FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Empire" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Empire

An empire (from the Latin "imperium", denoting military command within the ancient Roman government) is a state that extends dominion over populations distinct culturally and ethnically from the culture/ethnicity at the center of power. Scholars still debate about what exactly constitutes an empire, and other definitions may emphasize economic or political factors. An empire is a large, usually multi-ethnic state. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Command has multiple meanings: An order. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...


Like other states, an empire maintains its political structure at least partly by coercion. Land-based empires (such as the Mongol Empire or the Achaemenid Persia) tend to extend in a contiguous area; sea-borne empires, also known as thalassocracies (the Athenian, Portuguese and the British empires provide examples), may feature looser structures and more scattered territories. Political structure is a term frequently used in political science. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Persia redirects here. ... Connected and disconnected subspaces of R². The space A at top is connected; the shaded space B at bottom is not. ... This article is about the body of water. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ...


Empires predate the Romans by dozens of centuries: for example, the Akkadian Empire of Sargon of Akkad was the earliest model of a far-flung, land-based empire, founded in the 24th century BC. The New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, at one point in time another major force of the ancient Near East, was established as a loosely defined empire in the 15th century BC under Thutmose III by further invading and then incorporating Nubia and the ancient city-states of the Levant. It is worth mentioning, however, that these early models of imperialism lacked effective and administrative control of their conquered territories. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Å arru-kinu, cuneiform Å AR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Empire contrasts with the example of a federation, where a large or small multi-ethnic state - or even an ethnically homogeneous one — relies on mutual agreement amongst its component political units which retain a high degree of autonomy. Additionally, one can compare physical empires with potentially more abstract or less formally structured hegemonies in which the sphere of influence of a single political unit (such as a city-state) dominates a culturally unified area politically or militarily. A second side of this same coin shows in potentially inherent tactics of divide and conquer by different factions ("the enemy of my enemy is my friend") and central intervention for the greater whole's benefit. A map displaying todays federations. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Divide and conquer (derived from the Latin saying Divide et impera) can mean either: In politics and sociology, a strategy to gain or maintain power: see divide and rule In computer science, an algorithm design paradigm based on recursion: see divide and conquer (computer science). ...


Compare also the concept of superpowers and hyperpowers. (Some commentators have seen the British Empire as a hyperpower,[1][2] in its heyday as the largest empire in world history (covering about one quarter of the Earth's land surface) with established political, economical, financial, and scientific hegemony over the whole world). Superpowers redirects here. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...

Ethnicities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911: compare nation-state.
Ethnicities within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911: compare nation-state.

What constitutes an empire is subject to wide debate and varied definitions. An empire can be described as any state pursuing imperial policies, can be defined traditionally, or can be examined as a political structure. And in some cases the term "Empire" is also used when a ruler takes the title of "Emperor", even though the country involved has no other real reason to be considered an empire (for example, the short-lived "Central African Empire"). Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ...


Unlike a well-defined nation-state, a multi-ethnic or colonial empire may have no natural shared language. Given that languages form an important part of administrative and cultural policy, the choice and use of language in empires can have considerable significance.


The Macedonians spread Greek as the unifying language of their empire and of its successor-states, but many of their subject populations continued to use Aramaic (as used by the preceding Persian Empire) as a lingua franca. The Romans imposed Latin thoroughly in Western Continental Europe, but less successfully in Britain and in the East. The Arab Empire succeeded in developing a cultural unity based on language and religion which continues to unify the Middle East. Spanish became well ensconced in Mexico, but less so in Paraguay and in the Philippines. The English language proved very successful in North America, but Russian did not supplant indigenous tongues in the Caucasus or in Central Asia. Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Apart from the Mongol Empire (which never used a single administrative language), the administrative languages of the other six largest empires by land area in world history (the British, Russian, Spanish, Arab, Qing Chinese, and French) have also become the six official languages of the United Nations.[3] This demonstrates the role empires play in spreading languages and cultures.[original research?] Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... The Arab Caliphate could refer to: The Umayyad Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Category: ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

Contents

Examples of empire

The modern term "empire" derives from the Latin word imperium, a word coined in what became possibly the most famous example of this sort of political structure, the Roman Empire. For many centuries, the term "Empire" in the West applied exclusively to states which considered themselves to be successors to the Roman Empire, such as the Byzantine Empire, the German Holy Roman Empire, or, later, the Russian Empire. However, this does not mean that these states were themselves "empires" in the technical sense. Drawing upon the Latin word imperium, these kingdoms claimed the title of "empire" directly from Rome. One entity often invoked as an example, the Holy Roman Empire, is claimed to be comprised exclusively of various Germanic states, all of whom were Christian, and who were led independently by local princes and in name only comprised a single state; thus the Holy Roman Empire was not always centrally controlled, did not comprise of a central "core" and periphery, was not multi-national or multi-ethnic, and was not dominated by a central elite (hence Voltaire's famous remark that the Holy Roman Empire "was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."[4] - of course, the above explanation fails to take into consideration the German-led Holy Roman Empire's rule over Italian, French, Provençal, Polish, Flemish, Dutch, and Bohemian populations, and the centralizing efforts of various Holy Roman Emperors (such as the Ottonians, in the late 10th century). The "non-Empire" description of the Holy Roman Empire generally is only applicable to its late period - but many entities which have claimed Imperial status are no longer definitional empires by their declining stage. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Kings of Germany, named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the familys origin. ...


In 1204, after troops of the Fourth Crusade had sacked Constantinople, the crusaders established a Latin Empire based on the city, while the descendants of the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor established two smaller empires: the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. These "empires" remained relatively small and proved short-lived; and the Ottoman Empire eventually conquered most of the region by 1453. Only with Peter the Great's crowning in St. Petersburg as Emperor of Russia would Christian Eastern Imperialism resurface. Likewise, upon the fall of the Holy Roman Empire during the Napoleonic Wars, the Austrian Empire, later reshaped as Austria-Hungary, inherited an imperial role in central/western Europe. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Ottoman redirects here. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Napoleon I and Napoleon III each made attempts to establish Western Imperial hegemony based in France. Another heir to the Holy Roman Empire arose in the period of 1871–1918 in the form of the German Empire. Over time, other monarchies which viewed themselves as greater in size and power than mere kingdoms used the name or its translation. In 1056, King Ferdinand I of León, proclaimed himself "Emperor of Hispania", beginning the Reconquista. Bulgaria furnishes an early medieval example. Europeans came to apply the term "empire" to large non-European monarchies, such as the Empire of China or the Mughal Empire, and to extend it to past polities. The word eventually came to apply loosely to any entity meeting the criteria, whether kings governed or not, even whether a monarchy or not. In some cases synonyms of empire such as tsardom, realm, reich or raj to occur. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time, El Magno) (1017–León, 1065), was the king of Castile from his fathers death in 1035 and the king of León—through his wife—after defeating his father-in-law in 1037 until his death in 1065. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... A Realm is a primary synonym for a world usually other than our own. ... This article is about the German word Reich, and in particular to its historical and political implications. ... In many Indian languages, Raj literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire and as such is often used in reference to the Mughal Raj and the British Raj: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the...


Empires can accrete around different types of state. They have traditionally originated as powerful monarchies under the rule of a hereditary (or in some cases, self-appointed) emperor, but the Athenian Empire, Rome, and Britain developed under elective auspices. Brazil leapt from colonial to self-declared empire status in 1822. France has twice made the transition from republic to empire. Even under its various Republics, France remained an empire under the definition used here, controlling numerous overseas colonies. To this day France continues to govern both a direct Empire (controlling colonies such as French Guyana, Martinique, Réunion, French Polynesia, and New Caledonia) and an informal one throughout "Francophone" Africa, from Chad to Rwanda. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Leader redirects here. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... This article is about the political process. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... French Guiana (French: Guyane) is an overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located on the Caribbean coast of South America. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Historically empires could emerge as the result of a militarily strong state conquering other states and incorporating them into a larger political union. However a sufficiently strong state could gain Imperial hegemony through a minimum use of military action. The inability of a potential victim to resist and their knowledge of this being enough to convince them to attempt to negotiate inclusion into the empire on the best terms available. For example in antiquity there is the bequest of Pergamon by Attalus III to the Roman Empire, and in the 19th century the Unification of Germany into an empire around a Prussian metropole. Military action in the case of Prussia was not so much to conquer the other German states but to divorce them from the alternative metropole of the Austrian Empire. Having convinced the other states of her military prowess and excluded the Austrians, Prussia could dictate the terms in which the nominally independent German states could join what was initially a revamped customs union. In this way the German states could retain most of the trappings of a sovereign state, and Prussia could avoid a protracted war of conquest and consolidation. View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Attalus III was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC. He succeeded Attalus II, although their relationship, if any, is unknown. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Metropole was the name given to the English metropolitan center of the British Empire, i. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ...


Typically, a monarchy or an oligarchy rooted in the original core territory would continue to dominate this union. Many ancient empires maintained control of their subject peoples by controlling the supply of a vital resource, usually water; historians refer to such régimes as "hydraulic empires". The introduction of a common religion is often cited as strengthening empires, as occurred (pace Edward Gibbon) with the adoption of Christianity under Constantine I. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... A hydraulic empire (also known as a hydraulic despotism or a water monopoly empire) arises through the need for flood control and irrigation, which requires central coordination and gives rise to a specialized bureaucracy. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ...


An empire can mutate into some other form of polity. Thus the Bernese empire of conquest no longer appears as an empire at all; its territories have become absorbed into the canton of Bern or become cantons or parts of cantons elsewhere in the Swiss Confederation. The Holy Roman Empire, itself in a sense an attempt at re-constitution of the Roman Empire, underwent many transformations in its long history, fissuring extensively, experimenting with federalism, eventually, under the Habsburgs, re-constituting itself as the Austrian Empire - vastly different in nature and in territory. The former British Empire has spawned a loose multi-national Commonwealth of Nations, and the old French colonial empire has also left traces of its existence in cultural networks and associations. The Soviet Empire leaves behind it the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... The Swiss canton of (help· info) is bilingual (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) and has a population of about 947,000. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... -1... Map showing states that had communist governments during the Cold War in bright red, and other states the USSR believed to be moving toward socialism in dark red Soviet Empire was a controversial, politically charged and pejorative term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


An autocratic empire can readily become a republic by means of a coup (Brazil, 1889; Central African Empire, 1979); or it can become a republic with its dominions reduced to a core territory (Weimar Germany, 1918–1919; Ottoman Empire, 1918–1923). The breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 provides an example of a multi-ethnic superstate fissuring into multiple constituent or new parts: the republics, kingdoms or provinces of Austria, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czechoslovakia, Ruthenia, Galicia, etc. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Ottoman redirects here. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... A superstate is an agglomeration of nations, often linguistically and ethnically diverse, under a single political-administrative structure. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ...


While the greatest empire of the ancient Western world was governed from Rome, to the East an empire more impressive[citation needed] in scope and duration was established under the dynastic rule of China. Also known as the Celestial Empire, its dominance lasted for about two thousand years. The influence of imperial China was highlighted by its vast network of tributaries, which led to major offshoots of Chinese civilization such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam. In addition, it played a vital role in the stability of the Silk Road, the ancient world’s most extensive trade route linking the East and the West. The period of the East's greatest territorial expansion came under Genghis Khan, who built up the world's largest contiguous empire, the Mongol Empire, in the early 13th century. From its capital in modern day Beijing, Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson), ruled much of the Eurasian land mass. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6700 km, was first erected in the 3rd century B.C. to protect the north from nomadic invaders and has been rebuilt several times since. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... This article is about the person. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


Other famous empires include the Arabian andPersian empire. The Persians built several great empires at different periods, so the term Persian empire can seem ambiguous; both pre- and post-Islamic Persia had powerful empires. Some geographies appear to favour empire-building (Iran, Mesopotamia), while other areas seldom (Mongolia) or never (Iceland) achieve imperial overlordship. Persia redirects here. ...


The Macedonians established an extensive land empire under Alexander the Great. Upon his death, this empire split into four separately run kingdoms under the Diadochi. The kingdoms themselves were independent, their territory is overall referred to as the Hellenistic empire, as all kingdoms shared similar influence from the Greeks and Macedonians. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ...


Colonial empires

The discovery of the New World provided an opportunity for many European states to embark upon programs of imperialism on a model equal to the Roman and Carthaginian colonization. Under this model (previously tried in the Old World in the Canary Islands and in Ireland), subject states became de jure subordinate to the imperial state, rather than de facto as in earlier empires. This led to a good deal of resentment in the client states, and therefore probably to the demise of this system by the early- to mid-twentieth century. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


The 19th century saw the birth or strength of many European colonial empires, all of them dismembered by the 20th century? British hong kong 1997? by the 21st century?


One problem with the European imperial model came from arbitrary boundaries. In the interest of expediency, an imperial power tended to carve out a client state based solely on convenience of geography, while ignoring extreme cultural differences in the resulting area. An example of the attendant problems occurred in the Indian sub-continent. Formerly part of the British Empire, when the sub-continent gained its independence it split along cultural/religious lines, producing modern India and the two-part country of Pakistan, which later split yet again resulting in the independence of Bangladesh.[5][6][7] In other areas, like Africa, those borders still shape present days countries, and the African Union made its explicit policy to preserve them in order to avoid war and political instability. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29...


Modern empires

The concept of "empire" in the modern world, while still present politically, has begun to lose cohesion semantically. The only remaining country nominally ruled by an Emperor, Japan, comprises a constitutional monarchy with a population of approximately 97% ethnic Japanese.[8] Just as absolute monarchies (as opposed to constitutional monarchies) have largely fallen out of favour in modern times, the term "empire" itself may now become somewhat of an anachronism. In the absence of government policies with stated imperial aims, popular and theoretical definitions of imperialism have arisen based upon notions of cultural or economic hegemony and/or Leninist ideas of global capitalism as imperialism. One example popular in the modern world is the concept of "economic empire". Just as old empires laid siege to castles, these days "economic sanctions" are used to isolate less than obedient countries to conform to world standards. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


The former Soviet Union had many of the criteria of an empire, but nevertheless did not claim to be one, nor was it ruled by a traditional hereditary "emperor" (see Soviet Empire). Nevertheless, historians still occasionally classify it as an empire, if only because of its similarities to empires of the past and its sway over a large multi-ethnic bloc of Eurasia. Map showing states that had communist governments during the Cold War in bright red, and other states the USSR believed to be moving toward socialism in dark red Soviet Empire was a controversial, politically charged and pejorative term used to critically describe the actions and nature of the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


The use of the term American Empire has invited controversy within the United States. Stuart Creighton Miller argues that the American public’s sense of innocence prohibits the framing of American power in terms of an empire.[citation needed] To that end, former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stated that United States "don't seek empires. We're not imperialistic. We never have been."[9] For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ...


Historian Sidney Lens argues that the United States, from the time it gained its own independence, has used every available means to dominate other nations.[citation needed] Proponents of the empire view point to the over 700 American military bases worldwide as of 2005[10] and the use of bombing campaigns (against 22 countries since the Second World War[11] [12]) by the US Air Force to further American objectives. They also argue that the American Empire routinely relies on "governing surrogates", namely, governments which would collapse without American support. Another point of contention raised by the supporters of the “empire via surrogates” argument is that the US government publicly announces progress benchmarks for the governments of countries such as Iraq and the Government Accountability Office in Washington DC issues score cards which measure progress against the benchmarks - an activity that would normally not be tolerated by an independent country.[13] Sidney Lens is an American journalist and author, best known for his 1977 book, The Day Before Doomsday, which warns of nuclear annihilation. ... For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ...


Most modern multi-ethnic states see themselves as voluntary federations (Belgium) or as unions (United Kingdom), and not as empires. Most have democratic structures, and operate under systems which share power through multiple levels of government that differentiate between areas of federal and provincial/state jurisdiction. Where separatist groups exist, internal and external observers may disagree on whether state action against them represents legitimate law-enforcement against a violent or non-violent fringe group, or state violence to control a broadly unwilling population. Notable states with ongoing violence by and against separatists are China, Russia, Indonesia and India. Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


After its origins as a Western European trade bloc, the Post-Cold War era European Union has since issued its own currency [14], formed its own military [15], and exercised its hegemony in Eastern European Nations and abroad.[16][17][18][19] . As a consequence, political scientist, Jan Zielonka, has argued that the EU has transformed itself into an empire by coercing its neighbours into adopting economic, legal and political patterns in its own image[20] Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ... The post-Cold War era is a time period following the end of the Cold War. ...


References

  1. ^ "To be sure, the United Kingdom had a moment of "hyperpower" in the immediate aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars..." (Ferguson 2003)
  2. ^ "At the beginning of the 20th century, the British Empire was an unopposed hyperpower." (Last 2005)
  3. ^ What are the official languages of the United Nations?, United Nations department for general Assembly and Conference Management, <http://www.un.org/Depts/DGACM/faq_languages.htm>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  4. ^ Voltaire, Wikiquote, citing Essai sur l'histoire generale et sur les moeurs et l'espirit des nations, Chapter 70 (1756), <http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Voltaire>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  5. ^ James Heitzman, ed. (1996), "Political Impasse and Independence", A Country Study: India, U.S. Library of Congress, ISBN 0844408336, <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+in0027)>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  6. ^ Peter R. Blood., ed. (1995), "YAHYA KHAN AND BANGLADESH", A Country Study: Pakistan, U.S. Library of Congress, ISBN 0844408344, <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+pk0032)>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  7. ^ James Heitzman, ed. (1989), "PAKISTAN PERIOD, 1947-71", A Country Study: Bangladesh, U.S. Library of Congress, <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+bd0024)>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  8. ^ George Hicks, Japan's hidden apartheid: the Korean minority and the Japanese., (Aldershot, England ; Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998), 3.
  9. ^ Max Boot (May 6, 2003), American Imperialism? No Need to Run Away from Label, Council on Foreign Relations OP-Ed, quoting USA Today, <http://www.cfr.org/publication.html?id=5934>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  10. ^ Base Structure Report. USA Department of Defense (2003). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  11. ^ Air Campaign List.
  12. ^ Countries Bombed by USAF.
  13. ^ SECURING, STABILIZING, AND REBUILDING IRAQ
      Iraqi Government Has Not Met Most Legislative, Security, and Economic Benchmarks
      Statement of David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the United States
      Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S.Senate, United States Government Accountability Office, <http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d071220t.pdf>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  14. ^ Ian Black (December 20, 2002), Living in a euro wonderland, Guardian unlimited, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,,863888,00.html>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  15. ^ EU gets its military fist, BBC News, December 13, 2002, <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2574625.stm>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  16. ^ Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. (August 11, 2005), Eastern Europe: Switching Empires, global Politician, <http://www.globalpolitician.com/articledes.asp?ID=1077&cid=3&sid=8>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  17. ^ Nikolaos Tzifakis (2007), "EU's region-building and boundary-drawing policies: the European approach to the Southern Mediterranean and the Western Balkans 1", Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans (informaworld) 9 (1): 47-64, doi:10.1080/14613190701217001, <http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a777076388~db=all>. Retrieved on 2007-01-06
  18. ^ Stephen R. Hurt, Co-operation and coercion? The Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and acp states and the end of the Lomé Convention, informaworld, doi:10.1080/713701373, <http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/HNG8A7X4G9BWAM84.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-01-06
  19. ^ Europeanisation and Conflict Resolution: Case Studies from the European Periphery, Belgian Science Policy, <http://www.belspo.be/belspo/home/publ/pub_ostc/WM/rS10303_en.pdf>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06
  20. ^ Jan Zielonka (2006), Europe as empire: the nature of the enlarged European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-929221-3, <http://users.ox.ac.uk/~polf0040/IAReview.pdf>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Britannica Article on the Holy Roman Empire at the University of Houston[broken citation]
  • To Rule the Earth...: List of Great Empires
  • Empire A link to Hardt and Negri's book.
  • Johan Galtung (1996), <http://www.transcend.org/galt.htm]: The Decline and Fall of Empires: A Theory of De-Development>. Retrieved on 2008-01-06 Written for the United Nations Research Institute on Development, UNRISD, Geneva.
  • Index of Colonies and Possessions
  • (Italian) (English) On american neoimperialism: Harvey, Arrighi, ecc.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Main article: Empire This is an alphabetical list of empires that stretched far beyond their geographical and cultural limits to govern other parts of the world. ... This is a list of the largest empires in world history. ... In the past, many states, countries or territories have been in existence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... A Despotate is a State ruled under a Despot/Despoina (in this context it should not be confused with Despotism). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ... Totalitarian democracy is a term coined by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Empire: Film Reviews, Movie News and Interviews (279 words)
Mark Dinning takes you through the amazing new issue of Empire.
We rundown the 10 reasons why you need to pick the new copy of Empire.
Take part in the best discussions on the net.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m