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Encyclopedia > Empire of Japan
大日本帝國
Dai Nippon Teikoku
Greater Japanese Empire

 

 

1868 – 1945
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Imperial Seal
Anthem
"Kimi ga Yo"
"Imperial Reign"
Capital Tokyo
Government Constitutional monarchy
Emperor
 - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji
 - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō
 - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa
Prime Minister
 - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi
 - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka
 - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo
 - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi
 - 1901-1906, 1908-1911 Katsura Tarō
 - 1913-1914, 1923-1924 Yamamoto Gonnohyōe
History
 - Meiji Restoration January 3, 1868
 - Prefecture reform August 29, 1871
 - Constitution November 29, 1890
 - Surrender September 2, 1945
Area 675,000 km² (260,619 sq mi)
Population
 -  est. 97,770,000 
     Density 144.8 /km²  (375.1 /sq mi)
Currency Yen
Population estimate at 1935

The Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku; officially Empire of Greater Japan or Greater Japanese Empire; more widely known as Imperial Japan or the Japanese Empire) was a political entity in the Japanese history that existed during the period from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to its defeat in World War II in 1945. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Image File history File links Mon-Tokugawa. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The flag of the Ryukyu Kingdom (1875-1879) The RyÅ«kyÅ« Kingdom (Ryukyuan: 琉球王国, Traditional Chinese: then officially 琉球國) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The national flag of Japan, known as Nisshōki (日章旗 sun flag) or Hinomaru (日の丸 sun disc) in Japanese, is a base white flag with a large red disc (representing the rising sun) in the center. ... The Imperial Seal of Japan is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Score of Kimi ga Yo Kimi ga Yo ), often translated as May your reign last forever is Japans National Anthem, and is also one of the worlds shortest national anthems in current use. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixels, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Empire of Japan with expansion during the Greater Japanese Empire period. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Itō Hirobumi , 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese statesman, Resident-General of Korea, four times Prime Minister of Japan (the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th) and genrō. Itō was assassinated by An Jung-geun, a Korean anti-Japanese... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... Prince Aritomo Yamagata ) (14 June 1838–1 February 1922) was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. ... Prince Saionji Kinmochi ), (23 October 1849 –24 November 1940) was a Japanese politician, statesman and twice Prime Minister of Japan. ... Tarō Katsura ) (4 January 1848 - 10 October 1913), was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, politician and three-time Prime Minister of Japan. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Yamamoto Yamamoto Gonbee ) (26 November 1852–8 December 1933), also called Gonnohyōe[1], was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and the 16th (20 February 1913–16 April 1914) and 22nd (2 September 1923–7 January 1924) Prime Minister... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Pre-History/The Origin of History Jomon Period Main... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The country's rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyohei富国強兵 (Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military), led to its emergence as a world power eventually culminating with its membership in the Axis alliance and the conquest of a large part of the Asia-Pacific region. Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ... Fukoku kyohei (富国強兵), enrich the country, strengthen the military, was Japans national slogan during the Meiji Era, replacing sonno joi. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia-Pacific generally applies to littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ...


The Empire of Japan, after suffering numerous defeats during the Pacific War and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, surrendered to the Allies on September 2, 1945. A period of occupation by the Allies followed the surrender and dissolution of the Empire and a new constitution was created with American involvement. American occupation and reconstruction of the country continued well into the 1950s eventually forming the current modern Japan. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ...


The Emperors during this time, which spanned the Meiji, Taishō and Shōwa eras, are now known by their posthumous names which coincide with those era names: Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito), Emperor Taishō (Yoshihito) and Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito). For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...

Contents

Terminology

Although the empire is commonly referred to as "the Japanese Empire" or "Imperial Japan" in English, the literal translation from Japanese is Greater Japanese Empire (Dai Nippon Teikoku). The nomenclature Empire of Japan had existed since the feudal anti-shogunate domains, Satsuma and Chōshū, which founded their new government during the Meiji Restoration, with the intention of forming a modern state to resist western domination. Literal translation refers to the result of translating text from one language to another; translating each word independently as opposed to translating the entire phrase. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... ChōshÅ« Han ) was a feudal Domain of Japan during the Edo period from 1603 to 1867 occupying the whole of modern day Yamaguchi Prefecture. ...


Meiji Restoration

After two centuries, the seclusion policy, or Sakoku, under the shoguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was forced open to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. The following years had seen increased foreign trade and interaction, commercial treaties between the Tokugawa Shogunate and Western countries were signed. In large part due to the humiliating terms of these Unequal Treaties, the Shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical, xenophobic movement, the sonnō jōi (literally "Revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians").[1] The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... Xenophobia means fear of strangers or the unknown and comes from the Greek ξενοφοβια, xenophobia, literally meaning fear of the strange. It is often used to describe fear of or dislike of foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a... Sonnō jōi (尊皇攘夷) is a Japanese political philosophy and a social movement, which was derived from Neo-Confucianism; it was also a political slogan in 1850s-60s, meaning Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians, or being commonly translated as The origin of the philosophy can be seen in Takenouchi Shikibu...


In March 1863 the "Order to expel barbarians" issued. Although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it nevertheless inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan. The Namamugi Incident during 1862 led to the murder of an Englishman, Charles Lennox Richardson by a party of samurai from Satsuma. The British demanded reparations and responded by bombarding the port of Kagoshima in 1863, for his death the Tokugawa government agreed to pay an indemnity.[2] Shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki and attacks against foreign propery led to the Bombardment of Shimonoseki by a multinational force in 1864.[3] The Chōshū clan also carried out the failed Hamaguri Rebellion. The Satsuma-Chōshū alliance was established in 1866 to combine their efforts to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu. In early 1867, Emperor Komei died of smallpox and was replaced by his son Mutsuhito(Meiji). The Order to expel barbarians (Japanese:攘夷勅命, also 攘夷実行の勅命) was an edict issued by the Japanese Emperor Kōmei in 1863 against the Westernization of Japan following the opening of the country by Commodore Perry in 1854. ... The Namamugi Incident, as depicted in a 19th century Japanese woodcut print. ... Charles Lennox Richardson was the English merchant from Shanghai who was in Japan and was murdered by the Satsuma retainers of Shimazu Hisamitsu on September 14, 1862. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... The Anglo-Satsuma War (Japanese Satsu-Ei Sensou) took place in August 1863. ... Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864. ... The rebellion at the Hamaguri Gate (蛤御門の変 Hamagurigomon no Hen) of the Imperial Palace in Kyōto took place on August 20, 1864 and reflected the discontent of pro-imperial and anti-alien groups. ... The Sat-Cho Alliance ) was a military alliance between Satsuma and ChōshÅ« formed in 1866 to combine their efforts to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu. ...


On November 9, 1867 Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned his post and authorities to the emperor, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" imperial orders.[4]The Tokugawa Shogunate had ended.[5] However, while Yoshinobu's resignation had created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. Moreover, the shogunal government, the Tokugawa family in particular, would remain a prominent force in the evolving political order and would retain many executive powers,[6]a prospect hard-liners from Satsuma and Chōshū found intolerable.[7] is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ...


On January 3, 1868, Satsuma-Chōshū forces seized the imperial palace in Kyoto, and the following day had the fifteen-year-old Emperor Meiji declare his own restoration to full power. Although the majority of the imperial consultative assembly was happy with the formal declaration of direct rule by the court and tended to support a continued collaboration with the Tokugawa, Saigō Takamori threatened the assembly into abolishing the title "shogun" and order the confiscation of Yoshinobu's lands.[8] is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...


On January 17, 1868, Yoshinobu declared "that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the Restoration and called on the court to rescind it." [9] On January 24, Yoshinobu decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, occupied by Satsuma and Chōshū forces. This decision was prompted by his learning of a series of arsons in Edo, starting with the burning of the outworks of Edo Castle, the main Tokugawa residence.


Boshin War

Main article: Boshin War
Campaign map of the Boshin War (1868–1869). The Southern domains of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa (in red) joined forces to defeat the Shogunate forces at Toba-Fushimi, and then progressively took control of the rest of Japan until the final stand-off in the northern island of Hokkaidō
Campaign map of the Boshin War (1868–1869). The Southern domains of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa (in red) joined forces to defeat the Shogunate forces at Toba-Fushimi, and then progressively took control of the rest of Japan until the final stand-off in the northern island of Hokkaidō

The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō?, "War of the Year of the Dragon") fought between January 1868 and May 1869. The alliance of southern samurai and court officials had now secured the cooperation of the young Emperor Meiji who dissolved the two-hundred-year-old Shogunate. Violence committed by pro-imperial forces in Edo led Tokugawa Yoshinobu to launch a military campaign to seize the emperor's court at Kyoto. However, the tide rapidly turned in favor of the smaller but relatively modernized imperial faction and resulted in defections of Daimyos to the Imperial side; the Battle of Toba-Fushimi being a decisive victory — in which a combined army from Chōshū, Tosa and Satsuma defeated Yoshinobu's army. A series of battles were then fought in pursuit of supporters of Yoshinobu; Edo surrendered to the Imperial forces and afterwards Yoshinobu personally surrendered. Yoshinobu was stripped of all his power by new Emperor Meiji, most of Japan now accepted the emperor's rule. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1304 × 1402 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Boshin War. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1304 × 1402 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Boshin War. ... The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ... The Battle of Toba-Fushimi (Japanese:鳥羽・伏見の戦い) occurred between pro-Imperial and Shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. ...


The remnants pro-Tokugawa forces(led by Hijikata Toshizo), however, then retreated to northern Honshū and later to Ezo(present day Hokkaidō), where they established the breakaway Republic of Ezo. An Expeditionary force was despatched by the new government and the Ezo forces were overwhelmed. The siege of Hakodate came to an early end in May 1869 and the remaining forces surrendered. Imperial rule was supreme throughout the whole of Japan; all defiance to the emperor and his rule ended.   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Ezo Republic Commanders Kuroda Kiyotaka Enomoto Takeaki Strength 7,000 combatants 10 steam warships 3,000 combatants 11 steam warships Casualties 770 casualties 1 ship sunk 1 ship destroyed 1,300 killed 400 wounded 1,300 captured 2 ships sunk 3 ships captured 3 ships lost...


Five Charter Oath

Main article: Charter Oath

The Charter Oath was made public at the enthronement of Emperor Meiji of Japan on 7 April 1868. The Oath outlined the main aims and the course of action to be followed during Emperor Meiji's reign, setting the legal stage for Japan's modernization and can also be considered the first constitution of modern Japan.[10] The Charter Oath as officially published. ...


The aims of the Meiji leaders were also to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of The Meiji oligarchy, as the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan is known to historians, was a privileged clique that exercised imperial power, sometimes despotically. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

  • Establishment of deliberative assemblies
  • Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs
  • The revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment
  • Replacement of "evil customs" with the "just laws of nature"
  • An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.

Meiji era (1868-1912)

Main article: Meiji period
Emperor Meiji, the first emperor of the Empire of Japan (1867–1912)
Emperor Meiji, the first emperor of the Empire of Japan (1867–1912)
Merchant Thomas Blake Glover received second highest order of Japan, Order of the Rising Sun with Gold and Silver Star (2nd class) from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan and its industrialization
Merchant Thomas Blake Glover received second highest order of Japan, Order of the Rising Sun with Gold and Silver Star (2nd class) from Emperor Meiji in recognition of his contributions to Japan and its industrialization

Several prominent writers under the constant threat of assassination from their political foes, such as Fukuzawa Yukichi were influential in convincing Japanese people for westernization. For instance some of his works that were well known were "Conditions in the West", "Leaving Asia", and "An Outline of a Theory of Civilization" that detailed Western society and his own philosophies. In the Meiji Restoration period, military and economic power was well emphasized. Military strength became the means for national development and stability. Imperial Japan became the only non-Western world power and a major force in east and southeast Asia in less than 30-50 years as a result of industrialization and economic development. The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Image File history File links Meiji_Emperor. ... Image File history File links Meiji_Emperor. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Blake_Glover. ... Image File history File links Thomas_Blake_Glover. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Thomas Blake Glover. ... // Order may refer to: Religious Holy Orders, the rite or sacrament in which clergy are ordained The monastic orders, originating with Anthony the Great and Benedict of Nursia from circa 300 the military orders of the crusades the various chivalric orders established since the 14th century Honors Order (decoration) Legal... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Fukuzawa Yukichi (福澤 諭吉 Yukichi Fukuzawa, January 10, 1835 - February 3, 1901) was a Japanese author, writer, teacher, entrepreneur and political theorist and founder of the Keio University whose ideas about government and social institutions made a lasting impression on a rapidly changing Japan during the period known as the Meiji Era. ... This article is about the influence of western culture. ... Datsu-A Ron (Japanese Kyūjitai: , Shinjitai: ) was an editorial which was first published on the Japanese newspaper called Jiji Shimpo on March 16, 1885. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...


As one writer Albrecht Furst von Urach comments in his booklet "The Secret of Japan's Strength," A booklet is a small book. ...

The rise of Japan to a world power during the past 80 years is the greatest miracle in world history. The mighty empires of antiquity, the major political institutions of the Middle Ages and the early modern era, the Spanish Empire, the British Empire, all needed centuries to achieve their full strength. Japan's rise has been meteoric. After only 80 years, it is one of the few great powers that determine the fate of the world.

[11]

HIH Princess Kaneko Higashi-fushimi in western clothing
HIH Princess Kaneko Higashi-fushimi in western clothing

The sudden and fast westernization once adopted changed almost all arenas of Japanese society ranging from language, etiquette, judicial and political system, armaments, arts, etc. Japanese government sent students to Western countries to observe and learn their practices as well as paying foreign scholars to Japan to educate the populace, the so called "foreign advisors" coming in from variety of studies. For instance the judicial system and constitution were largely modeled on that of Germany. It also outlawed customs linked to Japan's feudal such as displaying and wearing katana in the public and top knot both of which were characteristic of the samurai class, which were abolished all together with the caste system. This would later bring the Meiji government into conflict with the Samurai.(Satsuma Rebellion) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixels Full resolution (500 × 739 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: HIH Princess Higashifushimi Kaneko, daughter of Iwakura Tomomi, consort of Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Source: National Diet Library Archives File links The following pages on... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 599 pixels Full resolution (500 × 739 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: HIH Princess Higashifushimi Kaneko, daughter of Iwakura Tomomi, consort of Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Source: National Diet Library Archives File links The following pages on... For other uses, see Princess (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Katana (disambiguation). ... The chonmage (丁髷, ちょんまげ) is a form of Japanese traditional haircut worn by men. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army...


Moreover the Meiji government brought numerous armaments, ships and such that to build their conscription based national army (Imperial Japanese Army) and navy (Imperial Japanese Navy). The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


Constitution

上諭—"The Emperor's words" parts of constitution
上諭—"The Emperor's words" parts of constitution

The constitution also recognized the aforementioned acknowledgment of a need for change and modernization after removal of the shogunate: The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was the constitution of Japan from 1889-1946. ... Image File history File links Meiji_Kenpo02. ... Image File history File links Meiji_Kenpo02. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ...

We, the Successor to the prosperous Throne of Our Predecessors, do humbly and solemnly swear to the Imperial Founder of Our House and to Our other Imperial Ancestors that, in pursuance of a great policy co-extensive with the Heavens and with the Earth, We shall maintain and secure from decline the ancient form of government...In consideration of the progressive tendency of the course of human affairs and in parallel with the advance of civilization, We deem it expedient, in order to give clearness and distinctness to the instructions bequeathed by the Imperial Founder of Our House and by Our other Imperial Ancestors, to establish fundamental laws....

Imperial Japan was founded, de jure, after the 1889 signing of Constitution of the Empire of Japan. The constitution formalized much of its political structure and gave many responsibilities and powers to the Emperor. Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was the constitution of Japan from 1889-1946. ...


Article 4. The Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and exercises them, according to the provisions of the present Constitution.


Article 6. The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.


Article 11. The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and Navy.[12]


Although it was in this constitution that the title Empire of Japan was officially used for the first time, it was not until 1936 that this title was legalized. Until then, the names "Nippon" (日本; Japan), "Dai-Nippon" (大日本; Greater Japan), "Dai-Nippon/-Nihon Koku" (日本國; State of Japan), "Nihon Teikoku" (日本帝國; Empire of Japan) were all used.


Economic development

Main article: Economic history of Japan#From the Meiji Restoration Till World War II
1 yen convertible silver note issued in 1885
1 yen convertible silver note issued in 1885

The process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government, enhancing the power of the great zaibatsu firms such as Mitsui and Mitsubishi. Hand in hand, the zaibatsu and government guided the nation, borrowing technology from the West. Japan gradually took control of much of Asia's market for manufactured goods, beginning with textiles. The economic structure became very mercantilistic, importing raw materials and exporting finished products — a reflection of Japan's relative scarcity of raw materials. The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (536 × 628 pixels, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (536 × 628 pixels, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ... Mitsui Group ) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ...


Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time but was completed by the 1890s. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons. Many of the former daimyo, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum, benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging industries. Japanese 10 yen coin (obverse) showing Phoenix Hall of Byodoin Yen is the currency used in Japan. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


The government was initially involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern period. After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments.


Japan emerged from the Tokugawa-Meiji transition as the first Asian industrialized nation. From the onset, the Meiji rulers embraced the concept of a market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism. Rapid growth and structural change characterized Japan's two periods of economic development after 1868. Initially, the economy grew only moderately and relied heavily on traditional Japanese agriculture to finance modern industrial infrastructure. By the time the Russo-Japanese War began in 1904, 65% of employment and 38% of the gross domestic product (GDP) was still based on agriculture, but modern industry had begun to expand substantially. By the late 1920s, manufacturing and mining contributed to 23% of GDP, compared with the 21% for all of agriculture. Transportation and communications developed to sustain heavy industrial development. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ...


From 1894, Japan built an extensive empire that included Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria, and parts of northern China. The Japanese regarded this sphere of influence as a political and economic necessity, preventing foreign states from strangling Japan by blocking its access to raw materials and crucial sea-lanes. Japan's large military force was regarded as essential to the empire's defense and prosperity through obtaining natural resources, which the Japanese islands were lacking in. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... Prosperity is best achieved when one creates wealth with wealth, be it ones own wealth (equity) or the wealth of another (debt). ...


First Sino-Japanese War

Main article: First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
Fleet Admiral Marquis Togo Heihachiro commander during First Sino-Japanese War
Fleet Admiral Marquis Togo Heihachiro commander during First Sino-Japanese War

Prior to its engagement in the First World War, the Empire of Japan fought in two significant wars after its establishment following the Meiji Revolution. The first was the First Sino-Japanese War, fought between 1894 and 1895. The war revolved around the issue of control and influence over Korea under the rule of the Joseon Dynasty. A peasant rebellion led to a request by the Korean government for China to send troops in to stabilize the region. The Empire of Japan responded by sending their own force to Korea and installing a puppet government in Seoul. China objected and war ensued. In a brief affair with Japanese ground troops routing Chinese forces on the Liaodong Peninsula, and the near destruction of the Chinese navy in the Battle of the Yalu River. China was forced to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ceded parts of Manchuria and the island of Formosa to Japan (see Taiwan under Japanese rule and Japanese Invasion of Taiwan (1895)). After this war, regional dominance shifted from China to Japan. Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (781x1023, 153 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): First Sino-Japanese War Empire of Japan Maps of North Korea Maps of South Korea Template:Maps of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (781x1023, 153 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): First Sino-Japanese War Empire of Japan Maps of North Korea Maps of South Korea Template:Maps of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x685, 48 KB) en: Tōgō Heihachirō ja: 東鄕平八郞(1848-1934) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Togo Heihachiro Empire of Japan ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x685, 48 KB) en: Tōgō Heihachirō ja: 東鄕平八郞(1848-1934) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Togo Heihachiro Empire of Japan ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Battle of the Yalu River, also called simply The Battle of Yalu took place on September 17, 1894. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... The Japanese colonial period, Japanese rule or the Japanese occupation[1], in the context of Taiwans history, refers to the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. ... Combatants Republic of Formosa Empire of Japan Commanders Tang Ching-sung Liu Yung-fu Chiu Feng-chia Kabayama Sukenori Strength Regular: 35,000 Militia: ~100,000 Regular: 37,000 Auxiliary: ? Casualties Killed: 14,000 Wounded: ? Killed: 164 Wounded: 515 Diseased: 4,700 *The majority of the Formosan regular were Chinese...


Russo-Japanese War

Main article: Russo-Japanese War
Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea.
Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea.
Fleet Admiral Baron Goro Ijuin
Fleet Admiral Baron Goro Ijuin

The Russo-Japanese War was a conflict for control of Korea and parts of Manchuria by the Russian Empire and Empire of Japan that took place from 1904 to 1905. The war is significant as the first modern war where an Asian country defeated a European power. The victory greatly raised Japan's measure in the world of global politics. The war is marked by the Japanese rebuff of Russian interests in Korea, Manchuria, and China, notably, the Liaodong Peninsula, controlled by the city of Port Arthur. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1328, 370 KB) Japanese Admiral Ijuin Goro from Japanese National Diet Library Collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Ijuin Goro Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1328, 370 KB) Japanese Admiral Ijuin Goro from Japanese National Diet Library Collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Ijuin Goro Metadata This file... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... Goro Ijuin ) (29 September 1852–13 January 1921) was a Meiji-period career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Originally, in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Port Arthur had been given to Japan. This part of the treaty was overruled by Western powers, which gave the port to the Russian Empire, furthering Russian interests in the region. These interests came into conflict with Japanese interests. The war began with a surprise attack on the Russian Eastern fleet stationed at Port Arthur, which was followed by the Battle of Port Arthur. Those elements that attempted escape were defeated by the Japanese navy under Admiral Togo Heihachiro at the Battle of the Yellow Sea. A year later, the Russian Baltic fleet arrived only to be annihilated in the Battle of Tsushima. While the ground war did not fare as poorly for the Russians, the Japanese army was significantly more aggressive than their Russian counterparts and gained a political advantage that accumulated with the Treaty of Portsmouth negotiated in the United States by the American president Theodore Roosevelt. As a result, Russia lost the part of Sakhalin Island south of 50 degrees North latitude (which became the Karafuto Prefecture), as well as many mineral rights in Manchuria. In addition, Russia's defeat cleared the way for Japan to annex Korea outright in 1910. Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo, Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft Strength 4 battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 8 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 30 torpedo boats 6 battleships, 4 cruisers, 14 destroyers Casualties 226 killed and wounded 343 killed and wounded Location within China The Battle... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... The Russian and Japanese delegates around the negotiating table at the Portsmouth Navy Yard St The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Karafuto (樺太) is the Japanese name for the southern part of the island of Sakhalin or the entire island of Sakhalin. ... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ...


Taishō era (1912-1926)

Main article: Taishō era

The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness), or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926, coinciding with the reign of Emperor Taishō. The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in...

World War I

Map of Tsingtao, 1912, prior to the Battle of Tsingtao.
Map of Tsingtao, 1912, prior to the Battle of Tsingtao.
His Imperial Majesty Emperor Taishō, the second emperor of the Empire of Japan
His Imperial Majesty Emperor Taishō, the second emperor of the Empire of Japan

Japan entered World War I in 1914, seizing the opportunity of Germany's distraction with the European War and wanting to expand its sphere of influence in China. Japan declared war on Germany in August 23, 1914 and quickly occupied German-leased territories in China's Shandong Province and the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands in the Pacific, including German New Guinea. The Battle of Tsingtao, a swift invasion in the German colony of Jiaozhou (Kiautschou) proved successful and the colonial troops surrendered on 7 November 1914. Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Masatake_Terauchi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Masatake_Terauchi. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... Terauchi Masatake (寺内 正毅 February 5, 1852–November 3, 1919) was a Japanese politician and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from October 9, 1916 to September 29, 1918. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1585x1184, 960 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Battle of Tsingtao ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1585x1184, 960 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Battle of Tsingtao ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... Image File history File links Emperor_Taishō.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Emperor Taishō ... Image File history File links Emperor_Taishō.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Emperor Taishō ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Look up Caroline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ...


With Japan's Western allies, notably the United Kingdom, heavily involved in the war in Europe, it sought further to consolidate its position in China by presenting the Twenty-One Demands to China in January 1915. Besides expanding its control over the German holdings, Manchuria, and Inner Mongolia, Japan also sought joint ownership of a major mining and metallurgical complex in central China, prohibitions on China's ceding or leasing any coastal areas to a third power, and miscellaneous other political, economic, and military controls, which, if achieved, would have reduced China to a Japanese protectorate. In the face of slow negotiations with the Chinese government, widespread anti-Japanese sentiment in China, and international condemnation, Japan withdrew the final group of demands, and treaties were signed in May 1915. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anti-Japanese sentiment. ...


Siberian Intervention

Main article: Siberian Intervention

After the fall of the Tsarist regime and then provisional regime in 1917, the new Bolshevik signed a seperate peace with Germany. In 1918, the allies agreed to send an expeditionary force to Siberia to support pro-Tsarist White Russians and rescue the trapped Czech Legion. The Siberian Intervention ) of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Imperial Japanese Army to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by western powers to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War. ... The term White Russian may refer to: Members of the White movement whose military arm is known as the White Army or White Guard comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ...


In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops planned to support the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the Japanese command rather than as part of an international coalition. The Japanese had several hidden motives for the venture, one was an intense hostility and fear of communism, second a determination to recoup historical losses to Russia and lastly the perceived opportunity to settle the "northern problem" in Japan's security by either creating a buffer state, or through outright territorial acquisition. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was the involvement of U.S. troops, during the tail end of World War I and the Russian Revolution, in Vladivostok, Russia, from 1918 and 1920. ... Field Marshal Count Masatake Terauchi ) (5 February 1852 –3 November 1919) was Field Marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from 9 October 1916 to 29 September 1918. ...


By November 1918, more than 70,000 Japanese troops under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue had occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and eastern Siberia. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


In June 1920, America and its allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok after the capture and execution of White Army leader Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak by the Red Army. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan, and Japanese controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamur Government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic. Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Russian: Александр Васильевич Колчак, November 16 [O.S. November 4] 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... The Provisional Priamur Government existed in the Amur Krai, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922, the last White Army enclave during the Russian Civil War. ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ...


The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922. Casualties and expenses from the expedition were 5000 dead from combat or illness and over 900 million yen. Katō Tomosaburō Viscount Katō Tomosaburō (加藤 友三郎 Katō Tomosaburō, February 22, 1861–August 24, 1923) was a Japanese politician and the 21st Prime Minister of Japan from June 12, 1922 to August 24, 1923. ...


"Taishō Democracy"

The election of Kato Komei as Prime Minister of Japan continued democratic reforms that had been advocated by influential individuals on the left. This culminated in the passage of universal male suffrage in March 1925. This bill gave all male subjects over the age of 25 the right to vote, provided they had lived in their electoral districts for at least one year and were not homeless. The electorate thereby greatly increased from 3.3 million to 12.5 million.[13] Kato Takaaki Katō Takaaki (加藤 高明 January 3, 1860–January 28, 1926) was a Japanese politician and the 24th Prime Minister of Japan from June 11, 1924 to January 28, 1926. ...


Militarization and imperialist ambitions (1926-1937 early Shōwa)

Main article: Shōwa era

The Shōwa period , literally period of enlightened peace), or Shōwa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito), from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Military and social organizations

Main articles: Tokkou keisatu, Kempeitai, and Tokeitai

Important institutional links existed between the Party in Government (Kodoha) and Military and Political Organizations like the Imperial Young Federation, and the "Political Department" of the Kempeitai;Amongst the himitsu kessha (secret societies), the Kokuryu-kai (Black Dragon Society), and Kokka Shakai Shugi Gakumei (the National Socialist League) also had close ties to the government. The Tonarigumi (residents committee) groups, the Nation Service Society (national government trade union) and Imperial Farmers Association were all allied as well. See more:List of Japanese institutions (1930 - 1945) Special Higher Police ), often shortened to Tokko ) was a police force established in 1911 in Japan, specifically to investigate and control political groups and ideologies deemed to be a threat to public order. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ... The Imperial Way Faction (Kodoha) was a right-wing nationalist Japanese political grouping, active in the 1930s. ... Imperial Youth Federation The Imperial Youth Federation or Imperial Young Association was the local political organization charged to guiding all nationalist and militarists indoctrination at young people in Japan. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... Kokuryu-kai (Amur River Society), also known as the Black Dragon Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultra-nationalist right-wing group in Japan. ... The Tonarigumi (Residents Commitees) were localised political and surveillance bodies in Japan. ... The Japanese Imperial Farmers Association was an official was an official government group, that was compulsory to join for all farmers, and an important tool to force the implementation of government farming policies. ...


Other organizations and groups related with the government in wartime were: Double Leaf Society, Toseiha, Kodaha, Kokuhonsha, Taisei Yokusankai, Imperial Youth Corps, League of Diet Members Believing the Objectives of the Holy War, Tokko,Tokeitai, Keishicho (to 1945), Shintoist Rites Research Council, Treaty Faction, Fleet Faction and Imperial Volunteer Corps The Double Leaf Society (双葉会 Futabakai) was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s, comprising radical officers with a belief in ultranationalism and the need for a purge of the corrupt Choshu elements of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Toseiha (統制派) was a faction in the Japanese military, active in the 1920s and 1930s. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Kokuhonsha (Society for the Foundation of the State) was a Japanese secret society. ... The Taisei Yokusankai (大政翼賛会 Imperial Rule Assistance Association, or Imperial Aid Association) was created in 1940 by Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoye. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tokko (Tokubetsu Koto Keisatsu or Special Higher Police) was a police force established in 1901 in Japan. ... The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ... The Teikoku Keishichō (帝国警視庁) or Keishichō (Imperial Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department) was the regular and common criminal and civil security police service, in Tōkyō and nearby metropolitan areas, in Japan, from 1874 to 1945. ... The Shintoist Rites Research Council was a political-theological entity for research into all ancient Shinto rites and practices, founded in Japan by Count Kiichiro Hiranuma, to support State Shintoism. ... The Treaty Faction in the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s realized the Japanese economy could not support a large naval expansion. ... The Fleet Faction was a group within the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s times, who wanted unlimited naval growth to build the mightiest navy on the face of the earth; thus to challenge the supremacy of powers such as the United States and Russia. ... The Imperial Volunteer Corps was created in Japan during 1944-45, as armed civil defense units supporting the Japanese Armed Forces, and for the defense of the country in last decisive battle on the homeland. ...


Nationalistic factors

Main articles: Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan, Imperial Way Faction, and Japanese nationalism
General Sadao Araki
General Sadao Araki

Sadao Araki was an important figurehead and founder of the Army party and the most important right-wing thinker in that time; his first ideological works date from his leadership of the Kodaha (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group), opposed by the Toseiha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki. He linked the ancient (bushido code) and contemporary local and European fascist ideals (see Japanese fascism), to form the ideological basis of the movement (Shōwa nationalism). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (725 × 1186 pixel, file size: 276 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (725 × 1186 pixel, file size: 276 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Toseiha (統制派) was a faction in the Japanese military, active in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Kazushige Ugaki ). (9 August 1868 - 30 April 1956) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and twice Governor-General of Korea. ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


From September 1932, the Japanese were becoming more locked into the course that would lead them into the Second World War, with Araki leading the way. Totalitarianism, militarism and expansionism were to become the rule, with fewer voices able to speak against it. In a September 23 news conference, Araki first mentioned the philosophy of "Kodoha" (The Imperial Way Faction). The concept of Kodo linked the Emperor, the people, land and morality as indivisible. This led to the creation of a "new" Shinto and increased Emperor worship. Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... An Imperial cult is a cult in which an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors, are worshipped as demigods or deities. ...

Emperor Shōwa, the third emperor of the Empire of Japan
Emperor Shōwa, the third emperor of the Empire of Japan

The state was being transformed to serve the Army and the Emperor. Symbolic katana swords came back into fashion as the martial embodiment of these beliefs, and the Nambu pistol became its contemporary equivalent, with the implicit message that the Army doctrine of close combat would prevail. The final objective, as envisioned by Army thinkers and right-wing line followers, was a return to the old Shogunate system, but in the form of a contemporary Military Shogunate. In such a government the Emperor would once more be a figurehead (as in the Edo period). Real power would fall to a leader very similar to a Führer or Duce, though with the power less nakedly held. On the other hand, the traditionalist Navy militarists defended the Emperor and a constitutional monarchy with a significant religious aspect. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... For other uses, see Katana (disambiguation). ... The Nambu pistol was a semi-automatic pistol used by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy during the First and Second World Wars. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


A third point of view was supported by Prince Chichibu, a brother of Emperor Shōwa, who repeatedly counseled him to implement a direct imperial rule, even if that meant suspending the constitution. [14] In time Japan would turn to a form of government that resembled Totalitarism. However, although this unique style of government was very similar to Fascism there were many significant differences between the two and therefore could be termed Japanese nationalism. His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ...


Economic factors

At same time, the zaibatsu capitalist groups (principally Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Yasuda) looked toward great future expansion. Their main concern was a shortage of raw materials. Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoye combined social concerns with the needs of capital, and planned for expansion. Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ... Mitsui Group ) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... The Sumitomo Group is a group of related japanese companies, (keiretsu). ... Yasuda (安田) was formed by Yasuda Zenjiro. ... Fumimaro Konoe (近衛 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister...

Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. The caption says: "With the help of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."
Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. The caption says: "With the help of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."

The economic seeds of World War II were planted in the mid 19th century. The main goals of this expansionism were acquisition and protection of spheres of influence, maintenance of territorial integrity, acquisition of raw materials, and access to Asian markets. Western nations, notably Great Britain, France, and the United States, had for long exhibited great interest in the commercial opportunities in China and other parts of Asia. These opportunities had attracted Western investment because of the availability of raw materials for both domestic production and re-export to Asia. Japan desired these opportunities in planning the development of the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. Image File history File links Manchukuo011. ... Image File history File links Manchukuo011. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. ...

IJN Yamato, the largest battleship in history, in 1941.
IJN Yamato, the largest battleship in history, in 1941.

The Great Depression, just in many other countries, had hindered Japan's economic growth. The Japanese Empire's main problem lay in that rapid industrial expansion had turned the country into a major manufacturing and industrial power that required raw materials, however these could only be obtained overseas as there was a critical lack of natural resources on its home islands. Photo #80-G-704702 Yamato running trials in 1941. ... Photo #80-G-704702 Yamato running trials in 1941. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


In the 1920s and 1930s Japan needed to import raw materials such as iron, rubber and oil to maintain strong economic growth. Most of these resources, however came from the United States. The Japanese felt that acquiring resource-rich territories would establish economic self-sufficiency and independence, they also hoped to jump-start the nation's economy in the midst of the depression. As a result Japan set its sights on East Asia, specifically Manchuria with its many resources, Japan needed these resources to continue its economic development and maintain national integrity. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Petro redirects here. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Once outright war began, the Domei Tsushin Press Agency celebrated the quality of Japan's armaments, stating that Mitsubishi and the others had taken the measure of the "white barbarians".


World War II

Main articles: Shōwa period, Pacific War, and World War II

The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Pre-War Expansionism

Manchuria

Main article: Invasion of Manchuria
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, China during Mukden Incident.
Japanese troops entering Shenyang, China during Mukden Incident.

With little resistance, Japan invaded and conquered Manchuria in 1931. Japan claimed that this invasion was a liberation of the Manchus from the Chinese, although the majority of the population were Han Chinese. Japan then established a puppet regime called Manchukuo, and installed the former Emperor of China, Puyi, as the official head of state. Jehol, a Chinese territory bordering Manchuria, was also taken in 1933. This puppet regime had to carry on a protracted pacification campaign against the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies in Manchuria. In 1936, Japan created a similar Mongolian puppet state in Inner Mongolia named Mengjiang (Chinese:yup) which was again predominantly Chinese. Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai, Ting Chao Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Tamon, Senjuro Hayashi Strength 160,000 men 30,000 - 60,450 men Casualties  ?  ? The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, one day... Combatants Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan, Manchukuo Imperial Army, Manchukuo Commanders Ma Zhanshan, Ting Chao, Tang Juwu, Wang Fengge, Wang Delin, Su Bingwen, Feng Yuxiang, Yang Jingyu, Zhou Baozhong, Li Zhaolin Shigeru Honjo, Nobuyoshi Muto, Takashi Hishikari... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (518 × 757 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Fleet Admiral, Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (518 × 757 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Fleet Admiral, Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... His/Her Imperial Highness (abbreviation HIH) is a title used by members of an Imperial family to denote Imperial - as opposed to royal - status to show that the holder in question is descended from an Emperor rather than a King (compare His/Her Royal Highness). ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mukden_1931_japan_shenyang. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mukden_1931_japan_shenyang. ... This article is about a city. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Rehe (热河 or 熱河 pinyin: Rèhé, lit. ... In the invasion of the Northeast or Manchuria it is assumed that Japan was soon able to establish complete control and that, after the League of Nations refused to do more than voice its disapproval, the Manchurian Incident was over. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Second Sino-Japanese War

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War

Japan invaded China in 1937, creating what was essentially a three-way war between Japan, Mao Zedong's communists, and Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists. On 13 December that same year, the Nationalist capital of Nanking fell to Japanese troops. In the event known as the Rape of Nanking, Japanese troops massacred a large number of city's population. It is estimated that nearly 300,000 people, almost entirely civilians, were killed. In total, 20 million Chinese, mostly civilians, would be killed during World War II. A puppet state was also set up in China quickly afterwards, headed by Wang Jingwei. The second Sino-Japanese war would continue into World War II with the Communists and Nationalists in a temporary and uneasy alliance against the Japanese. Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Mao redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


Clashes with the Soviet Union

Main article: Battle of Lake Khasan
Main article: Battle of Halhin-Gol

The Battle of Lake Khasan was an attempted military incursion of the Japanese 19th Division into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the belief of the Japanese that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the Treaty of Peking between Imperial Russia and Manchu China (and subsequent supplementary agreements on demarcation), and furthermore, that the demarcation markers were tampered with. Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ...


The following year, Nomonhan Incident(Battle of Halhin-Gol) occurred on 11 May 1939, when a Mongolian cavalry unit of some 70 to 90 men entered the disputed area in search of grazing for their horses, and encountered Manchukuoan cavalry who drove them out of the disputed territory. Two days later the Mongolian force returned and the Manchukoans were unable to evict them. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese IJA 23rd Division and other units of the Kwantung Army then became involved. Joseph Stalin ordered STAVKA, the Red Army's high command, to develop a plan for a counterstrike against the Japanese. Georgy Zhukov, led a devastating offensive employing encircling tactics making skillful use of their superior artillery, armor and air forces in late August that nearly annihilated the 23rd Division and decimated the IJA 7th Division. On September 15 an armistice was arranged. Nearly two years later, on April 13, 1941, the parties signed a Neutrality Pact, in which they agreed to abide by the existing border. The 23rd Infantry Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... IJA 7th Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Tripartite Pact

Imperial Japan in 1942 after the conquested territories
Imperial Japan in 1942 after the conquested territories
Main articles: Tripartite Pact and Axis Powers

The Second Sino-Japanese War had seen tensions rise between Imperial Japan and the United States, events such as Panay incident and the 'Rape of Nanking' turned American public opinion against Japan. With the occupation of French Indochina in the years of 1940/41 and the continuing war in China, the United States embargoed strategic materials such as scrap metal and oil to Japan, which were vitally needed for their war effort. The Japanese were faced with the option of either withdrawing from China and losing face or seizing and securing new sources of raw materials in the resource rich, European controlled colonies of South East Asia — specifically British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies Image File history File links Japanese_Empire2. ... Image File history File links Japanese_Empire2. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... USS Panay underway during the standardization trial off Woosung, China on August 30, 1928. ... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On September 27, 1940, Imperial Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, their objectives to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influence. With Nazi Germany in Europe, Imperial Japan in Asia and Fascist Italy in North Africa. The signatories of this alliance become known as the Axis Powers. The pact also called for mutual protection—if any one of the member powers were attacked by a country not already at war, excluding the Soviet Union, and for technological and economic cooperation between the signatories. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...


On 31 December 1940, Matsuoka Yosuke told a group of Jewish businessmen that he was "the man responsible for the alliance with Hitler, but nowhere have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in Japan. This is not simply my personal opinion, it is the opinion of Japan, and I have no compunction about announcing it to the world." is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Pacific War

Main article: Pacific War

For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

Attack on Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona sinking.
USS Arizona sinking.

After facing an oil embargo by the United States and its own reserve oil supply about to run short, the Japanese government decided to take action and execute a plan developed by the military branch largely lead by Osami Nagano and Isoroku Yamamoto to bomb the United States naval base in Hawaii, thereby bringing the United States to World War II on the side of Allies. On 4 September 1941, the Japanese Cabinet met to consider the war plans prepared by Imperial General Headquarters, and decided: This article is about the actual attack. ... Image File history File links USSArizona_PearlHarbor. ... Image File history File links USSArizona_PearlHarbor. ... For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Osami Nagano ) (15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a Fleet Admiral and General Staff in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. He essentially commanded the Imperial Japanese Navy as Chief of its General Staff. ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...

Our Empire, for the purpose of self-defence and self-preservation, will complete preparations for war ... [and is] ... resolved to go to war with the United States, Great Britain and the Netherlands if necessary. Our Empire will concurrently take all possible diplomatic measures vis-a-vis the United States and Great Britain, and thereby endeavor to obtain our objectives ... In the event that there is no prospect of our demands being met by the first ten days of October through the diplomatic negotiations mentioned above, we will immediately decide to commence hostilities against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.

The Imperial Japanese Navy made its surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, on the Sunday morning of December 7, 1941. The Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces sustained significant losses. The primary objective of the attack was to incapacitate the United States long enough for Japan to establish its long-planned Southeast Asian empire and defensible buffer zones. The U.S. public saw the attack as a treacherous act and rallied against the Empire of Japan. The United States entered the European Theatre and Pacific Theater in full force. Four days later Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany declared war on the United States bringing the separate conflicts into a cohesive conflict. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events Main article: Events preceding World War II in Europe Main article: Causes of World War II Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... Hitler redirects here. ...


British Malaya and Singapore

Victorious Army troops march through Singapore (Photo from Imperial War Museum)
Victorious Army troops march through Singapore (Photo from Imperial War Museum)

On December 8, 1941 British Malaya was invaded by Japanese 25th Army under general Tomoyuki Yamashita. Defending Malalya was a Commonwealth army comprised of British, Indian, and Australian forces plus Malays from the Federated Malay States. Imperial Japanese Army was able to quickly advance down the Malayan peninsula, forcing the Commonwealth forces to retreat towards Singapore. The British lacked aircover and tanks, the Japanese had total air superiority. The sinking of H.M.S Prince of Wales and H.M.S Repulse on December 10, 1941 led to the east coast of Malaya being exposed to Japanese landings and the elimination of British naval power in the area. On January 31, 1942, the last Allied forces crossed the straight of Johore and into Singapore. Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was the Japanese force that invaded and conquered the British colony of Malaya in late 1941 and early 1942. ... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki,) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II era. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Combatants Force Z of the Royal Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † John Leach † William Tennant Niichi Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On February 7, 1942 the Japanese invaded the island of Singapore, despite determined resistance and fierce fighting they were able to push back the Commonwealth forces. On February 15, 1942 Singapore fell to the Japanese, resulting in the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. About 80,000 Indian, Australian and British troops became prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken in the Japanese invasion of Malaya. is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ...


Burma Campaign

Main article: Burma Campaign

Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown...

Netherlands East Indies

The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ...

The Philippines

Main article: Battle of the Philippines (1941-42)
Japanese armored units at Bataan

Japan launched air raids on US military positions in the Philippines following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 8, 1941, and Japanese troops landed in the Philippines on December 10, initiating the invasion of the Philippines. During this Campaign, the Japanese pushed the combined Filipino-American force towards the Bataan peninsula and later the island of Corregidor. By January of 1942 General Douglas MacArthur and President Manuel Quezon were forced to flee in the face of Japanese advances. Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Image File history File links IJA_units_in_Philippines. ... Image File history File links IJA_units_in_Philippines. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Combatants  United States  Philippines  Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George M. Parker Edward P. King Vicente Lim Alfredo M. Santos Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 120,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (August 19, 1878 - August 1, 1944) was the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ...


This marked among one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans, leaving over 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war in the custody of the Japanese. Ten thousand of these prisoners later died on the Bataan Death March, known as Batān Shi no Kōshin by the Japanese. Japanese military rule lasted for over two years, the result being the resistance of several guerrilla armies and the incredible sufferings endured by the Philippine population. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese...


Australia

Main article: Battle for Australia
Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, commander of bombing of Darwin and Pearl Harbor
Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, commander of bombing of Darwin and Pearl Harbor

The two Japanese air raids on Darwin, on February 19, 1942 were by far the biggest ever attack by a foreign power against the Australian mainland. They were also a significant action in the Pacific campaign of World War II and represented a major psychological blow to the Australian population, several weeks after hostilities with Japan had begun. The raids were the first of about 100 air raids against Australia during 1942 and 1943. An Australian propaganda poster released in 1942. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Chuichi Nagumo (Japanese: 南雲 忠一, Nagumo ChÅ«ichi, March 25, 1887–July 6, 1944) was a Vice Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Commander of the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy for a while. ... Combatants Australia; United States Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties At least 243 killed; (possibly 1,100 dead in total) 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk 1 killed  ? missing; 6 POW Four planes destroyed in Australian airspace; ? failed to return. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... From February 1942 to November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland and offshore islands were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. ...


War crimes during World War II

Main article: Japanese war crimes

Many political and military Japanese leaders were convicted for war crimes before the Tokyo tribunal and other allies tribunals in Asia. However, all members of the imperial family implicated in the war, such as emperor Showa and his brothers, cousins and uncles such as Prince Chichibu, Prince Hiroyasu Fushimi and Prince Asaka, were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by Douglas MacArthur. Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ...


Unit 731

Main article: Unit 731

Unit 731 was a covert medical experiment unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, researching biological warfare through human experiments during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937 to 1945) and World War II. Disguised as a water purification unit, it was based in the Pingfang district of the northeast Chinese city of Harbin, part of the puppet state of Manchukuo. Unit 731 was officially known as the "Kempeitai Political Department and Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory". Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ...


As many as ten thousand people, both civilian and military, of Chinese, Mongol, and Soviet origin were subjects of experimentation by Unit 731. Some Allied prisoners of war also died at the hands of Unit 731. In addition, Unit 731's biological weapons research resulted in tens of thousands of deaths in China – possibly as many as 200,000 casualties by some estimates. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Unit 731 was one of many units used by the Japanese to research biological warfare; other units include Unit 516 (Qiqihar), Unit 543 (Hailar), Unit 773 (Songo unit), Unit 100 (Changchun), Unit 1644 (Nanjing), Unit 1855 (Beijing), Unit 8604 (Guangzhou), Unit 200 (Manchuria) and Unit 9420 (Singapore). Unit 516 was a top secret Japanese chemical weapons facility, operated by the Kempeitai, in Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾), China. ... Unit 543 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 773 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Unit 200 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945) and World War II era. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ...


Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in politics, academia and business. Some were arrested by Soviet forces and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; those who surrendered to the Americans, were granted amnesty in exchange for the data collected. Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were a series of hearings held between December 25 - 31st, 1949 in the Russian industrial city of Khabarovsk, (Хабáровск) situated on the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк). Here, twelve members of the Japanese Kwantung Army were tried as war criminals for manufacturing and using biological weapons during World War...


Because of the nature of their experiments and practices, Unit 731's actions are considered war crimes.


Nanking Massacre

Main article: Nanking Massacre

The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as "The Rape of Nanking", refers to the most infamous of the war crimes committed by the Japanese military during World War II—acts carried out by Japanese troops in and around Nanjing (then known in English as Nanking), China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. The duration of the massacre is not clearly defined, although the period of carnage lasted well into the next six weeks, until early February 1938. Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


The extent of the atrocities is debated, with numbers ranging from the claim of the Japanese army at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East that the death toll was military in nature and that "no such atrocities ever occurred", to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000. The West has generally tended to adopt the Chinese point-of-view, with many Western sources now quoting 300,000 dead. This is partly due to the commercial success of Iris Chang's "The Rape of Nanking", which set the stage for the debate of the issue in the West; and the existence of extensive photographic records of the mutilated bodies of women and children. Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Iris Chang This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang Iris Shun-Ru Chang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhāng Chúnrú; March 28, 1968 – November 9, 2004) was a Chinese American freelance historian and journalist. ... The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (ISBN 0-465-06835-9) is a 1997 book by the late Iris Chang which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ...


Sook Ching massacre

Main article: Sook Ching massacre

When the Japanese occupied Singapore, the Japanese military authorities became concerned about the local Chinese population. The Japanese Imperial Army had become aware that the ethnic Chinese had strong loyalties to either the United Kingdom or China, with wealthy Chinese financing Chiang Kai-Shek's effort in the Second Sino-Japanese War, after Japan had invaded China on July 1937, with other charity drives. The military authorities, led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita, decided on a policy of "eliminating" the anti-Japanese elements. The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended... The Imperial Japanese Army (大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was in existence from the Meiji Reformation to the end of World War II. It was created to replace the traditional Japanese samurai with a modern Western-style conscript army. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki,) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II era. ... Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ...


Soon after the fall of Singapore, Lieutenant-Colonel Masayuki Oishi, commander of No. 2 Field Kempeitai, took over the offices of the Supreme Court building. Singapore was broken up into sectors, each placed under the control of a Kempeitai officer. The Japanese set up designated "screening centers" all over the colony. The blueprint was to gather and screen all Chinese males between 18 to 50 years old, and eliminate those thought to be anti-Japanese. The ones who passed the "screening" would receive a piece of paper with "Examined" written on it, or have a square ink mark on their arms and shirts. Those who did not pass the "screening" would be stamped with triangular marks. There were trucks near these screening centers to send those anti-Japanese elements to their deaths. The Japanese Army chose remote sites such as Changi, Punggol, Blakang Mati and Bedok to perform the executions, with the victims thrown overboard off boats or machine-gunned to death off the harbour. For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Changi International Airport Sunset at Changi Beach Changi is an area to the east of Singapore. ... Punggol New Town The Punggol West LRT is located in relatively undeveloped surroundings. ... Sentosa, which means tranquillity in Malay, is a popular island resort in Singapore, visited by some two million people a year. ... Bedok at Night Bedok Town is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Singapore. ...


Comfort Women

Japanese: 慰安婦 The term "comfort women" pertains to women and girls who served as prostitutes during the Imperial Era of Japan. Many historians believe that an estimated 200,000 women were taken as comfort women during the reign.[15] Most of the women were believed to be from Korea, with the a good percentage also from China and also other populations in the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. Some Japanese historians debated the fact that Japan had actually forced or kidnapped women from other nations into sexual slavery. Evidence that disputes that comes in forms of personal testimonies of living former sex slaves, witnesses, and actual former Imperial Soldiers. While historians and politicians such as Abe dispute that there was an actual coercion of foreign women into slavery, Japanese documents in 1992 and 2007 were found supporting the coercion of women into sexual slavery.[16] Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the thousands of women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1] There is still some disagreement about exactly how many women were victimized. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...


Path to defeat

Significant defeats

The Mikuma shortly before sinking during Battle of Midway.
The Mikuma shortly before sinking during Battle of Midway.

Japanese military strategists were keenly aware of the unfavorable discrepancy between the industrial potential of the Japanese Empire and that of the United States. Because of this they reasoned that Japanese success hinged on their ability to extend the strategic advantage gained at Pearl Harbor with additional strategic victories. Only decisive destruction of the United States' Pacific Fleet and conquest of its remote outposts would insure that the Japanese Empire was not overwhelmed by America's industrial might. In May of 1942, failure to decisively defeat the Allies at the Battle of Coral Sea in spite of Japanese numerical superiority equated to a strategic defeat for Imperial Japan. This setback was followed in June of 1942 by the catastrophic loss of a four carrier task force at the Battle of Midway. Midway was a decisive defeat for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and proved the turning point for the war. Further defeats by the Allies at Guadalcanal in September 1942, and New Guinea in 1943 put the Empire of Japan on the defensive for the remainder of the war. The US Sixth Army led by General MacArthur landed on Leyte on 19 October 1944, in the subsequent months(Philippines campaign of 1944–1945) American troops together with guerrilla forces liberated much of the Philipines. By 1944 the Allies had seized or bypassed and neutralized many of Japan's strategic bases through amphibious landings and bombardment. This, coupled with the losses inflicted by allied submarines on Japanese shipping routes began to strangle Japan's economy and undermine its ability to supply its army. By early 1945 the US Marines had wrested control of the Ogasawa Islands in several hard-fought battles such as the Battle of Iwo Jima, marking the beginning of the fall of the islands of Japan. Image File history File links Sinking_of_japanese_cruiser_Mikuma_6_june_1942. ... Image File history File links Sinking_of_japanese_cruiser_Mikuma_6_june_1942. ... Mikuma (三隈) was a Mogami class cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Battle of the Coral Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date May 4 – May 8, 1942 Place Coral Sea, between Australia, New Guinea, and the United States, Japan Commanders Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 yeah it was touching. ...


Kamikaze attacks

Main article: Kamikaze
USS Bunker Hill was hit by two kamikazes on May 11, 1945 during the Battle of Okinawa. Out of a crew of 2,600, 372 were killed.
USS Bunker Hill was hit by two kamikazes on May 11, 1945 during the Battle of Okinawa. Out of a crew of 2,600, 372 were killed.

During 1943 and 1944, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and rich resources of the United States, were advancing steadily towards Japan. Commander Asaiki Tamai asked a group of 23 talented student pilots, whom he had personally trained, to volunteer for the special attack force. All of the pilots raised both of their hands, thereby volunteering to join the operation. Later, Tamai asked Lieutenant Yukio Seki to command the special attack force. Seki is said to have closed his eyes, lowered his head and thought for ten seconds, before asking Tamai: "please let me do that". Seki thereby became the 24th kamikaze or suicide pilot to be chosen. USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 742 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1378 × 1113 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: USS BUNKER HILL hit by two Kamikazes in 30 seconds on 11 May 1945 off Kyushu. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 742 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1378 × 1113 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: USS BUNKER HILL hit by two Kamikazes in 30 seconds on 11 May 1945 off Kyushu. ... USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, nicknamed Holiday Express for her many attacks launched around the end of the year. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ...


Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Nuclear weapon attack by the US is commonly cited as ending the war sooner against the Empire of Japan.
Nuclear weapon attack by the US is commonly cited as ending the war sooner against the Empire of Japan.

After securing airfields in Saipan and Guam in the summer of 1944, the United States undertook an aggressive campaign of carpet bombing Japanese cities in an effort to pulverize Japan's industry and shatter its morale. While these campaigns led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians they did not succeed in persuading the Japanese to surrender. In the summer of 1945, the United States dropped two nuclear weapons on Japan. The atomic bombing was the first and last used against another nation. These bombs killed around 100,000 to 200,000 people in a matter of minutes, and many more people died as a result of nuclear radiation in the following weeks, months, and years. The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... ...


Defeat and surrender

The commander of the Japanese 18th Army in New Guinea surrenders his sword to the commander of the Australian 6th Division.
The commander of the Japanese 18th Army in New Guinea surrenders his sword to the commander of the Australian 6th Division.

Having ignored (mokusatsu) the Potsdam Declaration, the Empire of Japan surrendered and ended World War 2, after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and a declaration of war by the Soviet Union. In a national radio address of 15th August, emperor Showa announced the surrender to the Japanese people. The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Japanese_surrender_(AWM_019296). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Japanese_surrender_(AWM_019296). ... The most well-known 6th Division in the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during World War II. (The 6th Division name was previously used for a short-lived World War I unit, formed from First Australian Imperial Force troops in England, in... Mokusatsu (黙殺) is a Japanese word formed from two chinese characters: silence (moku, é»™) and kill (satsu, 殺) and means the act of keeping a contemptuous silence. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ...


Regime change

Main article: Occupied Japan

A period known as Occupied Japan followed after the war largely spearheaded by United States General of the Army Douglas McArthur to revize the Japanese constitution and de-militarize Japan. The American occupation, with economic and political assistance, continued well into the 1950s. After the dissolution of the Empire of Japan, Japan adopted a parliamentary-based political system, with the Emperor changed to symbolic status. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ...


American General of the Army Douglas MacArthur later commended the new Japanese government that he helped established and the new Japanese period when he was about to send the American forces to the Korean War: General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...

The Japanese people, since the war, have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have, from the ashes left in war's wake, erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity; and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice. Politically, economically, and socially Japan is now abreast of many free nations of the earth and will not again fail the universal trust... I sent all four of our occupation divisions to the Korean battlefront without the slightest qualms as to the effect of the resulting power vacuum upon Japan. The results fully justified my faith. I know of no nation more serene, orderly, and industrious, nor in which higher hopes can be entertained for future constructive service in the advance of the human race.

For historian John W. Dower, however, «In retrospect, apart from the military officer corps, the purge of alleged militarists and ultranationalists that was conducted under the Occupation had relatively small impact on the long-term composition of men of influence in the public and private sectors. The purge initially brought new blood into the political parties, but this was offset by the return of huge numbers of formaly purged conservative politicians to national as well as local politics in the early 1950s. In the bureaucracy, the purge was negligible from the outset (...) In the economic sector, the purge similarly was only mildly disruptive, affecting less than sixteen hundred individuals spread among some four hundred companies. Everywhere one looks, the corridors of power in postwar Japan are crowded with men whose talents had already been recognized during the war years, and who found the same talents highly prized in the "new" Japan.» [17] John W . ...


Influential personnel

Political

Main articles: List of Japanese government and military commanders of World War II and Japanese Central Chinese-Japanese War/World War II Government Cabinet

In the administration of Japan dominated by the Army political movement during World War II, the civil central government was under the management of military men and their right-wing civilian allies, along with members of the nobility and Imperial Family. In the administration of Japan dominated by the Imperial Way Faction movement during World War II, the civil central government of Japan was under the management of some military men, and of some civilians: // Emperor Hirohito: supreme Commander in Chief of Armed Imperial Forces, head of state and central government... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Emperor was in the center of this power structure as supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armed Forces, head of state, representative of the "Imperial Sun Lineage" for State Shinto, and chief of the Imperial Household.


Other important institutions linking to the government were the National Youth Association and the "political sections" of the Kempeitai and Tokeitai. These secret societies were a source of loyalists. Other allied groups included residents' committees, the government trade union, local farmers associations, and the state religious and educational systems. Imperial Armed Forces political sections supported the formation of similar right-wing movements in all the occupied lands of the early Pacific War. The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ...


The rivalties between the Army and Navy became the principal right-wing political movement in the Empire of Japan in the 1930s, the two factions emerged as leaders among many similar groups and secret societies.

His Imperial Highness Prince Yorihito Higashi-Fushimi
His Imperial Highness Prince Yorihito Higashi-Fushimi
Prime Minister General Kuniaki Koiso
Prime Minister General Kuniaki Koiso
Fleet Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika
Fleet Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (470x745, 132 KB) Japanese Fleet Admiral, Prince Higashi-Fushimi Yorihito File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (470x745, 132 KB) Japanese Fleet Admiral, Prince Higashi-Fushimi Yorihito File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Empire of Japan Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Metadata This file contains additional... His Imperial Highness Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito ) (19 September 1876 - 27 June 1922) was the second (and last) head of the Higashifushimi-no-miya, one of the oke cadet branches of the Japanese imperial family. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1407, 528 KB) Japanese Prime Minister Koiso Kuniaki Source:Rekidai Shusho tou Shashin, National Diet Library archives, Tokyo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kuniaki Koiso Empire... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1407, 528 KB) Japanese Prime Minister Koiso Kuniaki Source:Rekidai Shusho tou Shashin, National Diet Library archives, Tokyo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kuniaki Koiso Empire... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 464 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1324 pixels, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Admiral Inoue Yoshika from Japanese National Diet Library Collection File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 464 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1324 pixels, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese Admiral Inoue Yoshika from Japanese National Diet Library Collection File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Yoshika Inoue ) (3 November 1845 – 22 March 1929) was a career naval officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy during Meiji-period. ...

Military

The military of Imperial Japan was divided into two main branches under Imperial General Headquarters responsible for the overall conduct of operations including prominent military leaders and commanders: The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...

  • Prominent generals and leaders:

For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Naval redirects here. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... Sukeyuki Itoh ) (20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914) was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Meiji-period . ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... Yoshika Inoue ) (3 November 1845 – 22 March 1929) was a career naval officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy during Meiji-period. ... Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... ’His Imperial Highness Prince Arisugawa Takehito ) (13 January 1862 – 4 July 1913 was member of the Japanese imperial family and a career navy officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... Goro Ijuin ) (29 September 1852–13 January 1921) was a Meiji-period career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito ) (19 September 1876 - 27 June 1922) was the second (and last) head of the Higashifushimi-no-miya, one of the oke cadet branches of the Japanese imperial family. ... Hayao Shimamura ) (21 September 1858– 8 January 1923) was a Japanese admiral during the First Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars as well as one of the first prominent staff officers and naval strategists of the early Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Tomosaburō Katō ) (22 February 1861 – 24 August 1923) was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy and the 21st Prime Minister of Japan from 12 June 1922 to 24 August 1923. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This article is about the actual attack. ... Osami Nagano ) (15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a Fleet Admiral and General Staff in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I and World War II. He essentially commanded the Imperial Japanese Navy as Chief of its General Staff. ... Mineichi Koga (1885-March 31/April, 1944) was a Japanese admiral and successor to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto as commander of the Imperial Japanese Navys Combined Fleet. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Chuichi Nagumo (Japanese: 南雲 忠一, Nagumo ChÅ«ichi, March 25, 1887–July 6, 1944) was a Vice Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Commander of the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy for a while. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This article is about the actual attack. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Sankō sakusen (Japanese: 三光作戦, sankō sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sānguāng Zhèngcè; literally The Three Nothings Strategy/Policy) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although it literally means three nothings, in this case the word nothing means nothing left. Thus, the term is more... Tadamichi Kuribayashi (Japanese: 栗林忠道 Kuribayashi Tadamichi) (July 7, 1891 in Nagano city, Japan – March 23, 1945 on Iwo Jima, Japan) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, best known as overall commander of the Japanese garrison during most of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. Assigned by... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 yeah it was touching. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Mitsuru Ushijima (牛島満, 1887 - June 22, 1945) was the Japanese general at the Battle of Okinawa, leading the primary resistance in the south. ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33...

Timeline

Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tanaka Giichi (田中 義一 Tanaka Giichi February 5, 1866–November 20, 1949) was a Japanese politician and the 26th Prime Minister of Japan from April 20, 1927 to July 2, 1929. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamaguchi Osachi (浜口 雄幸 April 1, 1870–August 26, 1931) was a Japanese politician and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan from July 2, 1929 to April 14, 1931. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wakatsuki Reijirō (若槻 礼次郎 Wakatsuki Reijirō) (March 21, 1866 - November 20, 1949) was a Japanese politician and the 25th and 28th Prime Minister of Japan. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Inukai Tsuyoshi (犬養 毅, April 20, 1855–May 15, 1932) was a Japanese politician and the 29th Prime Minister of Japan from December 13, 1931 to May 15, 1932. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to a person; for other uses, see Makoto (disambiguation) Saito Makoto Viscount Saito Makoto (æ–Žè—¤ 実 Saitō Makoto, October 27, 1858–February 26, 1936) was a Japanese politician. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Keisuke Okada (岡田 啓介 Okada Keisuke January 20, 1868–October 17, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 31st Prime Minister of Japan from July 8, 1934 to March 9, 1936. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The February 26 Incident (二・二六事件 Ni-niroku jiken) was an uprising against the Japanese government that took place in 1936. ... Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsingtao redirects here. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mengjiang (蒙疆 in pinyin: Méngjiāng; in Wade-Giles: Meng-chiang; Postal Pinyin: Mengkiang, literal meaning: Mongolian Territories), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was a puppet state in northern China (consisted of Chahar and Suiyuan provinces) controlled by Japan. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Senjuro Hayashi (林 銑十郎 Hayashi Senjūrō, February 23, 1876–February 4, 1943) was a Japanese politician and the 33rd Prime Minister of Japan from February 2, 1937 to June 4, 1937. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fumimaro Konoe (近衛 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Marco Polo Bridge Incident was a battle between Japans Imperial Army and Chinas National Revolutionary Army, marking the beginning of the Chinese as: Incident of July 7 (七七事變 pinyin: qi1 qi1 shi4 bian4) Lugouqiao Incident (蘆溝橋事變 lu2 gou1 qiao2 shi4... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peking redirects here. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nanking Massacre (Chinese: 南京大屠殺, pinyin: Nánjīng Dàtúshā; Japanese: 南京大虐殺, Nankin Daigyakusatsu), also known as the Rape of Nanking and sometimes in Japan as the Nanking Incident (南京事件, Nankin Jiken), refers to what... The Battle of Taierzhuang was a battle of the Second Sino_Japanese War in 1938, between armies of Chinese Kuomintang and Japan. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are multiple Cantons in China Canton City : Guangzhou Canton Province : Guangdong This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hundred Regiments Offensive (Chinese: 百團大戰) (August 20, 1940 - December 5, 1940) was a major campaign of the Communist Party of Chinas Red Army commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hideki Tojo Hideki Tojo (東條 英機 Tōjō Hideki) (December 30, 1884–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese general and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia; United States Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties At least 243 killed; (possibly 1,100 dead in total) 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk 1 killed  ? missing; 6 POW Four planes destroyed in Australian airspace; ? failed to return. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of the Philippines Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 8, 1941-May 8, 1942 Place the Philippines Result Japanese victory The Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941-42, and the defence of the islands by Filipino and United States... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibazaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Map of Tarawa Atoll Map of Betio, Tarawa Atoll The Battle... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kuniaki Koiso Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 国昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 yeah it was touching. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiral Kantarō Suzuki (鈴木 貫太郎 Kantarō Suzuki, December 24, 1867 - April 17, 1948) was the 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from April 7, 1945 to August 17, 1945. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Emperors of the Empire of Japan

Posthumous name1 Given name² Childhood name³ Period of Reigns Era name4
Meiji Tennō
(明治天皇)
Mutsuhito
(睦仁)
Sachi-no-miya
(祐宮)
1867–1912
(1890-1912)5
Meiji
Taishō Tennō
(大正天皇)
Yoshihito
(嘉仁)
Haru-no-miya
(明宮)
1912–1926 Taishō
Shōwa Tennō
(昭和天皇)
Hirohito
(裕仁)
Michi-no-miya
(迪宮)
1926–1989
(1926–1947)6
Shōwa
1 Each posthumous name was given after the respective era names as Ming and Qing Dynasties of China.
2 The Japanese imperial family name has no surname or dynastic name.
3 The Meiji Emperor was known only by the appellation Sachi-no-miya from his birth until 11 November 1860, when he was proclaimed heir apparent to Emperor Kōmei and received the personal name Mutsuhito .
4 No multiple era names were given for each reign after Meiji Emperor.
5 Constitutionally.
6 Constitutionally. The reign of the Shōwa Emperor in fact continued until 1989 since he did not abdicate after World War II.

This period includes the Meiji Era, the Taishō Era, and a part of the Shōwa Era.
< Edo period | History of Japan | Post-Occupation Japan > Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: &#28165;&#26397;; pinyin: q&#299;ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai &#26126;&#27835;&#26178... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Hagiwara, p. 34.
  2. ^ Jansen, pp. 314–5.
  3. ^ Hagiwara, p. 35.
  4. ^ Satow, p. 282.
  5. ^ Keene, p. 116. See also Jansen, pp. 310–1.
  6. ^ Keene, pp. 120–1, and Satow, p. 283. Moreover, Satow (p. 285) speculates that Yoshinobu had agreed to an assembly of daimyos on the hope that such a body would restore him to reinstate him.
  7. ^ Satow, p. 286.
  8. ^ During a recess, Saigō, who had his troops outside, "remarked that it would take only one short sword to settle the discussion" (Keene, p. 122). Original quotation (Japanese): "短刀一本あればかたづくことだ." in Hagiwara, p. 42. The specific word used for "dagger" was "tantō".
  9. ^ Keene, p. 124.
  10. ^ Keene, p. 340, notes that one might "describe the Oath in Five Articles as a constitution for all ages."
  11. ^ The Secret of Japan's Strength www.calvin.edu
  12. ^ - The Constitution of the Empire of Japan(1889)
  13. ^ Hane, Mikiso, Modern Japan: A Historical Survey (Oxford: Westview Press, 1992) 234.
  14. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.284
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ J. W. Dower, Japan in War & Peace, New press, 1993, p.11

Books

  • Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00991-6. 
  • Jansen, Marius B.; John Whitney Hall,Madoka Kanai,Denis Twitchett (1989). The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521223563. 
  • Porter, Robert P. (2001). Japan: The Rise of a Modern Power. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1402196903. 
  • Keene, Donald (2005). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. New York: Columbia. ISBN 0-231-12340-X. 
  • Satow, Ernest. A Diplomat in Japan. ISBN 4-925080-28-8. 

Donald Lawrence Keene is a noted Japanologist, scholar, teacher, writer, translator and interpreter of Japanese literature and culture. ... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Empire of Japan: Information from Answers.com (5851 words)
Constitutionally, it refers to the period of November 29, 1890, to May 3, 1947 under the 1889 Constitution of the Empire of Japan that was promulgated as part of massive political reforms after the Meiji Restoration with restoration of power to the Emperor as head of state and head of government from Tokugawa shogunate.
Japan was forced to import raw materials such as iron, oil, and coal to maintain strong growth in the industrial sector due to the lack of natural resources on Japan's home islands.
Japan claimed that this invasion was a liberation of the Manchus from the Chinese, just as it had claimed that the annexation of Korea was an act of protection.
China and Japan, Chapter 16 by James D. Johnston (5013 words)
The Empire of Japan consists of a chain of islands lying on the Eastern coast of the continent of Asia, and extending south-east and north-west from the latitude of 31° to 48° N., and including in longitude from the 129th to the 150th meridian.
The sea of Japan is enclosed between this chain of islands, and the opposite coasts of Corea and Manchu Tartary, and communicates by means of straits with the Chinese Sea, on the south, the Pacific Ocean on the east, and the Sea of Ochotsk on the north.
Japan, they say, was during that period of time governed by a succession, or evolution of seven celestial spirits,or gods, which are called by them the seven great celestial spirits, each of which reigned an immense but undetermined number of years.
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