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Encyclopedia > Emperor Temmu

Emperor Temmu (天武天皇 Tenmu Tennō) (c. 631 - October 1, 686) was the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title tenno was assigned contemporaneously, not only by later generations. He ruled from 672 until his death in 686. He was the youngest son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Saimei, and the younger brother of the Emperor Tenji. His name at birth was Prince Ōama. He was succeeded by Empress Jitō, who was both his niece and his wife. Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Emperor Jomei (舒明天皇 Jomei Tennō) (593- November 17, 641[1]) was the 34th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Kōgyoku (皇極天皇 Kōgyoku Tennō), also Empress Saimei (斉明天皇 Saimei Tennō) (594–661) was the 35th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... ... Jito Tenno (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō Empress Jitō (持統天皇 Jitō Tennō) (645 – December 22, 7021) was the 41st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Genealogy

During the reign of his elder brother, Emperor Tenji, Temmu was forced to marry several of Tenji's daughters because Tenji thought those marriages would help to strengthen political ties between the two brothers. The nieces he married included Princess Unonosarara, today known as the Empress Jitō, and Princess Ōta. Temmu also had other consorts whose fathers were influential courtiers.


Temmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe by Princess Unonosarara, Prince Ōtsu by Princess Ōta (whose father also was Tenji), and Prince Toneri, the editor of Nihonshoki and father of Emperor Junnin. Through Prince Kusakabe, Temmu had two emperors and two empresses among his descendents. Empress Shōtoku was the last of these imperial rulers from his lineage. Prince Kusakabe (草壁皇子, Kusakabe no miko: 662-689) was a Japanese imperial crown prince from 681 until his death. ... Prince Otsu (663 - 86) was a Japanese poet and the son of Emperor Temmu. ... Prince Toneri (舎人親王, Toneri shinnō: 676-735) was a Japanese imperial prince in the Nara period. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Emperor Junnin (淳仁天皇 Junnin Tennō) (733-765) was the 47th imperial ruler of Japan from 758 to 764, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō) also Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō) (718 – August 4, 7701) was both the 46th and 48th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Life

The first and only document on his life was Nihonshoki. However, it was edited by his son, Prince Toneri, and the work was written during the reigns of his wife and children, causing one to suspect its accuracy and impartiality. Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ...


Temmu's father died while he was young, and he grew up mainly under the guidance of Empress Saimei. He was not expected to gain the throne, because his brother Tenji was the crown prince, being the older son of their mother, the reigning empress.


After Tenji ascended to the throne, Temmu was appointed crown prince. This was because Tenji had no appropriate heir among his sons at that time, as none of their mothers was of a rank high enough to give the necessary political support. Tenji was suspicious that Temmu might be so ambitious as to attempt to take the throne, and felt the necessity to strengthen his allegiance through the marriages mentioned above.


In his old age, Tenji had a son, Prince Ōtomo, by a low-ranking consort. Since Ōtomo had weak political support from his maternal relatives, the general wisdom of the time held that it was not a good idea for him to ascend to the throne, yet Tenji was obsessed with the idea. In 671 Temmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk. He moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato province (now in Yoshino, Nara), officially for reasons of seclusion. He took with him his sons and one of his wives, Princess Unonosarara, a daughter of Tenji. However, he left all his other consorts at the capital, Omikyō in Omi province (today in Otsu, Shiga). Events Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching visited the capital of the partly-Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, Palembang, Indonesia. ... Yamato (大和) was a province of Japan. ... Yoshino (吉野町; -cho) was a town located in Yoshino District, Nara Prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Japan geography stubs | Old provinces of Japan ... ÅŒtsu (Japanese: 大津市, ÅŒtsu-shi) is the capital city of Shiga, Japan. ...


A year later, (in 672) Tenji died and Prince Ōtomo ascended to the throne as Emperor Kōbun. Temmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement. They marched through Yamato, Iga and Mino provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province. The army of Temmu and the army of the young Emperor Kobun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu). Temmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide (Jinshin incident). Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Emperor Kōbun (弘文天皇 Kōbun Tennō), also known as Prince Otomo (648 - 672) was the 39th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Ueno Castle Iga Province (伊賀国; -no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today western Mie prefecture. ... Mino (美濃国; -no kuni) is an old province of Japan, which today composes nearly the southern part of Gifu prefecture. ... Sekigahara (関ヶ原町; -chou) is a town located in Fuwa District, Gifu, Japan. ... The Jinshin War (壬申の乱, Jinshin no Ran) was a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of Emperor Tenji. ...

The legendary tomb of Emperor Temmu, Nara
The legendary tomb of Emperor Temmu, Nara

In 673 Temmu moved the capital back to Yamato province, naming his new capital Asukakiyomihara, and there he ascended to the throne. He elevated Unonosarara to be his empress. He reigned from this capital until his death in 686. Emperor Temmu of Japan Empress Jito of Japan tomb Nara Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Emperor Temmu of Japan Empress Jito of Japan tomb Nara Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu...

Politics

In Nihonshoki Temmu is described as a great innovator, but the neutrality of this description is doubtful, since the work was written under the control of his descendants. It seems clear, however, that Temmu strengthened the power of the emperor and appointed his sons to the highest offices of his government, reducing the traditional influence of powerful clans such as the Ōtomo and Soga. He renewed the system of kabane, the hereditary titles of duty and rank, but with alterations, including the abolition of some titles. Omi and Muraji, the highest kabane in the earlier period, were reduced in value in the new hierarchy, which consisted of eight kinds of kabane. Each clan received a new kabane according to its closeness to the imperial bloodline and its loyalty to Temmu. Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... The ÅŒtomo clan (大伴氏) was a Japanese clan whose power stretched from the Yamato period through the Sengoku period, spanning over 1100 years. ... The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ... Kabane (姓). Kabane were hereditary titles used in ancient Japan to denote rank and political standing. ... Categories: Japan geography stubs | Old provinces of Japan ... Muraji (連). Muraji was an ancient Japanese hereditary title denoting rank and political standing (a kabane) that was reserved for the most powerful among the Tomo no Miyatsuko clans, which were clans associated with particular occupations. ...


Temmu attempted to keep a balance of power among his sons. Once he traveled to Yoshino together with his sons, and there had them swear to cooperate and not to make war on each other. This turned out to be ineffective: one of his sons, Prince Ōtsu, was later executed for treason after the death of Temmu.


Temmu's foreign policy favored the Korean kingdom Silla, which took over the entire Korean peninsula in 676. After the unification of Korea by Silla, Temmu decided to break diplomatic relations with the Tang dynasty of China, evidently in order to keep on good terms with Silla. Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Events November 2 - Donus becomes Pope. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Temmu used religious structures to increase the authority of the imperial throne. During his reign there was increased emphasis on the tie between the imperial household and the Grand Shrine of Ise (dedicated to the ancestor goddess of the emperors, Amaterasu), and several festivals were financed from the national budget. He also showed favor to Buddhism, and built several large temples and monasteries. On the other hand, all Buddhist priests, monks and nuns were controlled by the state, and no one was allowed to become a monk without the state's permission. This was aimed at preventing cults and stopping farmers from turning into priests. Ise Shrine (Ise-jingū 伊勢神宮; alternately Grand Shrines of Ise or Ise Daijingū 伊勢大神宮) is a shrine to Shinto goddess Amaterasu ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ...

Preceded by:
Emperor Kōbun
Emperor of Japan
672-686
Succeeded by:
Empress Jitō

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emperor Temmu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (962 words)
He was the youngest son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Saimei, and the younger brother of the Emperor Tenji.
Temmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe by Princess Unonosarara, Prince Ōtsu by Princess Ōta (whose father also was Tenji), and Prince Toneri, the editor of Nihonshoki and father of Emperor Junnin.
The army of Temmu and the army of the young Emperor Kobun fought in the northwestern part of Mino (nowadays Sekigahara, Gifu).
Kojiki - New World Encyclopedia Preview (1460 words)
C.E., after the Jinshin Rebellion, Emperor Temmu desired to enhance the Imperial genealogy and the existing oral traditions concerning aristocratic families, so that these could be passed down to future generations.
Hieda no Are, a 28-year-old supporter of the emperor, had the ability to read passages of text at a glance and to remember stories as they were told in detail.
Emperor Temmu ordered Hieda no Are to learn Teiki (an Imperial genealogy which was maintained by government officials and is no longer in existence) and Kuji (the oral traditions of each clan’s history, also no longer in existence).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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