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Encyclopedia > Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan

Arms of His Imperial Majesty The Emperor of Japan
Incumbent:
Akihito

Style: His Imperial Majesty
Heir apparent: Naruhito
First monarch: Emperor Jimmu
Formation: 660BC
Japan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Japan
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The National and Imperial Seal of Japan was originally the Imperial Seal, and is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan 徳仁皇太子 (Naruhito Kōtaishi) (born February 23, 1960 at Togu Palace, Tokyo) is the eldest son of HIM Emperor Akihito and HIM Empress Michiko. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ...









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The Emperor (天皇 tennō?, literally "heavenly sovereign,"[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the country's monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. Under Japan's present constitution, the Emperor is the "symbol of the state and the unity of the people," and is a ceremonial figurehead in a constitutional monarchy (see Politics of Japan). The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... This is a historical list of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Japan. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The most influential part of the executive of the Japanese government are the ministries. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... In the judicial system of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on February 18, 1990. ... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on July 18, 1993. ... A general election took place in Japan on October 20, 1996. ... Elections to the Shugi-In (House of Representatives) of the Japanese Diet were held on 25 June 2000. ... Incumbent Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi A general election took place in Japan on November 9, 2003. ... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 11, 2004. ... For a breakdown of the results by block district with maps, see Results of Japan general election, 2005 Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on 11 September 2005, about two years before the end of the term... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 29, 2007. ... Political parties in Japan lists political parties in Japan. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... The New Komeito ), New Komeito Party , or NKP is a political party in Japan founded by Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Social Democratic Party (社会民主党 Shakai Minshu-tō, often abbreviated to 社民党 Shamin-tō; also abbreviated as SDP in English) is a political party of Japan. ... } While Japans political mainstream can be described as a one and a half party system, with the LDP being the dominant force, there is room for political extremism to the left and the right. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Monetary policy pertains to the regulation, availability, and cost of credit, while fiscal policy deals with government expenditures, taxes, and debt. ... The primary responsibility for the Japanese foreign policy, as determined by the 1947 constitution, is exercised by the cabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet. ... Since the surrender after World War II and the return to the international community by the Treaty of San Francisco, Japanese diplomatic policy have been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations. ... Japan is a liberal democracy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ...


The current emperor is His Imperial Majesty the Emperor Akihito, who has been on the Chrysanthemum Throne since his father Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) died in 1989. For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Imperial Seal of Japan. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


The role of the emperor of Japan has historically alternated between that of a supreme-rank cleric with largely symbolic powers and that of an actual imperial ruler. An underlying imperial cult (the idea of Arahitogami) regards the emperor as being descended from gods. Until 1945, the Japanese monarchs had always been, officially, military commanders. However, contrary to the usual role of a Western monarch, they did not practically function as such. Japanese emperors have nearly always been controlled by other political forces, to varying degrees. A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... An Imperial cult is a kind of religion in which an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title), are worshipped as demigods or deities. ... Arahitogami (現人神) is a Japanese word, meaning a god who is a human being. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ...


Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called "Kyūjō" (宮城), then Kōkyo (皇居), and located on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries. Panorama of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo Map of the Imperial Palace and surrounding Gardens Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... Edo Castle (江戸城 -jō) was built in 1457 by ÅŒta Dōkan in what is now the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, but was then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Role

Unlike most constitutional monarchies, the Emperor is not even the nominal executive power. Rather, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet and the Prime Minister. He has no powers related to government, and the few duties he performs are closely regulated by the Constitution. For example, while he formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "designated by the Diet." Most of his other duties must be exercised only on the advice and consent of the Cabinet. This is in marked contrast to his role under the Meiji Constitution, which made him the embodiment of all sovereign power. The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ...


History

Although the emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the emperor of Japan has varied considerably throughout Japanese history.


Origin

The earliest emperor recorded in Kojiki and Nihonshoki is Emperor Jimmu. The key to knowing the origin of the Japanese imperial line may lie within the ancient imperial tombs known as kofun. However, since the Meiji Period, the Imperial Household Agency has refused to open the kofun to the public or to archaeologists, citing their desire not to disturb the spirits of the past emperors as justification for their refusal. But in December 2006, the Imperial Household Agency reversed its position and decided to allow researchers to enter some of the kofun with certain restrictions. Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BC, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BC,[citation needed] was the mythical founder... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ...


House of Fujiwara, etc.

There have been six non-imperial families who have controlled Japanese emperors: the Soga (530s-645), the Fujiwara (850s-1070), the Taira (for a relatively short period), the Minamoto (and Kamakura bakufu) (1192-1331), the Ashikaga (1336-1565) and the Tokugawa (1603-1867). However, every shogun from the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa families had to be officially recognised by the emperors, who were still the "official" commanders of the military although they could not enforce their own free will. The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ... The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... Ashikaga (足利市; -shi) is a city located in Tochigi, Japan. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ...


Disputes

The growth of the samurai class from the 10th century gradually weakened the power of the imperial family over the nation, leading to a time of instability. Cloistered emperors have been known to come into conflict with the reigning emperor from time to time; a notable example is the Hōgen Rebellion of 1156, in which former Emperor Sutoku attempted to seize power from the then current Emperor Go-Shirakawa, both of whom were supported by different clans of samurai. Other instances, such as Emperor Go-Toba's 1221 rebellion against the Kamakura shogunate and the 1336 Kemmu Restoration under Emperor Go-Daigo, show the power struggle between the Imperial House and the military governments of Japan. For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Combatants Forces loyal to Emperor Go-Shirakawa Forces loyal to retired Emperor Sutoku Commanders Fujiwara no Tadamichi, Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Taira no Tadamasa Fujiwara no Yorinaga, Taira no Kiyomori, Minamoto no Yoshitomo Strength Unknown Unknown, incl. ... Emperor Sutoku (崇徳天皇 Sutoku Tennō) (7 July 1119 – 14 September 1164) was the 75th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa Tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Go-Toba ) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... Woodblock print triptych by Gekko Ogata. ...


Territorial Matters

Up to recent centuries, Japan's territory did not include several remote regions of its modern-day territory. The name Nippon came into use only many centuries after the start of the current imperial line. Centralized government really only began to appear shortly before and during the time of Prince Shotoku. The emperor was more like a revered embodiment of divine harmony rather than the head of an actual governing administration. In Japan it has always been easy for ambitious lords to hold actual power, as such positions have not been inherently contradictory to the emperor's position. Parliamentary government today continues a similar coexistence with the emperor as have various shoguns, regents, warlords, guardians, etc. Sculpture of Prince Shotoku in Asuka Dera, Asuka, Nara Prince Shōtoku (聖徳太子 574-622) was a regent and a politician of the Imperial Court in Japan. ...


Historically the titles of tennō in Japanese have never included territorial designations as is the case with many European monarchs. The position of emperor is a territory-independent phenomenon - the emperor is the emperor, even if he has followers only in one province (as was the case sometimes with the southern and northern courts).


Shoguns

From 1192 to 1867, the real power was in the hands of the shoguns, or the shikken (1203-1333) who ruled in the name of the shoguns, who were in theory always given their authority through the emperor. When Portuguese and Spanish explorers first contacted Japan (see Nanban period), they likened the relationship between emperor and shogun to that of the Roman Catholic Pope (godly, but with little political power) and king or Holy Roman emperor (earthly, but with a relatively large amount of political power) though this in itself can be considered inaccurate as, like the Emperor, Roman Catholic Popes have wielded varying degrees of power throughout their history. For example, the regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi was recorded by the missionaries as "emperor Taicosama" (from Taiko and the honorific sama). Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Shikken (執権) was the regent of the shogun in the Kamakura shogunate in Japan. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Hideyoshi redirects here. ... In Japan, the Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to assist an emperor when the emperor was still a child, before the coming of age, or female. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Meiji restoration

Main article: Meiji restoration

The Meiji restoration was in fact a kind of revolution, with the domains of Satsuma and Chōshū uniting to topple the Tokugawa Shogunate. Emperor Meiji's father, Emperor Komei, had begun to assert himself politically after Commodore Matthew Perry's ships visited Edo. By the early 1860s, the dynamic between the imperial court and the Shogunate had changed drastically. Ironically, Komei had asserted himself against the Shogunate because he and the other nobles were upset at the failure of the Shogunate to expel the barbarian interlopers. Disaffected domains and ronin began to rally to the call of "sonno, joi," or "respect the emperor, expel the barbarians." Satsuma and Chōshū used this turmoil to move against their historic enemy, and won an important military victory outside of Kyoto against Tokugawa forces. In 1868 an imperial "restoration" was declared, and the Shogunate was stripped of its powers. The next several years would see significant unrest and turmoil, along with sporadic rebellion. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Photograph of Perry Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, under the threat of military force. ...


Addressing and naming

There are two Japanese words equivalent to the English word "emperor": tennō (天皇, lit. "heaven ruler"), which is used exclusively to refer to an emperor of Japan, and kōtei (皇帝, the title used by Chinese emperors), which is used primarily to describe non-Japanese emperors. Sumeramikoto (lit. "heavenly ruler above the clouds") was also used in Old Japanese. In English, the term mikado (御門 or 帝 or みかど), which literally refers to "the Gate" (i.e. the gate of the imperial place) was once used (cf. The Mikado, a 19th century operetta), but this term is now obsolete.[2] Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ...


Traditionally, the Japanese considered it disrespectful to call a person of noble rank by his given name. This convention has largely died out along with the noble class itself, although it is still observed for the imperial family. Since Emperor Meiji, it has been customary to have one era per emperor and to rename each emperor after his death using the name of the era over which he presided, plus the word Tennō. Prior to Emperor Meiji, the names of the eras were changed more frequently, and the posthumous names of the emperors were chosen in a different manner. The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ...


Outside of Japan, beginning with Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa), the emperors are often referred to by their given names, both whilst alive and posthumously. For example, the previous emperor is usually called Hirohito in English, although he was never referred to as Hirohito in Japan and was renamed Shōwa Tennō after his death, which is the only name that Japanese speakers currently use when referring to him. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


The current emperor on the throne is typically referred to by the title Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, lit. "His Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Heika (今上陛下, lit. "his current majesty") when speaking Japanese. Other terms used to refer to the emperor in Japanese include Heika and Okami, but these are much less typical than Tennō Heika or Kinjō Heika in ordinary conversation. The current emperor will be renamed "Heisei Tennō" after his death and will then be referred to exclusively by that name in Japanese. Non-Japanese speakers typically refer to him now as Akihito, or Emperor Akihito, and will likely continue to do so after his death. Emperor Akihito reads the Speech from the Throne to the Japanese Diet His Imperial Majesty Akihito (明仁) (born December 23, 1933) is the current and 125th Emperor of Japan. ...


Origin of the title

The ruler of Japan was known as either 大和大王/大君 (Yamato-ōkimi, Grand King of Yamato), 倭王/倭国王 (Wa-ō/Wakoku-ō, King of Wa, used externally), or 治天下大王 (ame-no-shita shiroshimesu ōkimi or sumera no mikoto, Grand King who rules all under heaven, used internally) in Japanese and Chinese sources prior to the 7th century. The oldest documented use of the word "tennō" is on a wooden slat, or mokkan, that was unearthed in Asuka-mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998 and dated back to the reign of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō. Yamato (大和) may refer to: // Yamato people, the dominant ethnic group of Japan Yamato period, which is the period of Japanese history when the Japanese Imperial court ruled from Yamato Province Yamato-damashii, the nationalistic Japanese spirit Yamato Nadeshiko, The ideology of the perfect Japanese woman, used as propaganda in World... Ishibutai Kofun, believed to be burial site of Soga no Umako Asuka (明日香村; -mura) is a village located in Takaichi District, Nara, Japan. ... Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. ... Empress Jito (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Marriage traditions

The current Empress Michiko
The current Empress Michiko
The current Princess Masako
The current Princess Masako

Throughout history, contrary to any sort of harem practice of not recognizing a chief wife and just keeping an assortment of female chattel, Japanese emperors and noblemen appointed the position of chief wife. Empress Michiko of Japan Her Imperial Majesty Empress Michiko of Japan (美智子), (born October 20, 1934) formerly Michiko Shoda (正田美智子 shoda michiko) and later the Crown Princess of Japan (April 10, 1959 to January 7, 1989), is the wife and consort of the reigning Emperor of Japan, Akihito. ... Princess Masako (雅子, born December 9, 1963) is the Crown Princess of Japan. ... For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ...


The Japanese imperial dynasty consistently practiced official polygamy, a practice that only ended in the Taisho period (1912-1926). Besides the empress, the emperor could take, and nearly always took, several secondary consorts ("concubines") of various hierarchical degrees. Concubines were allowed also to other dynasts (shinno, o). After a decision decreed by Emperor Ichijo, some emperors even had two empresses simultaneously (kogo and chugu are the two separate titles for that situation). With the help of all this polygamy, the imperial clan thus was capable of producing more offspring. (Sons by secondary consorts were usually recognized as imperial princes, too, and could be recognized as heir to the throne if the empress did not give birth to an heir.) Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Taisho period (大正 Taishō, lit. ... Concubinage is either the state of a couple living together as lovers with no obligation created by vows, legal marriage, or religious ceremony, or the state of a woman supported by a male lover who is married to, and usually living with, someone else. ... Emperor Ichijō (一条天皇 Ichijō Tennō) (980-1011) was the 66th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... KOGO or NewsRadio 600 KOGO is, as of January 2006, the number one radio station in San Diego, California. ...


Of the eight female tennō (reigning empress) of Japan, none married or gave birth after ascending the throne. Some of them, being widows, had produced children prior to their reigns.


In the succession, children of the empress were preferred over sons of secondary consorts. Thus it was significant which quarters had preferential opportunities in providing chief wives to imperial princes, i.e. supplying future empresses.


Apparently the oldest tradition of official marriages within the imperial dynasty were marriages between dynasty members, even half-siblings or uncle and niece. Such marriages were deemed to preserve better the imperial blood or were aimed at producing children symbolic of a reconciliation between two branches of the imperial dynasty. Daughters of others than imperials remained concubines, until Emperor Shōmu--in what was specifically reported as the first elevation of its kind--elevated his Fujiwara consort to chief wife. Emperor Shōmu (聖武天皇 Shōmu Tennō) (701 - May 2, 756[]) was the 45th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Fujiwara (藤原) can refer to: The Fujiwara clan and its members Kamatari Fujiwara Keiji Fujiwara Fujiwara-no-Sai, character of Hikaru no Go Takumi Tak Fujiwara, character of Initial D Zakuro Fujiwara, character of Tokyo Mew Mew (Known as Renee Roberts in the Mew Mew Power English anime) This is...


Japanese monarchs have been, as much as others elsewhere, dependent on making alliances with powerful chiefs and other monarchs. Many such alliances were sealed by marriages. The specific feature in Japan has been the fact that these marriages have been soon incorporated as elements of tradition which controlled the marriages of later generations, though the original practical alliance had lost its real meaning. A repeated pattern has been an imperial son-in-law under the influence of his powerful non-imperial father-in-law.


Beginning from the 7th and 8th centuries, emperors primarily took women of the Fujiwara clan as their highest wives - the most probable mothers of future monarchs. This was cloaked as a tradition of marriage between heirs of two kamis, Shinto gods: descendants of Amaterasu with descendants of the family kami of the Fujiwara. (Originally, the Fujiwara were descended from relatively minor nobility, thus their kami is an unremarkable one in the Japanese myth world.) To produce imperial children, heirs of the nation, with two-side descent from the two kamis, was regarded as desirable - or at least it suited powerful Fujiwara lords, who thus received preference in the imperial marriage market. The reality behind such marriages was an alliance between an imperial prince and a Fujiwara lord, his father-in-law or grandfather, the latter with his resources supporting the prince to the throne and most often controlling the government. These arrangements created the tradition of regents (Sessho and Kampaku), with these positions allowed to be held only by a Fujiwara sekke lord. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... In Japan, the Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to assist an emperor when the emperor was still a child, before the coming of age, or female. ... In Japan, the Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to assist an emperor when the emperor was still a child, before the coming of age, or female. ...


Earlier, the emperors had married women from families of the government-holding Soga lords, and women of the imperial clan itself, i.e various-degree cousins and often even their own sisters (half-sisters). Several imperials of the 5th and 6th centuries were children of a couple of half-siblings. These marriages often were alliance or succession devices: the Soga lord ensured the domination of a prince, to be put as puppet to the throne; or a prince ensured the combination of two imperial descents, to strengthen his own and his children's claim to the throne. Marriages were also a means to seal a reconciliation between two imperial branches. The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ...


After a couple of centuries, emperors could no longer take anyone from outside such families as primary wife, no matter what the expediency of such a marriage and power or wealth brought by such might have been. Only very rarely was a prince without a mother of descent from such families allowed to ascend the throne. The earlier necessity and expediency had mutated into a strict tradition that did not allow for current expediency or necessity, but only dictated that daughters of a restricted circle of families were eligible brides, because they had produced eligible brides for centuries. Tradition had become more forceful than law.


Fujiwara women were often Empresses, and concubines came from less exalted noble families. In the last thousand years, sons of an imperial male and a Fujiwara woman have been preferred in the succession.


The five Fujiwara families, Ichijo, Kujo, Nijo, Konoe and Takatsukasa, were the primary source of imperial brides from the 8th century to the 19th century, even more often than daughters of the imperial clan itself. Fujiwara daughters were thus the usual empresses and mothers of emperors.


The acceptable source of imperial wives, brides for the emperor and crown prince, were even legislated into the Meiji-era imperial house laws (1889), which stipulated that daughters of Sekke (the five main branches of the higher Fujiwara) and daughters of the imperial clan itself were primarily acceptable brides. The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ...


Since that law was repealed in the aftermath of World War II, the present Emperor Akihito became the first crown prince for over a thousand years to have an empress outside the previously eligible circle. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Succession

Tokyo Imperial Palace
Tokyo Imperial Palace

The Japanese imperial dynasty bases its position in the expression that it has reigned "since time immemorial". It is true that its origins are buried under mists of time: there are no records to show an existence of any early emperor who is known to have not been a descendant of other, yet earlier emperors. An early ancestor of the dynasty, Emperor Keitai (flourished in the early 500's CE) however is suspected to have been an homme nouveau,[citation needed] though the sources state that he was a male-line descendant of Emperor Ōjin. According to records, the family he started on the throne, however descends also from at least one, probably of several, imperial princesses of the immediate dynasty of his predecessors. The tradition built by those legends has chosen to recognize just the putative male ancestry as valid for legitimizing his succession, not giving any weight to ties through the said princesses.[citation needed] Millennia ago, the Japanese imperial family developed its own peculiar system of hereditary succession. It has been non-primogenitural, more or less agnatic, based mostly on rotation. Today, Japan uses strict agnatic primogeniture - in other words, pure Salic law. It was adopted from Prussia, by which Japan was greatly influenced in the 1870s. Time immemorial is time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition. ... Keitai (継体天皇 Keitai Tennō), or rather Keitai okimi was the 26th Japanese imperial ruler, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor ÅŒjin (応神天皇 ÅŒjin Tennō), or rather Ojin okimi was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... In hereditary monarchies, particularly in more ancient or in more underdeveloped times, seniority was a much used principle of order of succession. ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ... // The Salic law (Lat. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Strict agnatic primogeniture is, however, directly contradictory to several old Japanese traditions of imperial succession.[citation needed]


The controlling principles and their interaction were apparently very complex and sophisticated, leading to even idiosyncratic outcomes. Some chief principles apparent in the succession have been:

  • Women were allowed to succeed (but there existed no known children of theirs whose father did not also happen to be an agnate of the imperial house, thus there is neither a precedent that a child of an imperial woman with a non-imperial man were allowed to inherit, nor a precedent forbidding it of children of empresses). However, female accession was clearly much rarer than male.
  • Adoption was possible and a much used way to increase the number of succession-entitled heirs (however, the adopted child had to be a child of another member agnate of the imperial house).
  • Abdication was used very often, and in fact occurred more often than death on the throne. In those days, the emperor's chief task was priestly (or godly), containing so many repetitive rituals that it was deemed that after a service of around ten years, the incumbent deserved pampered retirement as an honored former emperor.
  • Primogeniture was not used - rather, in the early days, the imperial house practised something resembling a system of rotation. Very often a brother (or sister) followed the elder sibling even in the case of the predecessor leaving children. The "turn" of the next generation came more often after several individuals of the senior generation. Rotation went often between two or more of the branches of the imperial house, thus more or less distant cousins succeeded each other. Emperor Go-Saga even decreed an official alternation between heirs of his two sons, which system continued for a couple of centuries (leading finally to shōgun-induced (or utilized) strife between these two branches, the "southern" and "northern" emperors). Towards the end, the alternates were very distant cousins counted in degrees of male descent (but all that time, intermarriages occurred within the imperial house, thus they were close cousins if female ties are counted). During the past five hundred years, however, probably due to Confucian influence, inheritance by sons - but not always, or even most often, the eldest son - has been the norm.

Historically, the succession to Japan's Chrysanthemum Throne has always passed to descendants in male line from the imperial lineage. Generally they have been males, though of the over one hundred monarchs there have been nine women (one pre-historical and eight historical) as Emperor on eleven occasions. See the male line of the Yamato dynasty. Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ... Emperor Go-Saga (後嵯峨天皇 Go-Saga-tennō) (April 1, 1220 – March 17, 1272) was the 88th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Imperial Seal of Japan. ...


Over a thousand years ago, a tradition started that an emperor should ascend relatively young. A dynast who has passed one's toddler years, was regarded suitable and old enough. Reaching the age of legal majority was not a requirement. Thus, a multitude of Japanese emperors have ascended as children, as young as 6 or 8 years old. The high-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. A reign of around ten years was regarded a sufficient service. Being a child was apparently a fine property, to endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political powerfuls, as well as sometimes to cloak the real powerful members of the imperial dynasty. Almost all Japanese empresses and dozens of emperors abdicated, and lived the rest of their lives in pampered retirement, and/or influencing behind the curtains. Several emperors abdicated/reached their entitled retirement while still in their teens. These traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater, literature and other forms of culture, where the emperor is usually described or depicted as an adolescent.


Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan had eleven reigns of female tennō, or reigning empresses, all of them daughters of the male line of the Imperial House. None ascended purely as a wife or as a widow of an emperor. Imperial daughters and granddaughters, however, usually ascended the throne as a sort of a "stop gap" measure - if a suitable male was not available or some imperial branches were in rivalry so that a compromise was needed. Over half of Japanese empresses and many emperors abdicated once a suitable male descendant was considered to be old enough to rule (just past toddlerhood, in some cases). Four empresses, Empress Suiko, Empress Kōgyoku (also Empress Saimei) and Empress Jitō, as well as the mythical empress Jingu kogo, were widows of deceased emperors and princesses of the blood imperial in their own right. One, Empress Gemmei, was the widow of a crown prince and a princess of the blood imperial. The other four, Empress Genshō, Empress Kōken (also Empress Shōtoku), Empress Meishō and Empress Go-Sakuramachi, were unwed daughters of previous emperors. None of these empresses married or gave birth after ascending the throne. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Japanese Imperial succession controversy refers to the question of whether Japans laws of succession under the The Imperial Household Law of 1947 should be changed from male-only primogeniture to equal primogeniture. ... Empress Suiko , 554–April 15, 628[1]) was the 33rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the first known woman to hold this position. ... Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇 Kōgyoku Tennō), also Empress Saimei (斉明天皇 Saimei Tennō) (594–August 24, 661[1]) was the 35th and 37th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Jito (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 702[1]) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Gemmei (also Empress Genmyō; 元明天皇 Genmei Tennō) (661 – December 7, 721) was the 43rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the fourth woman to hold such a position. ... Empress Genshō (元正天皇 Genshō Tennō) (680 – April 21, 748) was the 44th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō) also Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) (718 – August 28, 770[1]) was both the 46th and 48th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Meishō (明正天皇 Meishō Tennō) (January 9, 1624–December 4, 1696) was the 109th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 22, 1629 to November 14, 1643. ... Empress Go-Sakuramachi (後桜町天皇 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō) (September 23, 1740 – December 24, 1813) was the 117th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Article 2 of the 1889 Meiji Constitution (the Constitution of the Empire of Japan) stated, "The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law." The 1889 Imperial Household Law fixed the succession on male descendants of the imperial line, and specifically excluded female descendants from the succession. In the event of a complete failure of the main line, the throne would pass to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. If the empress did not give birth to an heir, the emperor could take a concubine, and the son he had by that concubine would be recognized as heir to the throne. This law, which was promulgated on the same day as the Meiji Constitution, enjoyed co-equal status with that constitution. Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ...


Article 2 of the Constitution of Japan, promulgated in 1947 by influence of the US occupation administration and still in force, provides that "The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial Household Law passed by the Diet." The Imperial Household Law of 16 January 1947, enacted by the ninety-second and last session of the Imperial Diet, retained the exclusion on female dynasts found in the 1889 law. The government of Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru hastily cobbled together the legislation to bring the Imperial Household in compliance with the American-written Constitution of Japan that went into effect in May 1947. In an effort to control the size of the imperial family, the law stipulates that only legitimate male descendants in the male line can be dynasts; that imperial princes and princesses lose their status as Imperial Family members if they marry outside the Imperial Family; and that the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family may not adopt children. It also prevented branches, other than the branch descending from Taisho, from being imperial princes any longer. The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... The Imperial Household Law of 1947 was passed during the Showa era on January 16, 1947. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru, September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967) was the Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ...


Current status

Succession is now regulated by laws passed by the Japanese Diet. The current law excludes women from the succession. A change to this law had been considered until Princess Kiko gave birth to a son. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... Princess Akishino ), formerly Kiko Kawashima , born 11 September 1966) is the wife of Prince Akishino, who is the second son of the Emperor Akihito and the Empress Michiko of Japan. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Hisahito of Akishino , 6 September 2006-) is the third child of Prince and Princess Akishino, and their first son. ...


Until the birth of a son to Prince Akishino on September 6, 2006, there was a potential succession crisis, since Prince Akishino was the only male child to be born into the imperial family since 1965. Following the birth of Princess Aiko, there was some public debate about amending the current Imperial Household Law to allow women to succeed to the throne. This creates a logistical challenge as well as political: any change in the law would most likely mean a revision to allow the succession of the first born rather than the first-born son; however, the current emperor is not the first born--he has elder sisters. In January 2005 Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi appointed a special panel composed of judges, university professors, and civil servants to study changes to the Imperial Household Law and to make recommendations to the government. Prince Akishino (Fumihito) of Japan (秋篠宮文仁親王殿下 Akishino-no-miya Fumihito shinnō denka) also known as Prince Fumihito (文仁親王 Fumihito shinnō) (born 30 November 1965) is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princess Aiko, The Princess Toshi (敬宮愛子内親王殿下 Toshi no miya Aiko naishinnō denka), born December 1, 2001, is the first child of Their Imperial Highnesses Crown Prince Naruhito, former heir apparent to the Japanese throne, and Crown Princess Masako. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ...


The panel dealing with the succession issue recommended on October 25, 2005 amending the law to allow females of the male line of imperial descent to ascend the Japanese throne. On January 20, 2006, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi devoted part of his annual keynote speech to the controversy, pledging to submit a bill allowing women to ascend the throne to ensure that the succession continues in the future in a stable manner. However, shortly after the announcement that Princess Kiko was pregnant with her third child, Koizumi suspended such plans. Her son, Prince Hisahito, is the third in line to the throne under the current law of succession. On January 3, 2007, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that he would drop the proposal to alter the Imperial Household Law. [2] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Princess Akishino ), formerly Kiko Kawashima , born 11 September 1966) is the wife of Prince Akishino, who is the second son of the Emperor Akihito and the Empress Michiko of Japan. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Hisahito of Akishino , 6 September 2006-) is the third child of Prince and Princess Akishino, and their first son. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born 21 September 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on 26 September 2006. ... The Imperial Household Law of 1947 was passed during the Showa era on January 16, 1947. ...


Royal's role Controversy

Japan's imperial family, Prince Tomohito said about Royal's role, "If you ask me what the imperial family is all about, and I think and think and think about it, the very final conclusion is that our meaning lies in our simply existing," the prince said. The royals, he said, could fulfill their duties simply by "waking up in the morning, eating breakfast, eating lunch, eating dinner, then going to sleep, repeating that 365 days a year." [3] Prince Tomohito of Mikasa (三笠宮寬仁 Mikasa-no-miya Tomohito shinnō), eldest son of the current HIH Prince Mikasa and HIH Princess Mikasa (Yuriko). ...


See also

A flag-waving crowd greet Emperor poopy Akihito at the Imperial Palace on his birthday. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... Cloistered Rule, also known as the Insei system, was a process used by some Emperors of Japan by which they would ostensibly retire to a monastery and hand over power to a successor, but continue to exert power and influence from behind the scenes. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ... These are lists of incumbents, i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... The Japanese Imperial succession controversy refers to the question of whether Japans laws of succession under the The Imperial Household Law of 1947 should be changed from male-only primogeniture to equal primogeniture. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... The Imperial Regalia of Japan ), also known as the Three Sacred Treasures, consist of the sword, Kusanagi (草薙劍), the jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama (八尺瓊曲玉), and the mirror Yata no kagami (八咫鏡). Also known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan, the regalia represent the three primary virtues: valor (the... Fig. ...

References

  1. ^ the etymology is unknown. Opinion is hopelessly divided on the truth of etymology, 1.apotheosize Polaris (ancient Chinese mythicalja:天皇大帝), 2.Emperor_Gaozong_of_Tang's appenllation 3.variations of "天王 (literally heavenly king)" (see 天皇)
  2. ^ Asakawa, Kan'ichi. (1903). The Early Institutional Life of Japan, Tokyo: Shueisha [New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1963], p. 25 n.1. ["We purposely avoid, in spite of its wide usage in foreign literature, the misleading term Mikado. If it be not for the natural curiosity of the races, which always seeks something novel and loves to call foreign things by foreign names, it is hard to understand why this obsolete and ambiguous word should so sedulously be retained. It originally meant not only the Sovereign, but also his house, the court, and even the State, and its use in historical writings causes many difficulties which it is unnecessary to discuss here in detail. The native Japanese employ the term neither in speech nor in writing. It might as well be dismissed with great advantage from sober literature as it has been for the official documents."]
  3. ^ A Japanese royal known for talking up a storm, IHT, October 20, 2007 [1]
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

For other uses, see Polaris (disambiguation). ... Emperor Gaozong (628 - 683) was the third emperor of Tang Dynasty in China and he ruled from 649 to 683. ... Shueisha ) is a major publisher in Japan, headquartered in Tokyo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Japan opens imperial tombs for research
  • The Imperial Household Agency
  • List of the Emperors, accompanied with the regents and shoguns during their reign and a genealogical tree of the imperial family
  • A Page from Washington State University
  • The Emperor of Japan, explanation of the title of emperor in the context of western terminology
History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Heisei (平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ...

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