constantinople

Coin issued by Michael VIII Palaeologus to celebrate the liberation of Costantinople from the Latin army, and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire.
Enlarge
Coin issued by Michael VIII Palaeologus to celebrate the liberation of Costantinople from the Latin army, and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire.

In 1260 Michael began the assault on Constantinople itself, which his predecessors had been unable to do. He allied with Genoa, and his general Alexios Strategopoulos spent months observing Constantinople in order to plan his attack. In July of 1261, as most of the Latin army was fighting elsewhere, Alexius was able to convince the guards to open the gates of the city. Once inside he burned the Venetian quarter (as Venice was an enemy of Genoa, and had been largely responsible for the capture of the city in 1204). Michael was recognized as emperor a few weeks later, restoring the Byzantine Empire. Image File history File links Michael VIII Palaeologus AV Hyperpyron. ... Image File history File links Michael VIII Palaeologus AV Hyperpyron. ... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan Emperor Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan September 3 - Mongols defeated by Mameluks at Battle of Ain Jalut Samogatians and Curonians defeats Teutonic knights in Battle of Durbe Births Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian Deaths Monarchs/Presidents... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ...


The inhabitants of the restored empire considered the Empire of Nicaea the true successor to the Byzantine Empire, although the Empire of Trebizond still existed, as did the Latin Principality of Achaea. Achaea was soon recaptured, but Trebizond remained independent. The restored empire also faced a new threat from the Ottoman Empire, when it arose to replace the defeated Seljuks. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto of sultan Abdülaziz El-Muzaffer Daima (Ottoman Turkish for the Ever Victorious) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (İstanbul) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ...


Emperors of Nicaea


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nicaea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (964 words)
Nicaea (now İznik) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church.
Nicaea (Greek Nikaia; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was originally founded around 310 BC by the Macedonian king Antigonus, who had taken control of much of Asia Minor upon the death of Alexander the Great (under whom he served as a general).
However it was Nicaea that formed the core of the successor Byzantine Empire after Theodore Lascaris (who became Theodore I) founded the Empire of Nicaea there.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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