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Encyclopedia > Emperor Zhang of Han
Han Zhangdi (漢章帝)
Family name: Liu (劉; liú)
Given name: Da (炟, dá)
Temple name: Suzong (肅宗, sù zōng)
Posthumous name:
(full)
Xiaozhang (孝章, xiào zhāng)
literary meaning: "filial and polite"
Posthumous name:
(short)
Zhang (章, zhāng)
"polite"

Emperor Zhang of Han, ch. 漢章帝, py. hàn zhāng dì, wg. Han Chang-ti, (57-88) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 75 to 88. Chinese personal names follow a number of conventions different from those of Western personal names. ... Liu is a Chinese family name. ... Chinese personal names follow a number of conventions different from those of Western personal names. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... 漢字 hànzì, hanja, kanji… in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ... PY, Py or py may stand for: Pinyin, a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Mandarin Chinese used in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... For other uses, see number 57. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of... The emperor or huangdi (皇帝 in pinyin: huang2 di4) of China was the head of government and head of state of China from the Qin dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of...


Emperor Zhang was a hardworking and diligent emperor. He reduced taxes and paid close attention to all affairs of state. Zhang also reduced government spending as well as promoting Confucianism. As a result, Han society prospered and its culture fluorished during this period. Along with his father Emperor Ming, Emperor Zhang's reign has been highly praised and was regarded as the golden age of the Eastern Han period, and their reigns are collectively known as the Rule of Ming and Zhang. Sage Confucius——孔子 Confucianist temple Thian Hock Keng in Singapore Confucianism (Chinese: 儒家, Pinyin Rújiā, The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Emperor Ming of Han, ch. ...


During his reign, Chinese troops under the generalship of Ban Chao, progressed towards the West as far as the Caspian Sea and the Ukraine, getting into direct contact with the Parthian Empire, and might have sent an embassy to Rome. Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


The Eastern Han Dynasty, after Emperor Zhang, would be plagued with internal strife between royal factions and eunuchs struggling for power. The people for the coming century and a half would yearn for the good days of Emperors Ming and Zhang. (However, it should be noted that part of the strife came from the power obtained by consort clans -- and the precedent was set by Emperor Zhang's bestowing of power on both his adoptive mother Empress Dowager Ma's clan and his wife Empress Dou's clan.) The consort clan (外戚 Pinyin: waichi) is the family, clan or a group related to a spouse or a empress dowager of the Chinese dynastic ruler or a warlord. ... Empress Dou (竇皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ...

Contents


Family background

Then-Prince Da was born to then-Crown Prince Liu Zhuang and one of his consorts, Consort Jia, in 57. As Crown Prince Jia's favorite, Consort Ma -- Consort Jia's aunt (her mother's sister) -- had no sons, at Crown Prince Zhuang's instruction, Consort Ma adopted Prince Da as her own son. Prince Da therefore grew up considering Consort Ma as his mother, and while he clearly knew that Consort Jia was his birth mother, he never treated her as mother. Emperor Ming of Han, ch. ... For other uses, see number 57. ...


Also in 57, Prince Da's grandfather Emperor Guangwu died, and his father Crown Prince Zhuang succeeded to the throne as Emperor Ming. In 60, at the behest of his mother Empress Dowager Yin Lihua, Emperor Ming created Consort Ma empress, and Prince Da, as her son, was created crown prince, even though he had four brothers older than he was. For other uses, see number 57. ... Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). ... Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...


As crown prince

Not much was recorded about Crown Prince Da's career as crown prince, other than he was taught of the Confucian classics at a young age and was encouraged in his studies by his adoptive mother, Empress Ma, with whom he had a close relation. He was also close to his uncles of the Ma clan. China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC) and including the Chinese classics texts, or Chinese canonical texts. ...


In 75, Emperor Ming died, and Crown Prince Da succeeded to the throne as Emepror Zhang at the age of 18. Empress Ma received the title of empress dowager. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ... Empress Dowager (Chinese, Korean and Japanese: 皇太后; Chinese pinyin Húang Tài Hòu, Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō) was title given to the mother of a Chinese emperor. ...


Early reign

Emperor Zhang continued his father's hardworking tendencies as emperor, but he was more lenient than his strict father. He sought out honest officials and promoted them, and he himself lived thriftly. He was generally humble and honored the senior officials who had served his grandfather and father faithfully in accordance.


In 76, at the suggestion of his advisor Yang Zhong (楊終) and prime minister Diwu Lun (第五倫), Emperor Zhang ordered that his father's Xiyu (modern Xinjiang and former Soviet central Asia) campaigns be abandoned. However, one of the Han generals in Xiyu, Ban Chao, seeing the importance of maintaining Han presence in Xiyu, refused to withdraw, and Emperor Zhang eventually relented and put Ban in charge of Han's operations in Xiyu. For other uses, see number 76. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: (Shinjang)), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ...


Being close to his Ma uncles, Emperor Zhang wanted to create them marquesses from the early start of his reign. This was initially rebuffed by Empress Dowager Ma, who found this inappropriate. In 79, however, he created them marquesses over her objection and over their requests to only be made acting marquesses. AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ...


In 77, Emperor Zhang took a daughter of his cousin, the Princess Piyang (沘陽公主), and great-granddaughter of the statesman Dou Rong (竇融), as consort. He greatly loved her, and in 78, he created Consort Dou empress. For other uses, see number 77. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Empress Dou (竇皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ...


In 79, Empress Dowager Ma, who had given him much good counsel, died. Even after her death, Emperor Zhang did not honor his birth mother Consort Jia as his mother, but merely permitted her to take on the style of an imperial prince.


Palatial intrigue

After his mother's death, Emperor Zhang continued to be a diligent emperor, but within the palace, there was much struggle between Empress Dou and the other imperial consorts, which would create political instability down the road.


While Empress Dowager Ma was alive, she selected two daughters of Song Yang (宋楊) as consorts for Emperor Zhang. In 78, the elder Consort Song gave birth to a son named Liu Qing (劉慶), and because Empress Dou was sonless, Prince Qing was created crown prince in 79. The Consorts Song were greatly favored by Empress Dowager Ma. For other uses, see number 78. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ...


Later in 79, however, Empress Dou would (perhaps remembering Empress Dowager Ma's example) adopt the son of another imperial consort, Consort Liang, Liu Zhao (劉肇), as her own son, and she plotted, along with her mother Princess Piyang and her brothers, to have her adopted son made crown prince. After Empress Dowager Ma's death, she put her plan into action. She had her brothers collect dossiers on faults of the Song clan while bribing the servants and eunuchs of Consorts Song to gather their own faults.


In 82, an opportunity came for Empress Dou. The elder Consort Song had become ill, and in her illness, she craved raw cuscuta, and she requested that her family bring them. Empress Dou seized the cuscuta and falsely accused Consort Song of using it for witchcraft. Emperor Zhang was enraged and expelled Crown Prince Qing from the palace. He had the Consorts Song arrested and interrogated by the eunuch Cai Lun. Consorts Song saw that they were in deep straits, and they committed suicide by poison. Crown Prince Qing was deposed and created the Prince of Qinghe instead; he was replaced by Prince Zhao as crown prince. Prince Zhao, however, was friendly to his brother, and they often spent time together. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Events Roman emperor Domitian is also a Roman Consul. ... Species About 100 species, including: Cuscuta americana Cuscuta applanata Cuscuta approximata Cuscuta attenuata Cuscuta boldinghii Cuscuta brachycalyx Cuscuta californica Cuscuta campestris Cuscuta cassytoides Cuscuta ceanothi Cuscuta cephalanthi Cuscuta compacta Cuscuta coryli Cuscuta corylii Cuscuta cuspidata Cuscuta decipiens Cuscuta dentatasquamata Cuscuta denticulata Cuscuta epilinum Cuscuta epithymum Cuscuta erosa Cuscuta europaea Cuscuta... Cài Lún (Wade-Giles: Tsai Lun, 蔡倫) (c. ...


The Song sisters would not be Empress Dou's only victims. After Prince Zhao was made crown prince, his birth mother's clan, the Liangs, did not dare to openly celebrate, but were secretly happy. When the Dou clan heard of this, they were displeased and fearful, and they felt that they had to destroy the Liangs. Empress Dou began to give false reports about Prince Zhao's birth mother Consort Liang and her sister, also an imperial consort, and they lost Emperor Zhang's favor. In 83, the Dous further submitted false anonymous accusations against the Consorts Liang's father Liang Song (梁竦), causing him to die in prison. Consorts Liang died of sadness and fear. For other uses, see number 83. ...


The Dous, having made these powerplay, would eventually gain their goals of becoming even more powerful than they were. Also in 83, Emperor Zhang, having seen that his Ma cousins were not following the law, stopped favoring his Ma uncles, and eventually sent them back to their marches. Empress Dou's brothers Dou Xian (竇憲) and Dou Du (竇篤) effectively took over in the power structure -- the first time in Han history that the empress' clan, rather than the empress dowager's clan, was the powerful consort clan. This would be a trend that would recur for the rest of Eastern Han Dynasty and a source of corruption. Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... Dou Xian (竇憲 dou4 xian4 50s - 92), leader of the consort clan Dou, first of which engaged in the struggle for power against eunuchs in the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. ... The consort clan (外戚 Pinyin: waichi) is the family, clan or a group related to a spouse or a empress dowager of the Chinese dynastic ruler or a warlord. ...


Late reign

However, Emperor Zhang himself remained fairly diligent and open-minded. For example, in 84, when two university students, Kong Xi (孔僖) and Cui Yin (崔駰) were accused of improperly criticizing his ancestor Emperor Wu and, by criticizing Emperor Wu, making veiled criticism of Emperor Zhang, Emperor Zhang accepted the letter that Kong submitted in his own defense and made him an official in his administration. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the...


In 86, the first of the Qiang (羌) rebellions began, and while the Qiang were pacified fairly quickly, this would be bad omen for the decades to come, as the Qiang, mistreatedly frequently by Han officials, would constantly rebel throughout the rest of the Eastern Han Dynasty and become a major factor in Eastern Han's decline. // Cars http://en. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ...


In 88, Emperor Zhang died and was succeeded by Crown Prince Zhao as Emperor He. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of...


Era names

  • Jianchu (建初 py. jìan chū) 76-84
  • Yuanhe (元和 py. yúan hé) 84-87
  • Zhanghe (章和 py. zhāng hé) 87-88

For other uses, see number 76. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Events Last year (4th) of yuanhe era and start of zhanghe era of the Chinese Eastern... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Events Last year (4th) of yuanhe era and start of zhanghe era of the Chinese Eastern... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of...

Personal information

  • Father
  • Birth Mother
    • Consort Jia
  • Adoptive Mother
    • Empress Ma
  • Wife
  • Major Concubines
    • Consort Dou, Empress Dou's sister
    • Consort Song (d. 82), mother of Prince Qing
    • Consort Song (d. 82) (the two Consorts Song were sisters)
    • Consort Liang (d. 83), mother of Emperor He
    • Consort Liang (d. 83) (the two Consorts Liang were also sisters)
    • Consort Sheng, mother of Princes Shou and Kai
  • Children
    • Liu Kang (劉伉), Prince Jen of Qiancheng (created 79, d. 94)
    • Liu Quan (劉全), Prince Dao of Pingchun (created 79, d. 79)
    • Liu Qing (劉慶), initially the Crown Prince (b. 78, created 79, deposed 83), later Prince Xiao of Qinghe (created 83, d. 106), father of Emperor An
    • Liu Zhao (劉肇), the Crown Prince (created 83), later Emperor He
    • Liu Shou (劉壽), Prince Hui of Jibei (created 90, d. 121)
    • Liu Kai (劉開), Prince Xiao of Hejian (created 90, d. 132)
    • Liu Shu (劉淑), Prince Huai of Chengyang (created 90, d. 95)
    • Liu Wansui (劉萬歲), Prince Shang of Guangzong (created 93, d. 93)
    • Liu Nan (劉男), the Princess Wude (created 80)
    • Liu Wang (劉王), the Princess Pingyi (created 80)
    • Liu Ji (劉吉), the Princess Yin'an (created 94)
Preceded by:
Emperor Ming of Han
Emperor of the Han Dynasty
7588
Succeeded by:
Emperor He of Han

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emperor Zhang of Han - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1470 words)
Han Chang-ti, (57-88) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 75 to 88.
Emperor Zhang was a hardworking and diligent emperor.
Emperor Zhang was enraged and expelled Crown Prince Qing from the palace.
Emperor Zhi of Han - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (690 words)
Emperor Zhi of Han (Traditional Chinese: 漢質帝;; Simplified Chinese: 漢质帝; Hanyu Pinyin: Hàn Zhí Dì; Wade-Giles: Han Chih-ti; 138-146) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
After Emperor Zhi's death, Liang Ji, under pressure by the key officials, was forced to summon a meeting of the officials to decide whom to enthrone as the new emperor.
Long after Emperor Zhi's death, in 175, Emperor Ling bestowed on Emperor Zhi's mother Consort Chen the honorific title of Princess Xiao of Bohai, in recognition of her status as mother of an emperor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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