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Encyclopedia > Empire of Brazil

The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ...

Império do Brasil
Empire of Brazil

1822 – 1889
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Independência ou Morte!
(Portuguese for "Independence or Death!")
Capital Rio de Janeiro
Language(s) Portuguese
Government Constitutional monarchy
Emperor
 - (1822-1831) Pedro I
 - (1831-1840) Regency
 - (1840-1889) Pedro II
 - (1871-1872) Isabel (Regent)
 - (1876-1877) Isabel (Regent)
 - (1887-1888) Isabel (Regent)
Prime Minister
 - 1889 Viscount of Ouro Preto
History
 - Kingdom established 1815
 - Independence September 7, 1822
 - Monarchy abolished November 15, 1889

As a result of the Napoleonic occupation of Portugal, the Portuguese royal family, the Braganzas, went into exile in Brazil, the most important of the Portuguese colonies. What followed was a period when Brazil enjoyed self-government under the Braganza dynasty, with no reference to the authorities at Lisbon. This nurtured a distaste for the idea of returning to status quo ante upon the overthrow of Napoleon's influence over Portugal. Therefore, Brazil came to be independent of Portugal, albeit under the rule of a member of the Portuguese royal family. The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a monarchy consisting of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil_15-19_November. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Second_Empire_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Brazilimperialblason2. ... National flag and ensign. ... The Coat of Arms of Brazil was created in November 19, 1889, 4 days after Brazil became a republic. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The Brazilian monarchs were the rulers of Brazil from its discovery in 1500 until 1889. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Regency may have several meanings: A regency may be a period of time when a regent holds power in the name of the current monarch, or in the name of the Crown itself, if the throne is vacant. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil (July 29, 1846—November 14, 1921), nicknamed the Redeemer, was heir to the throne of Brazil (with the title of Princess Imperial) during the last decades of the reign of her father Pedro II of Brazil, and sometime Regent. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil (July 29, 1846—November 14, 1921), nicknamed the Redeemer, was heir to the throne of Brazil (with the title of Princess Imperial) during the last decades of the reign of her father Pedro II of Brazil, and sometime Regent. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil (July 29, 1846—November 14, 1921), nicknamed the Redeemer, was heir to the throne of Brazil (with the title of Princess Imperial) during the last decades of the reign of her father Pedro II of Brazil, and sometime Regent. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... The Duke of Caxias, was the foremost and most remembered Prime Minister of Brazil, having served three terms. ... The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a monarchy consisting of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Bragança is the name of a royal house, which ruled Portugal from 1640 to 1910 and the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


After its independence from the Portuguese on September 7, 1822, Brazil became a monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, which lasted until the establishment of the republican government on November 15, 1889. Two emperors occupied the throne in that period: Pedro I, from 1822 to 1831; and Pedro II, from 1831 to 1889. Also, King João VI of Portugal held the title of Emperor of Brazil as stipulated by the treaty recognizing Brazilian independence. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... John VI (Portuguese João), the Clement (Port. ... The Brazilian monarchs were the rulers of Brazil from its discovery in 1500 until 1889. ...


The end of the Empire in 1889 and the foundation of the republic was a reactionary development following the abolition of slavery in 1888, which had created a serious threat to the interests of the economic and political oligarchy. Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...

Contents

Brazilian independence

Pedro as regent

Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal

After João VI returned to Portugal in 1821, his heir-apparent Pedro became regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, with an informal understanding — known as the Bragança Agreement that he was to take the crown if Brazil came to be independent. He meant to rule frugally and started by cutting his own salary, centralizing scattered government offices, and selling off most of the royal horses and mules. He issued decrees that eliminated the royal salt tax, to spur the output of hides and dried beef; he forbade arbitrary seizure of private property, required a judge's warrant for arrests of freemen, and banned secret trials, torture, and other indignities. He also sent elected deputies to the Portuguese Assembly (Cortes). However, slaves continued to be bought and sold and disciplined with force, despite his assertion that their blood was the same color as his own blood. Pic of emperor Peter I of Brazil. ... Pic of emperor Peter I of Brazil. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... Slave redirects here. ...

In September 1821, the Portuguese Assembly, with only a portion of the Brazilian delegates present, voted to abolish the Kingdom of Brazil and the royal agencies in Rio de Janeiro, thus subordinating all provinces of Brazil directly to Lisbon. Accordingly, troops were sent to Brazil, and all Brazilian units were placed under Portuguese command. This marked the beginning of the small-scaled Brazilian War of Independence. Image File history File links Flag_Kingdom_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_Kingdom_of_Brazil. ... The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve was a monarchy consisting of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Brazilian War of Independence in 1821-1825 was fought between colonial Brazil and Portugal. ...


In January 1822, tension between Portuguese troops and the Luso-Brazilians (Brazilians of Portuguese ancestry) turned violent when Pedro, who had been ordered by the Assembly to return to Lisbon, refused to comply and vowed to stay. He had been moved by petitions from Brazilian towns, and by the argument that his departure and the dismantling of the central government would trigger separatist movements.


Pedro formed a new government headed by José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva of São Paulo. This former royal official and professor of science at Coimbra was crucial to the subsequent direction of events and is regarded as one of the formative figures of Brazilian nationalism, indeed, as the "Patriarch of Independence". José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva (June 13, 1763 – April 6, 1838), Brazilian statesman and naturalist, was born at Santos, São Paulo. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Centro  - Subregion Baixo Mondego  - District or A.R. Coimbra Mayor Carlos Encarnação  - Party PSD Area 319. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


The atmosphere was so charged that Dom Pedro sought assurances of asylum on a British ship in case he lost the looming confrontation; he also sent his family to safety out of the city.


Turmoil in the provinces

After Pedro's decision to defy the Côrtes, the "lead feet", as the Brazilians called the Portuguese troops, rioted before concentrating on Cerro Castello, which was soon surrounded by thousands of armed Brazilians. Dom Pedro then "dismissed" the Portuguese commanding general and ordered him to remove his soldiers across the bay to Niterói, where they would await transport to Portugal. In the following days, the Portuguese commander delayed embarkation, hoping that expected reinforcements would arrive. However, the reinforcements that arrived off Rio de Janeiro on March 5, 1822, were not allowed to land. Instead, they were given supplies for the voyage back to Portugal. This round had been won without bloodshed. Location of Niterói Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Mayor Godofredo Pinto (Workers Party (Brazil)) Area    - City 129,375 km² Population    - City (2006) 476. ... This article is about the day. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Blood had been shed in Recife in the Province of Pernambuco, when the Portuguese garrison there had been forced to depart in November 1821. In mid-February 1822, Brazilians in Bahia revolted against the Portuguese forces there, but were driven into the countryside, where they began guerrilla operations, signaling that the struggle in the north would not be without loss of life and property. Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ...


To secure Minas Gerais and São Paulo, where there were no Portuguese troops but where there were doubts about independence, Dom Pedro engaged in some royal populism. Towns in Minas Gerais had expressed their loyalty at the time of Pedro's vow to remain, save for the junta in Ouro Prêto, the provincial capital. Pedro realized that unless Minas Gerais were solidly with him, he would be unable to broaden his authority to other provinces. With only a few companions and no ceremony or pomp, Pedro plunged into Minas Gerais on horseback in late March 1822, receiving enthusiastic welcomes and allegiances everywhere. Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... Founded at the end of the 17th century, Vila Rica do Ouro Preto (Black Gold) was the focal point of the gold rush and Brazils golden age in the 18th century. ...


Defender of Brazil

Back in Rio de Janeiro on May 13, he was proclaimed the "Perpetual Defender of Brazil" by the São Paulo legislative assembly and shortly thereafter called a Constituent Assembly (Assembléia Constituinte) for the next year. To deepen his base of support, he joined the Freemasons, who, led by José Bonifácio Andrada e Silva, were pressing for parliamentary government and independence. More confident, in early August he called on the Brazilian deputies in Lisbon to return, decreed that Portuguese forces in Brazil should be treated as enemies. He had already decreed that no decree from the Government of Lisbon would be carried out by officers in Brazil without his consent. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... José Bonifácio Andrada e Silva was a Brazilian activist and freemason; during the 19th century, he was notable for pushing for political reforms. ...


São Paulo and Ipiranga

Flag of the Independent Kingdom of Brazil, used from September to December 1822
Flag of the Independent Kingdom of Brazil, used from September to December 1822

Seeking to duplicate his triumph in Minas Gerais, Prince Pedro rode to São Paulo in August to assure himself of support there. It was on that trip that he began a disastrous affair with Domitila de Castro that later weakened his government. By that time, relations between Portugal and Brazil were so bad that Prince Pedro had already issued two manifestos, the "Letter to the Peoples of Brazil" and the "Letter to the Friendly Nations", that read like a declaration of independence. Returning from an excursion to Santos, Pedro received messages from his wife and from Andrada e Silva that the Côrtes had declared his government traitorous and were dispatching more troops. Pedro then had to choose between returning to Portugal in disgrace, or breaking the last ties with Portugal. In a famous scene by the Ipiranga River on September 7, 1822, Prince Pedro, hiding his horse, tore the Portuguese blue and white insignia from his uniform, drew his sword, and swore in the presence of his guard of honour: "By my blood, by my honour, and by God: I will make Brazil free." Then he cried "It is time! Independence or Death! We are separated from Portugal". Those words constituted Brazil's Proclamation of Independence. The "Independence or Death" cry would become the motto of the Brazilian emancipation. Image File history File links Flag_Regent_Prince_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_Regent_Prince_of_Brazil. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On 12 October 1822, Dom Pedro was acclaimed as the first Emperor of Brazil. He was crowned on December 1, 1822. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The reign of Pedro I, 1822-31

Brazilian provinces by the time of independence
Brazilian provinces by the time of independence

Image File history File links Brazil_states1823. ... Image File history File links Brazil_states1823. ...

Military consolidation

To consolidate his claim, Pedro — now Emperor Pedro I of Brazil — hired Admiral Thomas Cochrane, one of Britain's most successful naval commanders in the Napoleonic Wars and recently commander of the Chilean naval forces against Spain. He also hired a number of Admiral Cochrane's officers, and the French General Pierre Labatut, who had fought in Colombia. These men were to lead the fight to drive the Portuguese out of Bahia, Maranhão, and Pará, and to force those areas to replace Lisbon's rule with that of Rio de Janeiro. Money from customs at Rio de Janeiro's port and local donations outfitted the army and the nine-vessel fleet. The use of foreign mercenaries brought needed military skills. The much-feared Cochrane secured Maranhão with a single warship, despite the Portuguese military's attempt to disrupt the economy and society with a scorched-earth campaign and with promises of freedom for the slaves. By mid-1823 the contending forces numbered between 10,000 and 20,000 Portuguese, some of whom were veterans of the Napoleonic Wars, versus 12,000 to 14,000 Brazilians, mostly in militia units from the Northeast. Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775–October 31, 1860) was a politician and naval adventurer. ... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...


Brazilian independence is popularly believed to have come without bloodshed. In fact, although both sides avoided massive set battles, they did engage in guerrilla tactics, demonstrations, and countermoves. There is little information on casualties, but the fighting provided a female martyr in Mother Joana Angélica, who was bayoneted to death by Portuguese troops invading her convent in Bahia; and an example of female grit in Maria Quitéria de Jesus, who, masquerading as a man, joined the Imperial army and achieved distinction in several battles. Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ...


International recognition

The United Kingdom and Portugal eventually recognized Brazilian independence by signing a treaty on August 29, 1825. Until then, the Brazilians feared that Portugal would resume its attack. Portuguese retribution, however, came in a financial form. Secret codicils of the treaty with Portugal required that Brazil assume payment of 1.4 million pounds sterling owed to Britain and indemnify Dom João VI and other Portuguese for losses totaling 600,000 pounds sterling. Brazil also renounced future annexation of Portuguese African colonies, and in a side treaty with Britain, promised to end the slave trade. Neither of these measures pleased the slave-holding planters. is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ...


An imposed constitution

Main article: Constitution of Brazil Imperial Constitution (1824-1889)

Organizing the new government quickly brought the differences between the Emperor and his leading subjects to the fore. In 1824, Pedro closed the Constituent Assembly that he had convened because he believed that body was endangering liberty. As assembly members, his advisers, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva and Dom Pedro's brothers, had written a draft constitution that would have limited the monarch by making him equal to the legislature and judiciary, similar to the President of the United States. They wanted the Emperor to push the draft through without discussion, which Pedro refused to do. Troops surrounded the assembly as he ordered it dissolved.


Pedro then produced a constitution modelled on that of Portugal (1822) and France (1814). It specified indirect elections and created the usual three branches of government but also added a fourth, the "moderating power", to be held by the Emperor.


The moderating power would give the Emperor authority to name senators and judges and to break deadlocks by summoning and dissolving Parliaments and cabinets. He also had treaty-making and treaty-ratifying power. The Imperial Parliament, known as General Assembly, was to be made up of an indirectly elected Chamber of Deputies, and of an appointed Senate. The Emperor would appoint Senators for life from a list of three candidates, also chosen by indirect ballot. A senator for life is a member of the senate elected or appointed for lifetime. ...


Pedro's Constitution was more liberal than the Assembly's draft in its religious toleration and definition of individual and property rights, but less so in its concentration of power in the Emperor. It was signed into Law on 25 March 1824 and the first General Assembly to be elected under its provisions assembled on May 1826. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Confederation of the Equator

The constitution was more acceptable in the flourishing, coffee-driven Southeastern provinces than in the Northeastern sugar and cotton areas, where low export prices and the high cost of imported slaves were blamed on the coffee-oriented government. In mid-1824, with Pernambuco and Ceará leading, five Northeastern provinces declared independence as the Confederation of the Equator, but by year's end the short-lived separation had been crushed by the Scottish Admiral Cochrane. With the Northeast pacified, violence now imperiled the South. Location map Capital Recife Created July 2, 1824 Dissolved November 9, 1824 The Confederation of the Equator, (Portuguese, Confederação do Equador) was a short lived state established in the northeastern region of Brazil during that nations struggle of independence against Portugal. ... This article is about the country. ... Rear Admiral Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquês do Maranhão GCB RN (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831[1], was a radical politician and naval officer. ...


The Independence of Uruguay

Main article: Uruguay

In 1825, war flared again over Argentina's determination to annex the Cisplatine Province (present-day Uruguay, on the East bank of the Plata River). The empire could little afford the troops, some of whom were recruited in Ireland and Germany, or the sixty warships needed to blockade the Río de la Plata. A loan from London bankers was expended by 1826, and Pedro had to call the General Assembly to finance the war. The blockade raised objections from the United States and Britain, and defeats on land in 1827 made it necessary to negotiate an end to the US$30 million Argentina-Brazil War. The war, at least, left Uruguay independent instead of an Argentine province. That was possible because after the wars lead by José Gervasio Artigas against the centralist government of Buenos Aires, many people didn't want to submit to Buenos Aires, neither Brazil. In June 1828, harsh discipline and xenophobia provoked a mutiny of mercenary troops in Rio de Janeiro; the Irish were shipped home and the Germans sent to the South. The army was reduced to 15,000 members, and the anti-slavery Pedro, now without military muscle, faced a Parliament controlled by slave-owners and their allies. This page is about the South American estuary. ... This page is about the South American estuary. ... Combatants Brazilian Empire United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present Uruguay and Argentina) Commanders Pedro I of Brazil Juan Antonio Lavalleja Bernardino Rivadavia The Argentina-Brazil War (Portuguese: Guerra da Cisplatina, Spanish Guerra argentino-brasilera) was an armed conflict that took during the 1820s between the United... José Gervasio Artigas (June 19, 1764 - September 23, 1850) was a national hero of Uruguay and is sometimes called the father of Uruguayan independence. This is an ironic turn of events, considering that during his life he never sought the absolute independence of Uruguay as a separate State, but the...

Flag of the Brazilian Cisplatine
Flag of the Brazilian Cisplatine

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The slavery question

As coffee exports rose steadily, so did the numbers of imported slaves; in Rio de Janeiro alone, they soared from 26,254 in 1825 to 43,555 in 1828. In 1822, about 30%, or one million, of Brazil's population consisted of African-born or -descended slaves. Slavery was so pervasive that beggars had slaves, and naval volunteers took theirs aboard ship. Slave redirects here. ...


Pedro had written that slavery was a "cancer that is gnawing away at Brazil" and that no one had the right to enslave another. He wanted to abolish slavery, but his own liberal constitution gave the law-making authority to the slavocrat-controlled Parliament. In Brazil, liberal principles and political formulas were given special meaning. The language of social contract, popular sovereignty, supremacy of law, universal rights, division of powers, and representative government was stripped of its revolutionary content and applied only to a select, privileged white minority. Pooybuttpular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. ...


After 1826, the slavocrat agenda was to control the court system; to provide harsh punishments for slave rebellion, but mild ones for white revolt; to reduce the armed forces, cleansing them of foreigners unsympathetic to slavery; to keep tariffs low and eliminate the Bank of Brazil in order to deny the central government the ability to stimulate a rival, finance-based industrial capitalism; and to shape immigration policy in such a way as to encourage servile labour instead of independent farmers or craftsmen. Led by Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos of Minas Gerais in the assembly, slavocrats argued that slavery was not demoralizing, that foreign capital and technology would not help Brazil, and that railroads would only rust. Others, such as Nicolau de Campos Vergueiro of São Paulo, argued in favour of replacing slavery with free European immigrants. In the end, the Parliament established a contract system that was little better than slavery. There would be no liberal empire. Laws and decrees unacceptable to the slavocrats simply would not take effect, such as the order in 1829 forbidding slave ships to sail for Africa. These items of the slavocrat agenda were the roots of the regional rebellions of the nineteenth century. Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ...


In 1835, the Male Revolt, perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil, took place in the city of Salvador da Bahia.[1] The Male Revolt is perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil, which took place in 1835 in the city of Salvador da Bahia. ... Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 This article is about a Brazilian city. ...


Turmoil and abdication

After Dom João's death (1826), despite Pedro's renunciation of his right to the Portuguese throne in favor of his daughter, Brazilian nativist radicals falsely accused the emperor of plotting to overthrow the constitution and to proclaim himself the ruler of a reunited Brazil and Portugal. They raised tensions by provoking street violence against the Portuguese of Rio de Janeiro and agitated for a federalist monarchy that would give the provinces self-government and administrative autonomy. Brazil's fate was in the hands of a few people concentrated in the capital who spread false stories and undermined discipline in the army and police. It would not be the last time that events in Rio de Janeiro would shape the future. When Pedro dismissed his cabinet in April 1831, street and military demonstrators demanded its reinstatement in violation of his constitutional prerogatives. He refused, saying: "I will do anything for the people but nothing [forced] by the people." With military units assembled on the Campo Santana, an assembly ground in Rio de Janeiro, and people in the streets shouting "death to the tyrant", he backed down. Failing to form a new cabinet, he abdicated in favour of his five-year-old son Pedro (who thus became Emperor Pedro II of Brazil), and left Brazil as he had arrived — on a British warship. A map displaying todays federations. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ...


The Regency Era, 1831-40

Unrest in the provinces

From 1831 to 1840, the country was ruled by three appointed regents, in the young Emperor's name. This was a period of turmoil as local factions struggled to gain control of their provinces and to keep the masses in line. Out of desperation to weaken the radical appeals for federalism, republicanism, and hostility toward the Portuguese, and to protect against calls for Pedro I's restoration, the regency in Rio de Janeiro gave considerable power to the provinces in 1834. Brazil took on the appearance of a federation of local pátrias (autonomous centres of regional power) with loose allegiance to the Rio de Janeiro government, whose function was to defend them from external attack and to maintain order and balance among them. The government's ability to carry out that function was impaired, however, by the low budgets allowed the army and navy, and by the creation of a National Guard, whose officers were local notables determined to protect their private and regional interests. The rebellions, riots, and popular movements that marked the next years did not spring as much from economic misery as from attempts to share in the prosperity resulting from North Atlantic demand for Brazil's exports. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...

Charge of the Tatter cavalry

Many of the disturbances were so fleeting they were all but forgotten. For example, in Rio de Janeiro alone there were five uprisings in 1831 and 1832. Another eight of the more famous revolts in the 1834-49 period included the participation of lower-class people, Indians, free and runaway blacks, and slaves, which accounts for their often fierce suppression. Republican objectives were apparent in some of these revolts, such as the War of the Farrapos ("tatters"), also known as the Farroupilha Rebellion (1835-45), in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Others, such as the Cabanagem in Pará in 1835-40, the Sabinada in Salvador in 1837-38, the Balaiada Rebellion in Maranhão in 1838-41, and the ones in Minas Gerais and São Paulo in 1842, were propelled simultaneously by antiregency and promonarchial sentiments. Such unrest dispels the notion that the history of state formation in Brazil was peaceful. Instead, it shows the confrontation between the national government and the splintering motherlands (pátrias), which would continue in varying degrees for the next century. Image File history File links War_of_Tatters. ... Image File history File links War_of_Tatters. ... War of Tatters (in Portuguese: Guerra dos Farrapos) was a Republican uprising that began in the southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) in 1835. ... Flag of Santa Catarina See other Brazilian States Capital Florianópolis Largest City Joinville Area 95,442. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... The Balaiada was a social revolt that occurred between 1838 and 1841 in the interior of the then-province of Maranhão, Brazil. ...


Pedro II as the focus of unity

Pedro I's death from tuberculosis in 1834 had sapped the restorationist impulse and removed the glue that held uneasy political allies together. With the regency attempting to suppress simultaneous revolts in the South and North, it could not easily reassert its supremacy over the remaining provinces. Brazil could well have split apart in those years. It did not for three reasons. First, the military was reorganized as an instrument of national unity under the leadership of Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, who was ennobled as the Duke of Caxias (Duque de Caxias) and who was later proclaimed Patron of the Brazilian Army. Second, the specter of slave revolt and social disintegration had become all too real. And third, the "vision of Brazil as a union of autonomous pátrias", in Roderick J. Barman's phrase, was replaced by the vision of Brazil as a nation-state. Rather than risk their fortunes and lives, the elites, longing for a focus of loyalty, identity, and authority, rallied around the boy-Emperor to raise him to power in 1840. The Houses of the Brazilian General Assembly (the Imperial Parliament), meeting in joint session, in defiance of a decree from the Regency proroguing the annual legislative session, sent a Commission to ask the boy-Emperor whether or not he would agree to be declared of age immediately. The Emperor agreed. Then, the Regent, under pressure, revoked the decree that had prorogued the Legislature. Within hours, the General Assembly passed a resolution declaring the Emperor of age, at age of fourteen instead of the constitutionally specified age of eighteen. The Emperor then appeared before the General Assembly, took the constitutional oath, and a proclamation was issued declaring the end of the regency and the beginning of the personal rule of Pedro II. He was subsequently crowned on July 18, 1841. Thus, the second reign was born in the hope that it would be an instrument of national unity, peace, and prosperity. The Duke of Caxias in profile The Duke of Caxias in military dress The duke of Caxias, or Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, was a successful Brazilian general in the War of the Triple Alliance. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The personal reign of Pedro II, 1840-89

Pedro II in regalia at the opening of the General Assembly (oil painting by Pedro Américo).
Pedro II in regalia at the opening of the General Assembly (oil painting by Pedro Américo).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (499x672, 133 KB)The source url for this file is http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (499x672, 133 KB)The source url for this file is http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Reunification and centralization

Through the beginning of Pedro II's reign, in the 1840s, the Brazilian nation-state coalesced as authorities suppressed revolts and rewrote Brazilian law. These laws, however, did not bode well for democracy because they shaped an electoral system based on government-controlled fraud. In 1842, on the advice of conservative courtiers, Pedro II used his constitutional moderating power to dismiss the newly elected liberal Chamber of Deputies and called new elections, which the conservatives won by stuffing the ballot boxes. In so doing, he set a pattern of favoring conservatives over liberals. Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


The "moderating power" granted to the emperor by the constitution of 1824 — to balance the traditional executive, legislative, and judicial branches — gave him the right to name senators, to dismiss the legislature, and to shift control of the government from one party to the other. In theory, he was to act as the political balance wheel. The parties at this time were more groupings of members of Parliament than ideologically based movements dependent on distinct electorates. Historian Richard Graham observed that "No particular political philosophy distinguished one group from another." The political system had an artificial aspect to it; it did not relate openly to the real power structure of the country--the senhores da terra ("landowners") who ran local affairs. Richard Graham is a historian. ...

The imperial crown of Brazil, made in 1841
The imperial crown of Brazil, made in 1841

A good example of how the real power-holders manipulated the system to protect their narrow interests to the detriment of the national interest was the Land Law of 1850, which set the pattern for modern landholding. The Land Law ended the colonial practice of obtaining land through squatting or royal grants and limited acquisition to purchase, thereby restricting the number of people who could become owners. By creating obstacles to land ownership, the law's framers hoped to force free labor to work for existing landlords. However, proprietors sabotaged the law by not surveying their lands and not resolving their conflicting claims in order to keep titles cloudy and hence in their hands. One result of the uncertain titles was that slaves were used as collateral. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Imperial Crown of Brazil (Crown of Dom Pedro II) is currently kept on display at the Brazilian Imperial Museum in the city of Petrópolis Emperor Pedro II, wearing several elements of the regalia, and crowned with the Imperial Crown of Brazil, here portrayed arriving to deliver the Speech...


End of the slave trade

In 1850, British and domestic pressure finally forced the Brazilian government to outlaw the African slave trade. London, tiring of Brazilian subterfuge, authorized its navy to seize slave ships in Brazilian waters, even in ports. Rather than risk open war with Britain, paralyzation of commerce, widespread slave unrest, and destabilization of the empire, the government outlawed the African slave trade (for more information, see: Lei Áurea). It deported a number of Portuguese slavers and instructed the provincial presidents, police, judges, and military to crack down. Over the next five years, even clandestine landings stopped, and despite the tempting rise of slave prices in the coffee districts of Rio de Janeiro Province, the trans-Atlantic trade ended. Although the British claimed credit, for the first time a Brazilian government had the power to enforce a law along the length of the coast. Also, internal support for the trade had weakened. Most slave importers were Portuguese, who had been selling the ever more expensive Africans to landowners on credit at climbing interest rates, in some cases forcing the latter into insolvency and loss of property. Xenophobia and the debts of the landed classes combined to support the government action. The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil. ...


Ending the slave trade had a number of consequences. First, because labor needs increased in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo as the world demand for coffee rose, Northeastern planters sold their surplus slaves to Southern growers. In addition, Parliament passed laws encouraging European immigration, and the Land Law of 1850. Second, ending the slave trade freed capital that could then be used for investment in transport and industrial enterprises. Third, it ensured that Britain did not interfere in Brazil's military intervention to end the rule in Buenos Aires of Juan Manuel de Rosas (who was governor of Buenos Aires province, 1829-33, 1835-52). This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... General de Rosas Juan Manuel de Rosas (born Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rozas y López de Osornio, 1793-1877) was a conservative Argentine politician who ruled Argentina from 1829 to 1852. ...


Coffee and industrialization

Coffee dominated exports in the last half of the nineteenth century, going from 50% of exports in 1841-50 to 59.5% in 1871-80. But sugar exports also increased, and cotton, tobacco, cocoa, rubber, and maté were important. The vast cattle herds that grazed the Northeastern sertão, the plains (cerrado) of Minas Gerais, and the pampas of Rio Grande do Sul foreshadowed Brazil's status in 1990 as the world's second largest meat exporter. Meat-salting plants (saladeros) in Rio Grande do Sul shipped sun-dried beef to the expanding coffee-growing region to feed its slaves and freed tenant farmers (colonos). In addition to beef, Brazilians ate protein-rich beans, rice, and corn, much of which came from Minas Gerais or the immigrant colonies of Rio Grande do Sul. Interregional trade was budding, but for the most part, local self-sufficiency was the norm. Indeed, more people produced food for the domestic market than labored on export crops. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Ilex paraguariensis A. St. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Expanding coffee production in the 1850s and 1860s attracted British investment in railroads to speed transport of the beans to the coast. The Santos-São Paulo Railroad (1868) was the first major breach of the coastal escarpment, which had slowed development of the Southern plateau. Similarly, in the Northeast railroads began to cut into the interior from the coast. But generally the pattern was to connect a port with its export-oriented hinterland, creating a series of enclaves that were connected with each other by sea. Well into the twentieth century, Brazil lacked railroads and highways linking its major regions, urban areas, and economic zones. The country was laced together by intricate networks of mule trails that moved goods and people throughout the vast interior. Viewed as archaic by modern observers, the mule train trails nonetheless were important in Brazil's formation, tying the various regions together and spreading a common language and culture.


War of the Triple Alliance

Main article: War of the Triple Alliance

The empire had lost the East Bank of the Río de la Plata with the founding of Uruguay in 1828, but it continued to meddle in that republic's affairs. Brazil's most important businessman, Irineu Evangelista de Sousa, the Visconde de Mauá, had such heavy financial interests there that his company was effectively the Uruguayan government's bank. Other Brazilians owned about 400 large estates (estancias) that took up nearly a third of the country's territory. They objected to the taxes the Uruguayans imposed when they drove their cattle back and forth to Rio Grande do Sul, and they took sides in the constant fighting between Uruguay's Colorado and Blanco political factions, which later became the Colorado Party and the National Party (Blancos). Some of Rio Grande do Sul's gauchos did not accept Uruguayan independence in 1828 and continually sought intervention. Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... This page is about the South American estuary. ... Visconde de Mauá, or simply Mauá as it is called by the locals, is a small village or district that belongs to the county of Rezende in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation). ...


In the mid-1860s, the imperial government conspired with Buenos Aires authorities to replace the Blanco regime in Montevideo with a Colorado one. The Blancos appealed to Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López (president, 1862-70), who harbored his own fears of the two larger countries and who regarded a threat to Uruguay as a menace to Paraguay. A small landlocked country, Paraguay had the largest army in the region: 64,000 soldiers compared with Brazil's standing army of 18,000. In 1864, Brazil and Argentina agreed to act together should Solano López attempt to save the Blancos. In September 1864, wrongly convinced that he would not be so foolish, the Brazilians sent troops into Uruguay to put the Colorados in power. Each side miscalculated the intentions, capabilities, and will of the other. Paraguay reacted by seizing Brazilian vessels on the Rio Paraguai and by attacking the province of Mato Grosso. Solano López, mistakenly expecting help from anti-Buenos Aires caudillos, sent his forces into Corrientes to get at Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay, and found himself at war with both Argentina and Brazil. In May 1865, those two countries and Colorado-led Uruguay signed an alliance that aimed to transfer contested Paraguayan territory to the larger countries, to open Paraguayan rivers to international trade, and to remove Solano López. By September 1865, the allies had driven the Paraguayans out of Rio Grande do Sul, and they took the war into Paraguay when that country spurned their peace overtures. Department Montevideo Department Altitude 43 m Coordinates 34º 53S 56º 10W Founded 1726 Founder Bruno Mauricio de Zabala Population 1,325,968 (2004) (1st) Demonym Montevideano Phone Code +02 Postal Code 10000 Montevideo (IPA: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief port of Uruguay. ... Francisco Solano López Francisco Solano López (24 July 1827 - 1 March 1870) was president of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870. ... The Paraguay River near Asunción The River Paraguay (Rio Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil and Paraguay and forming a border between Brazil and Bolivia as well as Paraguay and Argentina. ... Flag of Mato Grosso See other Brazilian States Capital Cuiabá Largest City Cuiabá Area 903,357. ... After the New World collapsed in Latin America, the resulting states were extremely weak and unstable. ...

Artist's conception of the battle of Riachuelo, by Victor Meirelles

Fiercely defending their homeland, the Guaraní speaking Paraguayans defeated the allies at Curupaity in September 1866. The Argentine president, General Bartolomé Mitre (1861-68), took the bulk of his troops home to quell opposition to his war policy, leaving the Brazilians to soldier on. The famed General Lima e Silva, Marquis and later Duke of Caxias, took command of the allied forces and led them until the fall of Asunción in early 1869. With stubborn determination, the Brazilians pursued Solano López until they cornered and killed him. They then occupied Paraguay until 1878. Image File history File links Batalla_Riachuelo. ... Image File history File links Batalla_Riachuelo. ... Meirelless Combate Naval do Riachuelo Victor Meirelles de Lima (August 18, 1832 - February 22, 1903) was a 19th century painter. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... The Battle of Curupaity was a key battle in the War of the Triple Alliance. ... Bartolomé Mitre Martínez (1821-1906) was an Argentine statesman, military figure, and author. ... The Duke of Caxias in profile The Duke of Caxias in military dress Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, the duke of Caxias (August 25, 1803-May 7, 1880), was the most important Brazilian military commander in history. ...


The war dragged on for several reasons. First, the Paraguayans were better prepared at the outset and conducted an effective offensive into the territories of their adversaries, immediately handing them defeats. Even later, when pushed back onto their own land, they had the advantages of knowing the ground, of having prepared defenses, and of fielding stubbornly loyal troops. Second, it took the Brazilians considerable time to marshal their forces and considerable effort and cost to keep them supplied. Third, the Argentines, hoping to improve their postwar situation in relation to Brazil, delayed operations partly to force the empire to weaken itself by expending its resources. Fourth, this was the era of "unconditional surrender". It was militarily fashionable to pursue Francisco Solano López to the bitter end. Francisco Solano López Francisco Solano López (24 July 1827 - 1 March 1870) was president of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870. ...


Aftermath of the war

The war had important consequences for Brazil and the Río de la Plata region. It left Brazil and Argentina facing each other over a prostrate Paraguay and a dependent Uruguay, a situation that soon turned into a tense rivalry that repeatedly assumed warlike postures. Historians debate the number of Paraguayan casualties, some asserting that 50% of Paraguayans were killed, others arguing that it was much less, possibly 8 to 9% of the prewar population total. Nonetheless, the losses from battle, disease, and starvation were severe and disrupted the development of the republic. In Brazil, the war contributed to the growth of manufacturing, to the professionalization of the armed forces and their concentration in Rio Grande do Sul, to the building of roads and the settling of European immigrants in the southern provinces, and to the increased power of the central government. Most important for the future, the war brought the military firmly into the political arena. Military officers were keenly aware that the war had exposed the military's lack of equipment, training, and organization. Officers blamed these shortcomings on civilian officials. In the next decades, reformist officers seeking to modernize the army would criticize the Brazilian political structure and its peculiar culture as obstacles to modernization.


The republican movement

The end of the war coincided with the resurgence of republicanism as disenchanted liberals cast about for a new route to power. The 1867 collapse of the short-lived, French-sponsored Mexican monarchy of Maximilian left Brazil as the only Latin American monarchical regime. And because Argentina appeared to prosper in the 1870s and 1880s, it served as a powerful advertisement for republican government. The republican ideology spread in urban areas and in provinces, such as São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, where the people did not believe they benefited from imperial economic policies. The republican manifesto of 1870 proclaimed that "We are in America and we want to be Americans." Monarchy was, the writers asserted, hostile to the interests of the American states and would be a continuous source of conflict with Brazil's neighbors. Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo City Area 248,176. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ...


The republicans embraced the abolition of slavery to remove the stigma of Brazil's being the only remaining slaveholding country (save for Spanish Cuba) in the hemisphere. It was not so much that they believed that slavery was wrong as that it gave the country an image distasteful to Europeans. Abolition, which would come in 1888, did not imply that liberals wanted deep social reform or desired a democratic society. Indeed, their arguments against slavery were weighted toward efficiency rather than morality. Once in power, the republicans looked to discipline the legally free work force with various systems of social control. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Economic efficiency is a general term for the value assigned to a situation by some measure designed to capture the amount of waste or friction or other undesirable economic features present. ...


The Brazilian social system functioned through intertwined networks of patronage, familial relationships, and friendships. The state, capitalist economy, and institutions such as the church and the army developed within what historian Emília Viotti da Costa has called "the web of patronage." Contacts and favor rather than ability determined success in virtually all occupations. Brazilian society was one in which a person could not advance without friends and family; hence, the continued importance of kinship networks (parentelas) and military school classes (turmas). Such a social system did not lend itself to reform. Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ...


Crisis with the Church

In the 1870s and 1880s, there was a crisis in each of the three pillars of the imperial regime -- the Church, the military, and the slaveholding system. Together, these crises represented the failure of the regime to adapt without alienating its base. In the 1870s, Rome pressured Brazil's Roman Catholic Church to conform to the conservative reforms of the First Vatican Council, which strengthened the power of the pontiff by declaring him infallible in matters of faith and morals. This effort by Rome to unify doctrine and practice worldwide conflicted with royal control of the Church in Brazil. The Crown had inherited the padroado, or right of ecclesiastical patronage, from its Portuguese predecessor. This right gave the Crown control over the Church, which imperial authorities treated as an arm of the state. Although some clerics had displayed republican sentiments earlier in the century, a church-state crisis exploded in the mid-1870s over efforts to Europeanize the Church. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ...


Crisis in the army

The importance of the military crisis is clearer because it removed the armed prop of the regime. After the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70), the monarchy was indifferent to the army, which the civilian elite did not perceive as a threat. The fiscal problems of the 1870s slowed promotions to a crawl, salaries were frozen, and officers complained about having to contribute to a widows' fund from their meager salaries. Moreover, the soldiers in the ranks were considered the dregs of society, discipline was based on the lash, and training seemed pointless. The gulf between the military and the civilian oligarchies broadened. The political parties were as indifferent as the government to demands for military reform, for obligatory military service, for better armament, and for higher pay and status. During the 1870s, the discontent was checked by the National Guard's reduced role, by an unsuccessful but welcomed attempt to improve the recruitment system, and, especially, by the cabinet service of war heroes, including the Duke of Caxias as prime minister (1875-78) and Marshal Manuel Luís Osório, the Marquis of Herval, as minister of war (1878). But the latter died in 1879 and Caxias the year after, leaving leadership to officers less committed to the throne. The junior officer ranks were filled with men from the middle classes who had entered the army to obtain an education rather than to follow a military career. They were more concerned than their predecessors with social changes that would open opportunities to the lower middle class. The Duke of Caxias in profile The Duke of Caxias in military dress The duke of Caxias, or Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, was a successful Brazilian general in the War of the Triple Alliance. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The officer corps was split into three generations. The oldest group had helped suppress the regional revolts of the 1830s and 1840s, had fought in Argentina in 1852, and had survived the War of the Triple Alliance. The numerous mid-level officers were better schooled than their seniors and had been tested in combat in Paraguay. The junior officers had missed the war, but had the most education of the three groups and had experienced the empire only when its defects had become clearly apparent. They were the least attached to the old regime and the most frustrated by the lack of advancement in a peacetime army cluttered with veterans of the great war.


Brazilian political tradition permitted officers to hold political office and to serve as cabinet ministers, thereby blurring the civil-military roles. As parliamentary deputies and senators, officers could criticize the government, including their military superiors, with impunity. In the 1880s, officers participated in provincial politics, debated in the press, and spoke in public forums. In 1884, a civilian minister of war attempted to impose order by forbidding officers to write or speak publicly about governmental matters. The subsequent punishments of offending officers led Field Marshal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca and General José Antônio Correia de Câmara (Visconde de Pelotas) to head protests that eventually forced the minister to resign in February 1887 and the cabinet to fall in March 1888. Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Deodoro da Fonseca (Manuel) Deodoro da Fonseca (August 5, 1827 - August 23, 1892) overthrew Emperor Pedro II to become the first president of a Republic of Brazil. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Photograph of Dom Pedro II in his old age

D. Pedro II - old age photograpy This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... D. Pedro II - old age photograpy This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ...

Abolition of slavery

Even as the church and military crises were unfolding, the slavery issue shook the support of the landed elite. Members of the Liberal and Conservative Parties came from the same social groups: plantation owners (fazendeiros) made up half of both, and the rest were bureaucrats and professionals. The ideological differences between the parties were trivial, but factional and personal rivalries within them made it difficult for the parties to adjust to changing social and economic circumstances. As a result, the last decade of the empire was marked by considerable political instability. Between 1880 and 1889, there were ten cabinets (seven in the first five years) and three parliamentary elections, with no Parliament able to complete its term. The repeated use of the moderating power provoked alienation, even among traditional monarchists.


Attitudes toward slavery had shifted gradually. Pedro II favored abolition, and, during the War of the Triple Alliance, slaves serving in the military were emancipated. In 1871, the Rio Branco cabinet approved a law freeing newborns and requiring masters to care for them until age eight, at which time they would either be turned over to the government for compensation or the owner would have use of their labor until age twenty-one. In 1884, a law freed slaves over sixty years of age. By the 1880s, the geography of slavery had also changed, and the economy was less dependent on it. Because of manumissions (many on condition of remaining on the plantations) and the massive flight of slaves, the overall numbers declined from 1,240,806 in 1884 to 723,419 in 1887, with most slaves having shifted from the sugar plantations in the Northeast to the south-central coffee groves. But even planters in São Paulo, where the slave percentage of the total population had fallen from 28.2% in 1854 to 8.7% in 1886, understood that to continue expansion they needed a different labor system. The provincial government therefore actively began subsidizing and recruiting immigrants. Between 1875 and 1887, about 156,000 arrived in São Paulo. Meanwhile, the demand for cheap sugarcane workers in the Northeast was satisfied by sertanejos (inhabitants of the sertão) fleeing the devastating droughts of the 1870s in the sertão.


The economic picture was also changing. Slavery immobilized capital invested in the purchase and maintenance of slaves. By turning to free labor, planter capital was freed for investment in railroads, streetcar lines, and shipping and manufacturing enterprises. To some extent, these investments offered a degree of protection from the caprices of agriculture.


Meanwhile, slaves left the plantations in great numbers, and an active underground supported runaways. Army officers petitioned the Regent Princess Isabel to relieve them of the duty of pursuing runaway slaves. Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, commander in Rio Grande do Sul, declared in early 1887 that the military "had the obligation to be abolitionist". The São Paulo assembly petitioned the Parliament for immediate abolition. The agitation reached such a pitch that to foreign travelers, Brazil appeared on the verge of social revolution. The system was coming apart, and even planters realized that abolition was the way to prevent chaos. This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ...


The so-called Golden Law of May 13, 1888 abolished slavery. The country's economy revived rapidly after a few lost harvests, and only a small number of planters went bankrupt. Slavery ended, but the plantation survived and so did the basic attitudes of a class society. Many former slaves stayed on the plantations in the same quarters, receiving paltry wages. They were joined by waves of immigrants, who often found conditions so unbearable that they soon moved to the cities or returned to Europe. No freedmen's bureaus or schools were established to improve the lives of the former slaves; they were left at the bottom of the socioeconomic scale, where some of their descendants remain. The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The republican coup

Brazilian provinces by the end of the Empire
Brazilian provinces by the end of the Empire

In the end, the empire fell because the elites did not need it to protect their interests. Indeed, imperial centralization ran counter to their desires for local autonomy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


After the abolition of slavery in 1888, the economic system of the north led to serious economic problems. Widespread famine soon resulted in the death of many former slaves in the northern states with slave-based economies. As a result of both the loss of slaves, their major resource, and the economic problems that followed abolition, the rich oligarchical elements of Brazilian society found their economic interests in considerable danger. As a result the elite responded to the liberalising tendencies of the Imperial government by supporting the creation of an oligarchical republic, with local elites being able to control dominate their areas through a decentralised federal system.


Unlike the foundation of most republics, the foundation of the Brazilian republic can therefore be seen as a reactionary development. Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


In the early republic, the oligarchies quickly accumulated the power and skills to control the new governmental system. Taking advantage of cabinet crises in 1888 and 1889 and of rising frustration among military officers, republicans favoring change by revolution rather than by evolution drew military officers, led by Field Marshal Fonseca, into a conspiracy to replace the cabinet in November 1889. What started as an armed demonstration demanding replacement of a cabinet turned within hours into a coup d'état deposing Emperor Pedro II. // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... // The Constitutionalist Revolution From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. ... // Depression, coffee oligarchs, and the Revolution of 1930 The Great Depression The tenente rebellion (See History of Brazil (1889-1930)) did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... // End of the Estado Novo As World War II ended with Brazil participating on the Allied side, President Getúlio Vargas moved to liberalize his own fascist-influenced Estado Novo regime. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ... After the end of the military dictatorship, Brazil went into a troubled process of redemocratization. ... Politics of Brazil takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Brazil is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazilian law derives from Portuguese civil law and is based on statutes and, partly and more recently, stare decisis. ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... This article lists political parties in Brazil. ... Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American community and has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. ... There are serious issues in regard to abuses of human rights in Brazil. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... This is a list of major companies based in Brazil. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 19 million (1997) 39 million (2005) Telephones - mobile cellular: 4 million (1997) 80 million (2005) Telephone system: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat... The Economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy of the course of the history of Brazil From Portugals discovery of Brazil in 1500 until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. ... Brazil is currently divided in five regions, by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE). ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Municipalities of Brazil This article is about the municipalities of Brazil. ... This is a list of the extreme points of Brazil, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ... // Brazil has conducted a periodical population census since 1872. ... According to Brazilian Government, the most serious health problems are:[1] Childhood mortality: about 2. ... Brazilian culture is a Latin American culture of a very diverse nature. ... Mangueira samba school parades in Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: ) is an annual festival season in Brazil held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. ... Traditional dishes in different areas of Brazil The population of Brazil is a racial mix of native Amerindians, Portuguese people, Africans, Italians, Spaniards, German people, Syrians, Lebanese and Japanese among others. ... Other holidays Dia dos Namorados is celebrated on June 12 as the Brazilian equivalent of St. ... The Literature of Brazil refers to literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, even if prior to Brazils independence from Portugal, in 1822. ... Strong influences on the music of Brazil come from many parts of the world, but there are very popular regional music styles influenced by African and European forms. ... The beaches of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the most popular tourist destination in the country. ... The following are international rankings of Brazil. ... Itaipu Brazilian science and technology has achieved in the last decades a significant position in the international arena. ... Allegations of Brazilian apartheid draw an analogy from the treatment of non-whites in apartheid era South Africa to their treatment in Brazil. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ...

References

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