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Encyclopedia > Emperor Ling of Han
Han Lingdi (漢靈帝)
Family name: Liu (劉; liú)
Given name: Hong (宏, hóng)
Posthumous name:
(full)
Xiaoling (孝靈, xiào líng)
literary meaning: "filial and unattentive"
Posthumous name:
(short)
Ling (靈, líng)
"unattentive"

Emperor Ling of Han, trad. ch. 漢靈帝;, sim. ch. 漢灵帝, py. hàn líng dì, wg. Han Ling-ti, (156-189) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. He was a great-great-grandson of Emperor Zhang. The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out during his reign. Chinese personal names follow a number of conventions different from those of Western personal names. ... Liu is a Chinese family name. ... Chinese personal names follow a number of conventions different from those of Western personal names. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... PY, Py or py may stand for: Pinyin, a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Mandarin Chinese used in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Events First apparition of the heresiarch Montanus in Ardaban (Mysia) Births Lü Bu, Chinese general. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... The emperor or huángdì (皇帝) of China was the head of government and head of state of China from the Qin dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Emperor Zhang of Han China, ch. ... The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Simplified: 黄巾之乱; Traditional: 黃巾之亂; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a 184 AD peasant rebellion against Emperor Lingdi of the Han Dynasty of China. ...


Emperor Ling's reign saw yet another repetition of government domination by corrupt eunuchs. This time Zhang Rang and his accomplices succeeded in completely dominating the political scene after prevailing over Empress Dowager Dou's father Dou Wu and his ally, the Confucian scholar Chen Fan (陳蕃) in 168. Emperor Ling, even after he grew to adulthood, was not interested in governmental affairs, instead indulged himself in women and a decadent lifestyle. At the same time corrupt officials levied heavy taxes on the peasants causing public outcries and rebellions. He further exacerbated the situation by selling political offices for money. Chinese Eunuchs A eunuch is an infertile human male whose testicles have either been removed (deliberately or by accident) or are otherwise non-functional. ... Zhang Rang was a eunuch of the late Han Dynasty, who served Emperor Lingdi; he was also the leader of the Ten Attendants (Also known as the Ten Eunuchs), a group of court eunuchs who held great influence in the Han imperial court. ... Empress Dou Miao (竇妙) (d. ... Dou Wu (竇武) (d. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ...


Emperor Ling died after reigning for 21 years in 189. He was 34. As soon after his death the power fell into the hands of Dong Zhuo, who despised him, Emperor Ling was one of the rare examples of history in which an emperor whose throne was inherited by a son who received a highly derogatory (but accurate) posthumous name. Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Dong Zhuo (? – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


Emperor Ling's reign left the Eastern Han Dynasty weak and ready to crumble. After his death, the empire broke apart, and for several decades warlords battled, until eventually his son Emperor Xian was forced to abdicate in favor of Cao Pi, ushering in the era of the Three Kingdoms period. (See End of Han Dynasty.) Emperor Xian of Han, trad. ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), born in Qiao County, Pei presently Bozhou city in An Hui Province. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese characters: 三國, Simplified Chinese characters: 三国, pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the History of China. ... The End of Han Dynasty (漢朝末年 or 東漢末年, the End of Eastern Han Dynasty) refers to a period roughly coinciding with the reign of Han Dynastys final emperor Emperor Xian (r. ...

Contents


Family background and ascension to the throne

Liu Hong was a hereditary marquess -- the Marquess of Jieduting. (A "ting marquess had a march that would be one village or, in rarer cases, two or three villages.) His was a third generation creation, as his father Liu Chang (劉萇) and grandfather Liu Shu (劉淑) were both Marquesses of Jieduting as well. His great-grandfather was Liu Kai (劉開), the Prince of Hejian, and a son of Emperor Zhang. His mother Lady Dong was Marquess Chang's wife. Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... Emperor Zhang of Han, ch. ... Empress Dowager Dong (董太后, personal name unknown), formally Empress Xiaocheng (孝成皇后) (d. ...


When Emperor Huan died in 168 without a son to be heir, his wife Empress Dou Miao became empress dowager and regent, and she examined the rolls of the imperial clan to consider the next emperor. For reasons unknown, her assistant Liu Shu (劉儵) recommended Marquess Hong, and after consulting with her father Dou Wu and the Confucian scholar official Chen Fan, Empress Dowager Dou made him emperor, at age 12. Empress Dowager Dou continued to serve as regent. Emperor Ling posthumously honored his father and grandfather as emperors, and his grandmother as an empress. His mother, because of Empress Dowager Dou's presence, was not honored as an empress or empress dowager, but as an imperial consort. Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Empress Dou Miao (竇妙) (d. ... Empress Dowager (Chinese, Korean and Japanese: 皇太后; Chinese pinyin Húang Tài Hòu, Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō) was title given to the mother of a Chinese emperor. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... Dou Wu (竇武) (d. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Early reign

The empress dowager's father Dou Wu and Chen became the most important officials in the imperial government, and they sought to purge the government of eunuch influences. Later in 168, they even proposed to exterminate all of the powerful eunuchs, a proposal that Empress Dowager Dou rejected. However, word of the plot was leaked, and the eunuchs, after kidnapping the empress dowager and taking the young emperor into custody (after persuading him that it was for his own protection) arrested and executed Chen. Dou Wu resisted, but was eventually defeated, and he committed suicide. The Dou clan was slaughtered. The powerful eunuchs, led by Cao Jie (曹節) and Wang Fu (王甫), became the most powerful individuals in the imperial government.


After the destruction of the Dou clan, in 169, Emperor Ling honored his mother Consort Dong as an empress dowager, but continued to also honor Empress Dowager Dou (now under house arrest by the eunuchs) as an empress dowager. Members of the Dong clan began to enter government, but did not have substantial influence. Later that year, the eunuchs persuaded Emperor Ling that the "partisans" (i.e., Confucian officials and university students who supported them) were planning a plot against him, and a large number of partisans were arrested and killed; the others had their civil liberties stripped completely, in what later was known as the second Disaster of Partisan Prohibitions. For other uses, see number 169. ... The Disasters of Partisan Prohibitions (黨錮之禍) refers to two incidents in which a number of Confucian scholars who served as officials in the Han imperial government and opposed to powerful eunuchs, and the university students in the capital Luoyang who supported them (collectively referred to by the eunuchs as partisans (黨人, dangren...


In 172, Empress Dowager Dou died. Despite suggestions by eunuchs to have her only buried as an imperial consort and not be honored as Emperor Huan's wife, Emperor Ling had her buried with honors due an empress dowager, with Emperor Huan. In the aftermaths of her death, a vandal wrote on the palace door: Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...

All that is under the heaven is in upheaval. Cao and Wang murdered the empress dowager. The key officials only know how to be officials and had nothing faithful to say.

The eunuchs were angered, and more than 1,000 people were arrested in the investigation to try to discover who the vandal was, but nothing eventually came of the investigation. In that year, the eunuchs also falsely accused Emperor Huan's brother Liu Li (劉悝), the Prince of Bohai, of treason, and Prince Li was forced to commit suicide. His entire household, including wife, concubines, children, assistants, and principality officials, were all executed. The eunuchs continued to be corrupt, and the people received heavier and heavier tax burdens. As Emperor Ling grew in age, he not only took no remedial actions, but continued to tolerate the eunuchs' corruption, for the large part. A major defeat by the Xianbei in 177 further drained the imperial treasury. The Xianbei (鮮卑, written XiānbÄ“i in pinyin or Hsien-pei in Wade-Giles) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, and Liaoning. ... Events A systematic persecution of Christians begins in Rome under Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. ...


In 178, Emperor Ling's wife Empress Song, whom he created empress in 171 but did not favor, fell victim to the eunuchs. Her aunt Lady Song was Prince Li's wife, and so the eunuchs were concerned that if she became powerful, she would avenge her aunt. They, in alliance with the imperial consorts who wanted to replace Empress Song, falsely accused her of using witchcraft to curse the emperor. Emperor Ling believed them and deposed Empress Song. She was imprisoned and died in despair. Her father Song Feng (宋酆) and her brothers were all executed. Events First condemnation of the Montanist heresy Last (7th) year of Xiping era and start of Guanghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Empress Song (宋皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ... Events Marcomanni were finally defeated by Marcus Aurelius Births Deaths Category: ...


Middle reign

In 178, Emperor Ling carried out a plan that greatly damaged the authority of the imperial government and harmed the people even more -- he sold offices of all kinds for money. The people who purchased these offices would then become extremely corrupt while in office -- and in fact, that was what Emperor Ling contemplated, for he allowed people who did not have the money to start to set up installment payment plans after they were placed in office. Events First condemnation of the Montanist heresy Last (7th) year of Xiping era and start of Guanghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...


In 180, Emperor Ling created Consort He as the new empress and made her brother He Jin a key official in his government. (According to legends, she was initially selected as an imperial consort because her family bribed the eunuchs.) She received the empress position because she had given birth to Emperor Ling's son Liu Bian (劉辯). For other uses, see number 180. ... Empress He (何皇后, personal name unknown) (d. ... He Jin (? – 189) was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


During these years, Emperor Ling became interested in heavy spending to build imperial gardens, and to finance them he ordered the commanderies and principalities to offer tributes to him personally. This in turn created pressures for officials to be corrupt. However, he also did listen to good advice at times, but did not follow them consistently. For the more honest of his officials, it became a frustrating exercise to try to persuade Emperor Ling on points that were beneficial to the people -- because he was in fact persuadable but not usually so.


The Yellow Turban Rebellion

Main articles: Yellow Turban Rebellion, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]

Sometime before 183, a major Taoist movement had emerged from Ji Province (冀州, modern central Hebei) -- the Taiping Sect (太平教), led by Zhang Jiao (張角), who claimed he had magical powers to heal the sick. By 183, his teachings and followers had spread to eight provinces -- Qing (青州, modern central and eastern Shandong), Xu (徐州, modern northern Jiangsu and Anhui), You (幽州, modern northern Hebei, Liaoning, Beijing, and Tianjin), Ji, Jing (荊州, modern Hubei and Hunan), Yang (揚州, modern southern Jiangsu and Anhui, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang), Yan (兗州, modern western Shandong), and Yu (豫州, modern central and eastern Henan). Several key imperial officials became concerned about Zhang's hold over his followers, and suggested that the Taiping Sect be disbanded. Emperor Ling did not listen to them. The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Simplified: 黄巾之乱; Traditional: 黃巾之亂; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a 184 AD peasant rebellion against Emperor Lingdi of the Han Dynasty of China. ... Events Failed assassination attempt on Roman Emperor Commodus. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhang Jiao (Simplified Chinese: 张角; Traditional Chinese: 張角; Pinyin: Zhāng JiÇŽo) was the leader of the yellow turbans during the period of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... â–¶ (help· info) or Peking is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is a eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


Zhang in fact planned a rebellion. He commissioned 36 military commanders and set up a shadow government, and he wrote a declaration:

The blue heaven is dead. The yellow heaven will come into being. The year will be Jiazi. The world would be blessed.

(Under China's traditional sexagenary cycle calendar method, 184 would be the first year of the cycle, known as Jiazi.) Zhang had his supporters write Jiazi in large characters with white talc everywhere they could -- including on the doors of many imperial offices in the capital Luoyang and other cities. One of Zhang's commanders, Ma Yuanyi (馬元義) entered into a plan with two powerful eunuchs, and they planned to start a rebellion to overthrow the Han Dynasty from inside. The Chinese sexagenary cycle (干支 pinyin: gānzhÄ«) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (十干; shígān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (十二支; shíèrzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering the years, not only in China... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Early in 184, this plot was discovered, and Ma was immediately arrested and executed. Emperor Ling ordered that Taiping Sect members be arrested and executed, and Zhang immediately declared a rebellion. Every member of the rebellion wore a yellow turban as the symbol -- and therefore the rebellion became known for it. Within a month, Zhang controlled large areas of territory. Under suggestion by the eunuch Lü Qiang (呂強), who was sympathetic to the partisans, Emperor Ling pardoned the partisans to ward off the possibility they would join the Yellow Turbans. (Lü himself became a victim, however, when the other eunuchs, in retaliation, falsely accused him of wanting to depose the emperor, and he committed suicide later that year.) Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ...


Emperor Ling sent out a number of military commanders against the Yellow Turbans, and in these campaigns several of them distinguished themselves -- including Huangfu Song (皇甫嵩), Cao Cao (曹操), Fu Xie (傅燮), Zhu Jun(朱? (his name is not part of Unicode and therefore unavailable online), Lu Zhi (盧植), and Dong Zhuo (董卓). A key military development with great implications later was that the Yellow Turbans were largely combatted with battle-tested Liang Province (涼州, modern Gansu) troops, who had been accustomed to fight the Qiang rebellions. In late 184, Zhang Jiao was killed, and while the rest of the Yellow Turbans were not defeated immediately, in the following year they gradually dissipated. Because of the Liang forces' contributions to the campaign, they began to be feared and began to look down on troops from all other provinces. During and in the aftermaths of the Yellow Turban Rebellion, many people from other provinces, in order to ward off pillaging by Yellow Turbans or governmental forces, also organized into military organizations, and a good number resisted government forces, and even after the Yellow Turbans were defeated, the central government's control of the provinces was no longer what it used to be. Cao Cao (155 – 220), whose name is also often transliterated and should be correctly pronounced as Tsao Tsao, was a regional warlord and the last Chancellor of Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ... Dong Zhuo (? – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Gansu (Simplified: 甘肃; Traditional: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, or modified as Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ...


Late reign

Even after what happened, however, Emperor Ling did not change his wasteful and corrupt ways. He continued to levy heavy taxes and continued to sell offices. As a result, the agrarian and other military rebellions multiplied.


In 188, under the suggestions of Liu Yan (劉焉), Emperor Ling greatly increased the political and military power of the provincincial governors and selected key officials to serve as provincial governors. Events Himiko is said to have begun her reign in Japan. ...


In 189, as Emperor Ling grew ill, a succession issue came into being. Emperor Ling had two surviving sons -- Liu Bian, the son of Empress He, and Liu Xie (劉協), the son of Consort Wang. Because Emperor Ling had, earlier in his life, frequently lost sons in childhood, he later believed that his sons needed to be raised outside the palace by foster parents. Therefore, when Prince Bian was born, he was entrusted to the magician Shi Zimiao (史子眇) and known by the circumspect title "Marquess Shi." Later, when Prince Xie was born, he was raised personally by Emperor Ling's mother Empress Dowager Dong and known by the circumspect title "Marquess Dong." Prince Bian was born of the empress and was older, but Emperor Ling viewed his behavior as being insufficiently solemn and therefore considered creating Prince Xie crown prince, but hesitated and could not decide. Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Emperor Xian of Han, trad. ... A foster parent is an adult guardian to whom one or more children have been legally entrusted to. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...


When Emperor Ling died later that year, a powerful eunuch that he trusted, Jian Shuo, wanted to first kill Empress He's brother He Jin and then make Prince Xie emperor, and therefore set up a trap at a meeting he was to have with He. He found out, and preemptorily declared Prince Bian emperor (later known as the Prince of Hongnong). Jian Shuo was the leader of the Eunuch Faction of the Han Imperial Court in China, along with Zhang Rang. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Era names

  • Jianning (建寧 py. jìan níng) 168-172
  • Xiping (熹平 py. xī píng) 172-178
  • Guanghe (光和 py. gūang hé) 178-184
  • Zhongping (中平 py. zhōng píng) 184-189

Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events First condemnation of the Montanist heresy Last (7th) year of Xiping era and start of Guanghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events First condemnation of the Montanist heresy Last (7th) year of Xiping era and start of Guanghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ...

Personal information

Preceded by:
Emperor Huan of Han
Emperor of Han Dynasty
168-189
Succeeded by:
Prince of Hongnong

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emperor Ling of Han - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1829 words)
Han Ling-ti, (156-189) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
When Emperor Huan died in 168 without a son to be heir, his wife Empress Dou Miao became empress dowager and regent, and she examined the rolls of the imperial clan to consider the next emperor.
Because Emperor Ling had, earlier in his life, frequently lost sons in childhood, he later believed that his sons needed to be raised outside the palace by foster parents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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