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Encyclopedia > Emperor

An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, "empress" may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort.) Some empresses took the throne after their husband died, thus becoming empresses regnant. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her...

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Distinction from other monarchs

Both kings and emperors are monarchs. Within the European context, "emperor" is considered the highest of monarchical titles, ironic in that it began as a military honorific in a staunchly anti-monarchical republic. Emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations. Currently, precedence is decided by the length a head of state is continuously in office. Some emperors claimed inheritance (translatio imperii) of the political and religious authority of the Roman Emperors such as an important role in the state church; see Imperial cult and Caesaropapism. This inheritance has been claimed by, among others, the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and the Russian Empire; however, all types of monarchies have played religious roles; see divine right of kings and divine king. Territorial size was of no importance, the title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves to the institutions and traditions of the Romans as part of state ideology. In contrast, many republics have named a legislative chamber after the Roman Senate in remembrance of an era when assemblies still dominated. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Precedence is a simple ordering, based on either importance or sequence. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Translatio imperii, Latin for transfer of rule, is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing history as a linear development: a succession of transfers of power from one supreme ruler (emperor) to the next. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... See also civil religion. ... An Imperial cult is a kind of religion in which an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title), are worshipped as demigods or deities. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... This article is about the medieval empire. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... A divine king is a monarch who is held in a special religious significance by his subjects, and serves as both head of state and a deity or head religious figure. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Outside the European context, "emperor" is a translation given to holders of titles who are accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers may accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Due to centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era.


Also, historians have liberally used "emperor" and "empire" anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state and its ruler in the past and present. "Empire" became identified with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the time of Voltaire who described the Holy Roman Empire as not an empire for its small size compared the Britain and France's overseas colonies. For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Roman tradition

Roman and Byzantine Emperors

In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.


Importance and meaning of Coronation ceremonies and regalia also varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the pope, which meant the coronation ceremony usually took place in Rome, often several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne (as "king") in their home country. The first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their Empire, because that was the only place where they could be granted to become Emperor. A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. ...


Early Roman Emperors on the other hand avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was already usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb became an essential part of the Imperial accessories. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Queen Elizabeth II held a globus cruciger, called the Sovereigns Orb, for her coronation portrait in 1953. ...


Rules for indicating successors also varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling Empresses (for empires not too strictly under salic law) are known. Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as often occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors, the Roman Imperial tradition made no exception to other monarchical traditions in this respect. Probably the epoch best known for this part of the Imperial tradition is Rome's third century The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ...


The Origin: Roman Emperors

see: Roman Emperor

When Republican Rome turned into a monarchy again, in the second half of the 1st century BC, at first there was no name for the title of the new type of monarch: ancient Romans abhorred the name Rex ("king"), and after Julius Caesar also Dictator (which was an acknowledged office in Republican Rome, Julius Caesar not being the first to hold it). Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ...


Augustus, who can be considered the first Roman Emperor, avoided naming himself anything that could be reminiscent of "monarchy" or "dictatorship". Instead, these first Emperors constructed their office as a complicated collection of offices, titles, and honours, that were consolidated around a single person and his closest relatives (while in the republic the "taking of turns", often in shared offices, had been the principle for passing on power). These early Roman emperors didn't need a specific name for their monarchy: they had enough offices and powers accumulated so that in any field of power they were "unsurpassable", and besides: it was clear who had supreme power. The supreme power could poison, exile, or try for treason any who did not obey. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ...


As the first Roman Emperors did not rule by virtue of any particular republican or senatorial office, the name given to the office of "head of state" in this new monarchical form of government became different depending on tradition, none of these traditions consolidated in the early days of the Roman Empire: For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

  • Caesar (as, for example, in Suetonius' Twelve Caesars). This tradition continued in many languages: in German it became "Kaiser"; in certain Slavic languages it became "Tsar"; in Hungarian it became "Császár", and several more variants. The name derived from Julius Caesar's cognomen "Caesar": this cognomen was adopted by all Roman emperors, exclusively by the ruling monarch after the Julio-Claudian dynasty had died out. In this tradition Julius Caesar is sometimes described as the first Caesar/emperor (following Suetonius). This is one of the most enduring titles, Caesar and its transliterations appeared in every year from the time of Caesar Augustus to Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria's removal from the throne in 1946.
  • Augustus was the honorific first bestowed on Emperor Augustus: after him all Roman emperors added it to their name. Although it had a high symbolical value, something like "akin to divinity", it was generally not used to indicate the office of Emperor itself. Exceptions include the title of the Augustan History, a half-mockumentary biography of the Emperors of the 2nd and 3rd century. Augustus had (by his last will) granted the feminine form of this honorific (Augusta) to his wife. Since there was no "title" of Empress(-consort) whatsoever, women of the reigning dynasty sought to be granted this honorific, as the highest attainable goal. Few were however granted the title, and certainly not as a rule all wives of reigning Emperors.
  • Imperator (as, for example, in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia). In the Roman Republic Imperator meant "(military) commander". In the late Republic, as in the early years of the new monarchy, Imperator was a title granted to Roman generals by their troops and the Roman Senate after a great victory, roughly comparable to field marshal. For example, in 15 AD Germanicus was proclaimed Imperator during the reign of his adoptive father Tiberius. Soon thereafter "Imperator" became however a title reserved exclusively for the ruling monarch. This led to "Emperor" in English and, among other examples, "Empereur" in French. The Latin feminine form Imperatrix only developed after "Imperator" had gotten the connotation of "Emperor".
  • Αὐτοκράτωρ, βασιλεύς: although the Greeks used equivalents of "Caesar" (Καίσαρ) and "Augustus" (in two forms: Αὔγουστος or translated as Σεβαστός/"Sebastos") these were rather used as part of the name of the Emperor than as an indication of the office. Instead of developing a new name for the new type of monarchy, they used αὐτοκράτωρ ("autokratōr", only partly overlapping with the modern understanding of "autocrat") or βασιλεύς ("basileus", until then the usual name for "sovereign"). "Autokratōr" could be seen as a translation of the Latin "Imperator" (it was certainly used as its replacement in Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire), but also here there is only partial overlap between the meaning of the original Greek and Latin concepts. For the Greeks "Autokratōr" was not a military title, and was closer to the Latin dictator concept ("the one with unlimited power"), before it came to mean Emperor. Basileus appears not to have been used exclusively in the meaning of Emperor before the 7th century, although it was a standard informal designation of the emperor in the Greek-speaking East.

After the problematic year 69, the Flavian Dynasty reigned for about half a century. The succeeding Nervan-Antonian Dynasty, ruling for most of the 2nd century, stabilised the Empire. This epoch became known as the era of the Five Good Emperors, and was followed by the short-lived Severan Dynasty. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... This article deals with titles of the nobility and royalty in the Kingdom of Hungary. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria (born June 16, 1937) was the last Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, and was Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 until August 2005. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ...


During the Crisis of the 3rd century, Barracks Emperors succeeded one another at short intervals. Three short lived secessionist attempts had their own emperors: the Gallic Empire, the Britannic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire though the latter used rex more regularly. The next period, known as the Dominate, started with the Tetrarchy installed by Diocletian. The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis ) is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284 caused by the three simultaneous crises of external invasion, internal civil war and economic collapse. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274. ... The characterisation British Emperor (or: British Empress), that is: being British and also being Emperor/Empress can only be applied to very few people, as Britains monarchs were indicated as king or queen (latin: rex/regina) in almost all cases. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Through most of the 4th century, there were separate emperors for the Western and Eastern part of the Empire. Although there were several dynastic relations between the Emperors of both parts, they also often were adversaries. The last Emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire was Theodosius. Less than a century after his death in 395, the last Emperor of the Western half of the Empire was driven out. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ...


The Eastern Emperors after 476

see Byzantine Emperor
Under Justinian I, reigning in the 6th century, parts of Italy were for a few decades (re)conquered from the Ostrogoths: that's why this famous mosaic, featuring the Byzantine emperor in the center, can be admired at Ravenna.
Under Justinian I, reigning in the 6th century, parts of Italy were for a few decades (re)conquered from the Ostrogoths: that's why this famous mosaic, featuring the Byzantine emperor in the center, can be admired at Ravenna.

Historians generally call the eastern part of the Roman Empire the Byzantine Empire due to its capital Constantinople, whose ancient name was Byzantium (now Istanbul). After the fall of Rome to barbarian forces in 476, the title of "emperor" lived on in rulers of Constantinople (New Rome). This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1489, 450 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current location (gallery): de: San Vitale... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1489, 450 KB) Description: Title: de: Chormosaiken in San Vitale in Ravenna, Szene: Kaiser Justinian und Bischof Maximilianus und sein Hof Technique: de: Mosaik Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Ravenna Current location (gallery): de: San Vitale... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ...


The Byzantine Emperors completed the transition from the idea of the Emperor as a semi-republican official to the Emperor as a traditional monarch when Emperor Heraclius retained the title of Basileus, already a synonym for "Emperor" (but which had earlier designated "King" in Greek) in the first half of the seventh century. A specifically Byzantine development of emperor's position was cesaropapism, position as leader of Christians. Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , HÄ“rakleios), (c. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... Caesaropapism is the phenomenon of combining the power of worldy (secular) government with the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it is a political theory...


In general usage, the Byzantine imperial title evolved from simply "emperor" (basileus), to "emperor of the Romans" (basileus tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 9th century, to "emperor and autocrat of the Romans" (basileus kai autokratōr tōn Rōmaiōn) in the 10th.[1] In fact, none of these (and other) additional epithets and titles had ever been completely discarded.


The Byzantine empire produced also three reigning empresses: Irene, Zoe, and Theodora. This solidus struck under Irene reports the legend bASILISSH, Basilissa. ... Empress Zoe as depicted in a mosaic from the Hagia Sophia Zoe (in Greek Ζωή, meaning life), (c. ... Theodora (in Greek Θεοδώρα, literally meaning Gift of God, lived 981 - August 31, 1056) ruled as Byzantine Empress from January 11, 1055 to August 31, 1056. ...


Latin Emperors

In 1204, the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople, and soon established a Latin Empire of Constantinople under one of the Crusader leaders. The Latin Empire was, however, unable to consolidate control of the whole of the former territories of the Byzantine Empire. Driven out of Constantinople in 1261, some territories in Greece still recognized their authority for some time. Eventually, the Imperial title became redundant and did not even contribute any longer to the prestige of the noblemen in their own country: it remained dormant after 1383. It produced three reigning empresses, two of which reigned outside of the city in the remnants of their empire. [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


After the 4th Crusade

In Asia Minor, after being driven out of Constantinople, relations of the last pre-Crusader emperors established the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond. Similarly, the Despotate of Epirus was founded in the Western Balkans (the rulers of the latter took the title of Emperor for a short time following their conquest of Thessalonica in 1224). The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ...


Eventually, the Nicaean Emperors were successful in reclaiming the Byzantine imperial title. They managed to force Epirus into submission and retake Constantinople by 1261, but Trebizond remained independent. The restored Byzantine empire finally fell due to Ottoman invasion in 1453. The Trapezuntines produced three reigning empresses before they too were defeated by the Ottomans in 1461. Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ...


Byzantium's Orthodox heirs

Byzantium's close cultural and political interaction with its Balkan neighbors Bulgaria and Serbia, and with Russia (Kievan Rus', then Muscovy) led to the adoption of Byzantine imperial traditions in all of these countries. “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Bulgaria

In 913 Simeon I of Bulgaria was crowned emperor (tsar) in a makeshift ceremony officiated by the Patriarch of Constantinople and imperial regent Nicholas I Mystikos outside of the Byzantine capital. This unpopular concession was swiftly revoked by the succeeding Byzantine government, and the decade 914924 was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. The Bulgarian monarch, who had further irritated his Byzantine counterpart by claiming the title "emperor of the Romans" (basileus tōn Rōmaiōn), was eventually recognized, albeit reluctantly, as "emperor of the Bulgarians" (basileus tōn Boulgarōn) after a meeting with the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lakapenos in 924. The concession was confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a dynastic marriage in 927. In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the Pope. The title was recognized again after Bulgaria recovered its independence following a period of Byzantine Domination (10181185). In its final simplified form, it read "emperor and autocrat of all Bulgarians and Greeks" (car i samodăržec na vsički bălgari i gărci in the modern vernacular). The "Greek" component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greek-speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans (represented by the "Greek" Byzantines). 14th-century Bulgarian literary compositions clearly denote the Bulgarian capital (Tărnovo) as a successor of Rome and Constantinople, in effect, the "Third Rome". It should be noted that after Bulgaria obtained complete independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908 to becoming a republic in 1946, its monarch took the traditional title of "tsar", but was recognized internationally only as a king. Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Events Town of Warwick, England founded on the River Avon Vikings conquer much of Ireland Byzantine Empire battles with Bulgaria over city of Adrianople, which changes hands several times Reconstruction of Nanjing after a long dissertation; it marked the beginning of contemporary Nanjing City. ... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... Contemporary coin of Romanus I. Romanus I Lecapenus (Romanos I Lakapenos, 870 - 948), who shared the throne of the Byzantine Empire with Constantine VII and exercised all the real power from 919 to 944, was admiral of the Byzantine fleet on the Danube River when, hearing of the defeat of... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Serbia

In 1345 the Serbian King Stefan Uroš IV Dušan proclaimed himself emperor (tsar) and had himself crowned as such at Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly created Patriarch of Serbia, and by the Patriarch of Bulgaria and the autocephalous Archbishop of Ohrid. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. In its final simplified form, the Serbian imperial title read "emperor of Serbians and Greeks" (car srbljem i grkom in the modern vernacular). It was only employed by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and his son Stefan Uroš V in Serbia (until his death in 1371), after which it became extinct. A half-brother of Dušan, Simeon Uroš, and then his son Jovan Uroš, claimed the same title, until the latter's abdication in 1373, while ruling as dynasts in Thessaly. The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans (represented by the "Greek" Byzantines). Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Tsar Stefan Uroš IV Dušan Silni (the mighty) (Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (around 1308-December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331-1346) and tsar (1346-December 5, 1355). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 1,818 km²  (701. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Simeon UroÅ¡ or SiniÅ¡a UroÅ¡, also Symeon Ouresis Palaiologos (Greek: Συμεών Ούρεσης Παλαιολόγος, Symeōn OuresÄ“s Palaiologos), was the ruler of Epirus from 1359 to 1366 and of Thessaly from 1359 until his death in c. ... John UroÅ¡ or John Oureses Doukas Palaiologos (Greek: Ιωάννης Ούρεσης Δούκας Παλαιολόγος, IōannÄ“s OuresÄ“s Doukas Palaiologos, Serbian: Jovan UroÅ¡), was ruler of Thessaly from c. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


Russia

In 1472, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, Sophia Palaiologina, married Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow, who began championing the idea of Russia being the successor to the Byzantine Empire. This idea was represented more emphatically in the composition of the monk Filofej addressed their son Vasili III. After ending Muscovy's dependence on its Mongol overlords in 1480, Ivan III had begun the usage of the titles emperor (tsar) and autocrat (samoderžec' ). His insistence on recognition as such by the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire since 1489 resulted in the granting of this recognition in 1514 by Emperor Maximilian I to Vasili III. His son Ivan IV emphatically crowned himself emperor (tsar) on 16 January 1547. February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, around 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


On 31 October 1721 Peter I was crowned emperor with a new style, "imperator", which is a westernizing form equivalent to the traditional Slavic title "tsar". He based his claim partially upon a letter discovered in 1717 written in 1514 from Maximilian I to Vasili III, Sophia's son and Ivan IV's father, in which the Holy Roman Emperor used the term in referring to Vasili. The title has not been used in Russia since the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on 15 March 1917. The apparent distinction between the titles of "tsar" and "imperator" in post-1721 usage have led to the mistaken impression that the title of "tsar" is an intermediate rank between those of "emperor" and "king", or else equivalent to the latter. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... “Nicholas II” redirects here. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias...


Imperial Russia produced four reigning empresses, all in the eighteenth century. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Holy Roman Emperors

See: Holy Roman Emperor

After the discontinuation of the title of Emperor in Western Europe in 476, it was revived in the Middle Ages. What connected these Emperors to "Rome" was that they were supposed to be crowned by the Pope, usually in Rome. So in this branch of Roman Emperors, Roman had an implied connotation of Roman Catholic, hence the epithet Holy. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


On 25 December 800, Charles I, King of the Franks, was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome. This was seen both as a reaction to the supposed vacancy of the Eastern Empire, due to the presence of a woman, Irene on the throne in Constantinople, and as a revival of the Western Roman Empire, and descendants of Charlemagne continued to be crowned in Rome until the late 9th century. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Popes intermittently bestowed the imperial title upon whomever was momentarily the most powerful lord in northern Italy, and after Berengar of Friuli was deposed in 922, the title lay vacant for decades. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Franks were originally lead by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). ... Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This solidus struck under Irene reports the legend bASILISSH, Basilissa. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Berengar of Friuli (? - 16 April 924) was a Margrave of Friuli, King of Italy (from 888 on) and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 915 on. ... Events Births Deaths March 26 - Al-Hallaj, Sufi writer and teacher Categories: 922 ...

Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor (and later Saint) Henry II. Christ is pictured as performing the actual coronation, the highly symbolical sword ("Reichsschwert") and Holy Lance are handed by the saints Ulrich († 973) and Emmeram († 652) - Henry had actually been crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII in 1014.
Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor (and later Saint) Henry II. Christ is pictured as performing the actual coronation, the highly symbolical sword ("Reichsschwert") and Holy Lance are handed by the saints Ulrich († 973) and Emmeram († 652) - Henry had actually been crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII in 1014.

In 962, Otto I, King of the Eastern Franks was crowned Emperor by the Pope. The Holy Roman Empire, such as it was, consisted of the German Kingdoms, Italy, and Burgundy (including most of the Low Countries), but it continued to have theoretical claims of universal suzerainty over the Latin west. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1133x1500, 347 KB) Description: Krönung Heinrich II., Christus setzt ihm selbst die Krone auf. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1133x1500, 347 KB) Description: Krönung Heinrich II., Christus setzt ihm selbst die Krone auf. ... Henry II with his wife Cunigunde of Luxemburg Saint Henry II (972 – 13 July 1024), called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... A sword of state is a sword, used as part of the regalia, symbolizing the power of a monarch (or his constitutional government) to use the might of the state against its enemies, and his duty to preserve thus right and peace. ... According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ... Saint Ulrich (Uodalric, Odalrici) of Augsburg was born in 890 (-973) at or near Augsburg and studied at the monastery of St. ... Saint Emmeram also Emmeramus, Emmeran, Emeran, Heimrammi, Haimeran, and Heimeran. ... Benedict VIII, né Theophylactus (born in Rome, died April 9, 1024), pope (1012-1024), of the noble family of the counts of Tusculum (son of Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and Maria, and brother of John XIX), descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum like his predecessor Benedict VI, was opposed by... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Events February 2 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. ... For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ... The Eastern Franks were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians Gebicca (late 4th century–407) Godemar Giselcar Gundicar (413–436) Aetius moves the Burgundians into Sapaudia (Upper Rhone Basin) Gunderic/Gundioc (436–473) opposed by Chilperic I (443–c. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ...


After the 13th century and the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty which led to a 62 year interregnum, the universalistic aspirations of the Emperors became increasingly theoretical, and their control over Italy, still seen as the locus of the proper empire, became increasingly tenuous. Rather than being hereditary, emperors were chosen by the prince-electors, in a process codified by the Golden Bull of 1356. Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The golden seal that earned the decree the name Golden Bull The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important...


Coronations in Rome became rarer and rarer, until in 1508, King Maximilian I, after receiving permission from the pope, declared himself Emperor-Elect without having been crowned in Rome. Although Maximilian's grandson and successor, Charles V, was crowned in Bologna in 1530 by the Pope, he was the last, and thereafter the position of Holy Roman Emperor was a wholly German post until the Empire's dissolution in August 6, 1806. 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Even in Germany itself, real control was increasingly tenuous, as various local princes increased their power, so that the Habsburg emperors who ruled almost continuously from 1438 until the end of the empire derived their power much more from their hereditary lands in the south-eastern part of the monarchy than from their position as emperor. As religious differences added to the tensions, compromise was needed (Peace of Augsburg, 1555). The Habsburg dynasty attempted to reassert authority over the Empire in the Thirty Years' War, which ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that recognized princes sort of sovereign instead of dependents. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... The front page of the document. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The impotence of the Emperors' position became most nakedly apparent during the brief reign of Charles VII from 1742 to 1745. As Duke of Bavaria, Charles was the only non-Habsburg emperor for the last three hundred fifty years of the empire's existence, and his utter inability even to protect his own hereditary lands from the forces of his enemy, Maria Theresa, the Habsburg heiress, showed how empty the position of Holy Roman Emperor had become. Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing (Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ...


Austria

see: Emperor of Austria

On 11 August 1804 anticipating the eventual collapse of the Holy Roman Empire at the behest of Napoleon I, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor assumed the additional title of Emperor of Austria (as Francis I thereof). The precaution was a wise one, because two years later on August 6, 1806 he was obliged to proclaim the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The title of Emperor of Austria was proclaimed in 1804 by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, who feared for the future of the old Reich in the face of Napoleons aggressions, and wished to maintain his imperial title in the event that the Holy Roman Empire should... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Emperor Karl of Austria, the last ruling hereditary monarch in that country, "relinquished every participation in the administration of the State" on November 11, 1918. Karl I, a. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Germany

Following victory after the Franco-Prussian war and the founding of the German Empire, the Prussian king had himself crowned German Emperor or Kaiser as Wilhelm I on January 18, 1871, as part of the competition with the Emperor of Austria (whose Habsburg dynasty had de facto been hereditary in the Holy Roman Empire for centuries) for dominance in the German-speaking lands. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


When the Empire was formed, there was much debate about how to precisely phrase the title of the monarch. One of the contributions to this debate was Kaiser von Deutschland ("Emperor of Germany"), another one being Kaiser der Deutschen ("Emperor of the Germans"). Finally, Deutscher Kaiser ("German Emperor"), the version expressing the least degree of superiority to the rulers of the other principalities, was agreed upon.


With defeats in World War I and revolution breaking out, Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated on 9 November 1918 and a republic was established. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


Emperors in Western Europe

France

The kings of the Ancien Régime and the July Monarchy used the title Empereur de France in diplomatic correspondence and treaties with the Ottoman emperor from at least 1673 onwards. The Ottomans insisted on this elevated style while refusing to recognize the Holy Roman Emperors or the Russian tsars due to their rival claims of the Roman crown. In short, it was an indirect insult by the Ottomans to the HRE and the Russians. The French kings also used it for Morocco (1682) and Persia (1715). Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The July Monarchy was established in France with the reign of Louis Philippe of France. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Translatio imperii, Latin for transfer of rule, is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing history as a linear development: a succession of transfers of power from one supreme ruler (emperor) to the next. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


First French Empire
See also: First French Empire
One of the most famous Imperial coronation ceremonies was that of Napoleon, crowning himself Emperor in the presence of Pope Pius VII (who had blessed the regalia), at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.The painting by David commemorating the event is equally famous: the gothic cathedral restyled style Empire, supervised by the mother of the Emperor on the balcony (a fictional addition, while she had not been present at the ceremony), the pope positioned near the altar, Napoleon proceeds to crown his then wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais as Empress.
One of the most famous Imperial coronation ceremonies was that of Napoleon, crowning himself Emperor in the presence of Pope Pius VII (who had blessed the regalia), at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
The painting by David commemorating the event is equally famous: the gothic cathedral restyled style Empire, supervised by the mother of the Emperor on the balcony (a fictional addition, while she had not been present at the ceremony), the pope positioned near the altar, Napoleon proceeds to crown his then wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais as Empress.

Napoleon Bonaparte who was already First Consul of the French Republic (Premier Consul de la République française) for life, declared himself Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) on May 18, 1804. Despite being ruled by an emperor, it continued to be the French Republic (République Française) until 1808, when it was renamed the French Empire (Empire Français). Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1260, 302 KB) Description: Title: de: Napoleon krönt Kaiserin Joséphine Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 610 × 931 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1260, 302 KB) Description: Title: de: Napoleon krönt Kaiserin Joséphine Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 610 × 931 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Louvre Other... Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14, 1740—August 20, 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Bishop of Rome and Pope of the Catholic Church from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Maria Letizia Bonaparte nee Ramonlino (24 August 1750, Ajaccio - 2 February 1836, Rome) was born to Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (April 13, 1723 - 1755) and Angela Maria Pietrasanta (c. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais (nee Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus the first Empress of the French. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic...


Napoleon relinquished the title of Emperor of the French on 6 April and again on April 11, 1814. Napoleon's infant son, Napoleon II, was recognized by the Council of Peers, as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication, and theoretically reigned as "Emperor" for fifteen days, June 22 to July 7 of 1815. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elba

Since 3 May 1814, the Sovereign Principality of Elba was created a miniature non-hereditary Monarchy under the exiled French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon I was allowed, by the treaty of Fontainebleau with (27 April), to enjoy, for life, the imperial title. The islands were not restyled an empire. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ...


On 26 February 1815, Napoleon abandoned Elba for France, reviving the French Empire for Hundred Days; as this broke the terms of his parole, the Allies declared an end to Napoleon's sovereignty over Elba on 25 March 1815, and on 31 March 1815 Elba was ceded to the restored Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the Congress of Vienna. After his final defeat, Bonaparte was stripped of every imperial privilege during his second exile to Atlantic Isle of St. Helena. is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...


Second French Empire
See also: Second French Empire

Napoleon I's nephew Napoleon III resurrected the title on December 2, 1852 after establishing the Second French Empire in a presidential coup. He reigned as a constitutional Monarch. His endeavours to return to France its imperial status included setting up a Habsburg Archduke as vassal emperor in Mexico, but failed. He lost the throne when he was deposed on September 4, 1870 by the Third Republic in the aftermath of the defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian...


Iberian Peninsula

The origins of the title Imperator totius Hispaniae (Latin for Emperor of All the Spains[2]) is murky. It was associated with the Leonese monarchy perhaps as far back as Alfonso the Great (r. 866-910). The last two kings of its Pérez Dynasty were called emperors in a contemporary source. The title of Imperator (totius) Hispaniae (Latin for Emperor of (All) Spain was borne, traditionally, by the monarchs of León, from at least the tenth century. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias (850-866), the kingdom began to be known as that of León. ... Alfonso III (c. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... Events Foundation of the Benedictine monastery of Cluny Chinese Zhou dynasty monarch 懿王 yi4 wang2 is succeeded by 孝王 xiao4 wang2 Hashavarman I succeeds Yasovarman I as ruler of the Khmer empire Gabriel I of Alexandria becomes Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church Garcia I of Leon becomes... The Pérez Dynasty (from the Spanish for son of Peter) is the family of kings which ruled in Asturias, Galicia, and León from the succession of Alfonso the Catholic, son of Peter, duke of Cantabria. ...


King Sancho III of Navarre conquered Leon in 1034 and began using it. His son, Ferdinand I of Castile also took the title in 1039. Ferdinand's son, Alfonso VI of Castile took the title in 1077. It then passed to his son-in-law, Alfonso I of Aragon in 1109. His stepson and Alfonso VI's grandson, Alfonso VII was the only one who actually had an imperial coronation in 1135. Sancho III (c. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... Ferdinand I of Castile, El Magno or the Great, (d. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Alfonso I of Aragon the Battler (circa 1073-1134, king of Aragon and Navarre 1104-1134). ... Events Battle of Naklo Battle of Hundsfeld Fulk of Jerusalem becomes count of Anjou Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile Crusaders capture Tripoli Anselm of Laon becomes chancellor of Laon Births July 25 - Afonso, first king of Portugal Deaths Alfonso VI of Castile Anselm of Canterbury, philosopher and... Alfonso VII of Castile (March 1, 1104/5 - August 21, 1157), nicknamed the Emperor, was the king of Castile and Leon since 1126, son of Urraca of Castile and Count Raymond of Burgundy. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ...


The title was not exactly hereditary but self proclaimed by those who had, wholly or partially, united the Christian northern part of the Iberian peninsula, often at the expense of killing rival siblings. The popes and Holy Roman emperors protested at the usage of the imperial title as a usurpation of leadership in western Christendom. After Alfonso VII's death in 1157, the title was abandoned. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...


After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the legitimate heir to the throne, Andreas Palaiologos, willed away his claim to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1503. This claim seems to have been forgotten or abandoned quietly for the last 300 years. Andreas Palaeologus (1453 - 1503) de jure Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until death in 1503. ... The Catholic monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Britain

Main article: British Emperor

In the late 3rd century, by the end of the epoch of the barracks emperors in Rome, there were two Britannic Emperors, reigning for about a decade. After the Roman departure from Britain, the Imperator Cunedda forged the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales however all his successors were titled kings and princes. Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively) applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Britain or Great Britain, it is sometimes used as a colloquialism to designate either Plantagenet and Tudor caesaropapism or, more frequently, the British sovereign during the period of the... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... The Roman departure from Britain was nearly completed by 400. ... Cunedda ap Edern (AD 386-460; reigned from the 440s or 450s) (Latin: Cunetacius; English: Kenneth), also known as as Cunedda Wledig (the Imperator), was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


England

There was no set title for the king of England before 1066 and monarchs chose to style themselves as they pleased. Imperial titles were used inconsistently beginning with Athelstan in 930 and ended with the Norman conquest of England. Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Athelstan (c. ... Events With the establishment of the Icelandic Althing, now the worlds oldest parliament, the Icelandic Commonwealth is founded. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ...


Henry VIII began claiming his crown was an Imperial Crown during the Reformation; however, this did not lead to the creation of the title of Emperor in England. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Imperial State Crown An Imperial Crown is usually, through not always, a crown used by a monarch on state occasions other than at the moment of actual coronation, when a special coronation crown is used. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


United Kingdom

In 1801, George III rejected the title of Emperor when offered. The only period when British monarchs were given the title of Emperor in a dynastic succession started when the title Empress of India was created for Queen Victoria. When a royal marriage made it obvious to the British in 1877 that their Queen Victoria would be outranked by her own daughter who would someday become German Empress, the British government led by Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, conferred the additional title Empress of India by an Act of Parliament; it was also formally justified as the expression of Britain succeeding as paramount ruler of the subcontinent the former Mughal 'Padishah of Hind', using indirect rule through hundreds of princely states formally under protection, not colonies, but accepting the British Sovereign as their 'feudal' suzerain. That title was relinquished by the last Kaisar-i-Hind George VI with effect from August 15, 1947, when India was granted independence. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... “George III” redirects here. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise (21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount King, is a generic description, rarely an actual title, for a number of rulers position in relative terms, as the summit of a feudal-type pyramid of rulers of lesser polities (such as vassal princes) in a given historical and geographical context, often... History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two decades earlier the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 had stated that the United Kingdom and the dominions were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations". Along with the Statute of Westminster, 1931 this changed the way the British parliamentary monarchy ruled the overseas dominions, moving from a colonial British Empire towards a new structure for the interaction between the Commonwealth Realms and the Crown. Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 () was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that formed a significant landmark in the constitutional history of the UK and British Empire as a whole. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ...


Post-colonial emperors modeled on Europe

Post-Columbian Americas

Pedro II Emperor of Brazil in regalia at the opening of the General Assembly (oil painting by Pedro Américo).
Pedro II Emperor of Brazil in regalia at the opening of the General Assembly (oil painting by Pedro Américo).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (499x672, 133 KB)The source url for this file is http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (499x672, 133 KB)The source url for this file is http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Brazil

Brazil declared independence from Portugal in 1822, and made Dom Pedro, eldest son of the then-King of Portugal, who was acting as regent, Emperor as Pedro I on 12 October. The empire came to an end with the overthrow of Emperor Pedro II in 1889. 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Haiti

Haiti was declared an empire by its ruler, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who made himself Jacques I, in 20 May 1805. He was assassinated the next year. Haiti again became an empire from 1849 to 1859 under Faustin Soulouque. Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Portrait of Faustin Soulouque 1782-1867 Faustin-Élie Soulouque (1782? - August 6, 1867) was a career officer and general in the Haitian army. ...

The execution of Emperor Maximilian (1867) - painting by Édouard Manet.
The execution of Emperor Maximilian (1867) - painting by Édouard Manet.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1714, 400 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung Kaiser Maximilians von Mexiko en: Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico es: Ejecución del Emperador Maximiliano de México Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas es: Óleo sobre tela... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1714, 400 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung Kaiser Maximilians von Mexiko en: Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico es: Ejecución del Emperador Maximiliano de México Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas es: Óleo sobre tela... “Manet” redirects here. ...

Mexico

In Mexico, there were two short-lived attempts to create an Empire. Agustín de Iturbide, the general who helped secure Mexican independence from Spanish rule, was proclaimed Emperor Agustín I in 12 July 1822, but was overthrown the next year. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1863, the invading French under Napoleon III (see above), in alliance with Mexican conservatives, proclaimed an empire and invited Archduke Maximilian, younger brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef I, to become emperor as Maximilian I. The childless Maximilian and his consort Empress Carlota of Mexico, born a Belgian princess, also adopted Agustín's grandson as his heir to bolster his claim. After the withdrawal of French protection in 1867, Maximilian was captured and executed by liberal forces. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... Charlotte of Belgium (Princess Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine of Belgium), (June 7, 1840–January 19, 1927) as Charlotte (or Carlota), Empress of Mexico was the consort of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Central African Empire

In 1976, President Jean-Bédel Bokassa of the Central African Republic, proclaimed the country to be the Central African Empire, and made himself Emperor as Bokassa I. The expenses of his coronation ceremony actually bankrupted the country. He was overthrown three years later and the republic was restored. Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Bokassa I, also known as Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa and Jean-Bédel Bokassa (IPA: , (February 22, 1921–November 3, 1996), was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from January 1, 1966 and the emperor of the Central African Empire from December 4, 1976, until his overthrow... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ...


Chinese tradition

The East Asian tradition is different from the Roman tradition, having arisen separately. What links them together is the use of the Chinese logographs 皇 (huáng) and 帝 () which together or individually are imperial. Due to the cultural influence of China, China's neighbors adopted these titles or had their native titles conform in hanzi. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


China

see: Emperor of China
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang

In 221 BC, Ying Zheng, who was king of Qin at the time, proclaimed himself shi huangdi, which translates as "first emperor". Huangdi is composed of huang ("august one") and di ("sage-king"), and referred to legendary/mythological sage-emperors living several millennia earlier, of which three were huang and five were di. Thus Zheng became Qin Shi Huang, abolishing the system where the huang/di titles were reserved to dead and/or mythological rulers. Although not as popular, the title 王 wang (king or prince) was still used by many monarchs and dynasties in China up to the Taipings in the 19th century. 王 is pronounced vuong in Vietnamese, ou in Japanese, and wang in Korean. For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Image File history File links Qinshihuang2. ... Image File history File links Qinshihuang2. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) (November or December 260 BC - September 10, 210 BC), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the... The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from 2500 BC to 2205 BC, which is the time preceding the Xia dynasty. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5...


The imperial title continued in China until the Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1912. The title was briefly revived from December 12, 1915 to March 22, 1916 by President Yuan Shikai and again in early July, 1917 when General Zhang Xun attempted to restore last Qing emperor Puyi to the throne. Puyi retained the title and attributes of a foreign emperor, as a personal status, until 1924. After the Japanese occupied Manchuria in 1931, they proclaimed it to be the Empire of Manchukuo, and Puyi became emperor of Manchukuo. This Empire ceased to be when it was occupied by Soviet troops in 1945. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... PÇ”yí (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the Qing Dynasty... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In general, an emperor would have one empress (Huanghou, 皇后) at one time, although posthumous entitlement to empress for a concubine was not uncommon. The earliest known usage of empress was in the Han Dynasty. The emperor would generally select the empress from his harem. In subsequent dynasties, when the distinction between wife and concubine became more accentuated, the crown prince would have chosen an empress-designate before his reign. Imperial China produced only one reigning empress, Wu Zetian, and she used the same Chinese title as an emperor (Huangdi, 皇帝). Concubinage is either the state of a couple living together as lovers with no obligation created by vows, legal marriage, or religious ceremony, or the state of a woman supported by a male lover who is married to, and usually living with, someone else. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ...


Japan

See Emperor of Japan
Emperor Hirohito (裕仁), or the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), the last Japanese Emperor having ruled with extended monarchical powers, combined with claims of divinity (photographed 1926).
Emperor Hirohito (裕仁), or the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), the last Japanese Emperor having ruled with extended monarchical powers, combined with claims of divinity (photographed 1926).

In Japan, the ruler in Yamato court was called "Tennō" (天皇) (heavenly emperor), which in Western languages is equivalent to Emperor of Japan. Like in early Western tradition, the highest position of secular power was combined with the highest religious office (comparable with the Roman Emperor also being pontifex maximus) and claims of godhood (see Arahitogami). In several eras, the high-priestly role of the monarch has even been paramount, with a no more than formal secular role. For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Image File history File links Description: The Shōwa Emperor (Hirohito) at his coronation 1926 Location: Japan Source: Photographed 1926 Photographer: License status: PD File links The following pages link to this file: Hirohito User:Gryffindor/Images ... Image File history File links Description: The Shōwa Emperor (Hirohito) at his coronation 1926 Location: Japan Source: Photographed 1926 Photographer: License status: PD File links The following pages link to this file: Hirohito User:Gryffindor/Images ... Hirohito (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan who reigned from 1926 to 1989. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Arahitogami (現人神) is a Japanese word, meaning a god who is a human being. ...


Japanese monarchs placed themselves from 607 on equal footing with Chinese emperors in titulary, but rarely was the Chinese-style "Son of Heaven" term used. In the Japanese language, the word tennō is restricted to Japan's own monarch; kōtei (皇帝) is used for foreign emperors. Historically, retired emperors have kept power over a child-emperor as de facto Regent. Fairly long, a shōgun (formally the imperial generalissimo, but made hereditary) or regent wielded actual political power. In fact, through much of Japanese history, the emperor has been little more than a figurehead. To suck the phallus or penis of another. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... Cloistered Rule, also known as the Insei system, is a distinct feature of Japanese history and politics and sometimes in business. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... In Japan, the Sesshō (摂政) was a title given to a regent who was named to assist an emperor when the emperor was still a child, before the coming of age, or female. ...


After World War II, all claims of divinity were dropped (see Ningen-sengen). Parliamentary government has wielded the power, reducing the office of emperor again to a mere ceremonial function.[3] By the end of the 20th century, Japan was the only country with an emperor on the throne. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In the early 21st century, Japan succession law prevents a female from ascending to the throne. However, with the birth of a daughter as the first child of the current Crown Prince, Naruhito, Japan is considering abandoning that rule. Princess Kiko gave birth to a son on 6 September 2006, although it still uncertain if the young prince or Aiko will ascend the throne; however many believe the new prince of Japan will. Historically, Japan has had eight reigning empresses who used the genderless title Tennō, rather than the female consort title kōgō (皇后) or chūgū (中宮). There is ongoing discussion of the Japanese Imperial succession controversy. 20XX redirects here. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan 徳仁皇太子 (Naruhito Kōtaishi) (born February 23, 1960 at Togu Palace, Tokyo) is the eldest son of HIM Emperor Akihito and HIM Empress Michiko. ... Crown Prince Naruhito of Japan 徳仁皇太子 (Naruhito Kōtaishi) (born February 23, 1960 at Togu Palace, Tokyo) is the eldest son of HIM Emperor Akihito and HIM Empress Michiko. ... The Japanese Imperial succession controversy refers to the question of whether Japans laws of succession under the The Imperial Household Law of 1947 should be changed from male-only primogeniture to equal primogeniture. ...


Although current Japanese law prohibits female succession, all Japanese emperors claim to trace their lineage to Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess of the Shintō religion. The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


Korea

Some early dynasties of Korea, often considered to be legendary, used the title tanje (단제, 檀帝: tan meaning "birch", je meaning "emperor"). Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ...


Following the Chinese defeat by Japan in 1895, Korea declared its total independence from China (see Treaty of Shimonoseki) and King Gojong took the title of Daehan Hwangje, translated as 'Emperor of the Great Han'. Yeonho=Nyonho (연호, 年號, era names, a very strong indication of sovereignty vis-à-vis imperial China), were adopted on 1 January 1896. The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (광무제 光武帝 gwang mu je) (8 September 1852–21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...


The full style of the ruler (7 January 1895 - 12 October 1897) was : Taegunju P'yeha ("His Majesty the Great Monarch"), Joseon Guk-wang "King of the Choseon State"; In the Great Han Empire, since 12 October 1897, the full imperial style was Daehan Hwangje ("Emperor of Korean Empire"). is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


On 17 November 1905, the empire was declared a Japanese protectorate (effective 21 December 1905) until it came to an end with the Japanese annexation on 29 August 1910, which lasted until 15 August 1945. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Vietnam

Although the Vietnamese rulers acknowledged the supremacy of China, and were known to the Chinese emperors as simply King of Annam, domestically they took on a full Chinese-style imperial regalia in 1806 and have inconsistently used the title hoang de for a millennium though many were raised to that status posthumously so as not to antagonize relations with China. Axis-occupied Vietnam was declared an empire by the Japanese in March 1945. The line of emperors came to an end with Bao Dai, who was deposed after the war, although he later served as head of state of South Vietnam from 1949 to 1955. Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


Persian tradition

The titles below originate from the Persian titles shahanshah (king of kings) and padishah (great king). Mutual accreditation between the following monarchs and European emperors began in the 1600s. It began when the Ottoman rulers claim to being Caesars of Rome (Kayser-i-Rûm) were snubbed by the Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, and Spain (whose kings had inherited the title in pretence from Andreas Palaiologos), see translatio imperii. They colluded with envious French kings to mutually recognize each other as emperors, beginning a convention. Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... Pretense (US) or pretence (UK) may refer to: Look up pretense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andreas Palaeologus (1453 - 1503) de jure Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until death in 1503. ... Translatio imperii, Latin for transfer of rule, is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing history as a linear development: a succession of transfers of power from one supreme ruler (emperor) to the next. ...


Iran

In Persia, from the time of Darius the Great, Persian rulers used the title "King of Kings" (Shahanshah in modern Iranian) since they had dominion over peoples from India to Greece. Alexander the Great probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia [citation needed], bringing the phrase basileus toon basiloon to Greek. It is also known that Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the parthians. Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Tigranes the Great (Armenian: , EA: Tigran Mets, WA: Dikran Medz, Greek: ) (ruled 95 BCE–55 BCE) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a king of Armenia under whom the country became for a short time the strongest state in the Roman East. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...


The last shahanshah was ousted in 1979 following the Iranian revolution. Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century. Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


Ottoman Empire

Ottoman rulers held the title padishah, equivalent to the Persian shahanshah. The Ottomans frequently adopted styles from conquered peoples, presenting themselves as successors in law, such as Hakan, as well as loftier styles like sultan of sultans. After conquering the last vestige of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Mehmed II also took the title of Roman emperor (Kayser-i-Rûm). The monarchy fell in 1922. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... HÃ¥kan is a common given name in Sweden. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Indian subcontinent

The Sanskrit word for emperor is Samrāṭ (word stem: samrāj). This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Holy Rig Veda, possibly the oldest compiled book among the Indo-Europeans.


Typically, in the later Vedic age, a Hindu king (Maharajah) was only called Samrāṭ after performing the Vedic Rājasūya sacrifice, enabling him by religious tradition to claim superiority over the other kings and princes. Another word for emperor is sārvabhaumā. The title of Samrāṭ has been used by many rulers of the Indian subcontinent as claimed by the Hindu mythologies. In proper history, most historians call Chandragupta Maurya the first samrāṭ (emperor) of the Indian subcontinent, because of the huge empire he ruled. The most famous Hindu emperor was his grandson Ashoka the Great. Other dynasties that are considered imperial by the historians are the Kushanas, Guptas, Vijayanagara, Hoysala and the Cholas . Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ... Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


After India was invaded by the Mongol Khans and Turkic Muslims, the rulers of their major states on the subcontinent were titled Sultān, In this manner, the only empress-regnant ever to have actually sat on the throne of Delhi was Razia Sultan. For the episode from 1877 to 1947 when British Emperors ruled colonial India as the pearl in the crown of the British Empire, see above.


Other traditions

Ethiopia

see: Emperor of Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, the Solomonic dynasty used, beginning in 1270, the title of "[nəgusä nägäst]" which is literally "King of Kings". The use of the king of kings style began a millennium earlier in this region, however, with the title being used by the Kings of Aksum, beginning with Sembrouthes in the 3rd century. Another title used by this dynasty was "Itegue Zetopia". The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Sembrouthes was a king of Axum. ...


"Itegue" translates as Empress, and was also used by the only female reigning Empress, Zauditu, along with the official title Negiste Negest (Queen of Kings). Empress Zaiditu of Ethiopia Empress Zauditu (also known as Zawditu or Zewditu) (April 29, 1876 - April 2, 1930) was reigning Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930. ...


1936, the Italian king Victor Emmanuel III claimed the title of Emperor of Ethiopia after Ethiopia was occupied by Italy during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. After the defeat of the Italians by the British in 1941, Haile Selassie was restored to the throne but Victor Emmanuel did not relinquish his claim to the title until 1943. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Haile Selassie I (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Rastafari claimed Selassie as God incarnate before and even more so after the Second World War (see Rastafari movement) which he did not endorse, though he was sympathetic. He was deposed in 1974, the imperial title ending the next year when his son, who had succeeded him, was deposed and exiled. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Mongolia

The title Khagan (khan of khans or grand khan) was held by Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire in 1206. When the empire fragmented, the emperors of the Yuan dynasty in China (who also took the Chinese title huangdi) continued to be nominal Great Khans of the whole Mongol empire. Only the Khagans from Genghis Khan to the fall of the Yuan dynasty in China in 1368 are normally referred to as Emperors in English. Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... This article is about the title. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ...


Pre-Columbian traditions

The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas. Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman (Byzantine) emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish. Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Andreas Palaeologus (1453 - 1503) de jure Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until death in 1503. ...


Aztec Empire

The only pre-Columbian North American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Hueyi Tlatoani of the Aztec Empire (13751521). It was an elected monarchy chosen by the elite. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés slew Emperor Cuauhtémoc and installed puppet rulers who became vassals for Spain. Mexican Emperor Maximilian built his palace, Chapultepec Castle, over the ruins of an Aztec one. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy whose reigning king or queen is elected in some form. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Cuauhtémoc tortured by Hernán Cortéz This article is about the Aztec Emperor named Cuauhtémoc. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ...


Inca Empire

The only pre-Columbian South American rulers to be commonly called emperors were the Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire (14381533). Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, conquered the Inca for Spain, killed Emperor Atahualpa, and installed puppets as well. Atahualpa may actually be considered a usurper as he had achieved power by killing his half-brother and he did not perform the required coronation with the imperial crown mascaipacha by the Huillaq Uma (high priest). The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000...


Notes

  1. ^ George Ostrogorsky, "Avtokrator i samodržac", Glas Srpske kraljevske akadamije CLXIV, Drugi razdred 84 (1935), 95-187
  2. ^ Notice that, before the emergence of the modern country of Spain (beginning with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1492), the Latin word Hispania, in any of the Iberian Romance languages, either in singular or plural forms (in English: Spain or Spains), was used to refer to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, and not exclusively, as in modern usage, to the country of Spain, thus excluding Portugal.
  3. ^ Although the Emperor of Japan is classified as constitutional monarch among political scientists, the current constitution of Japan defines him only as a symbol of the nation and no law states his status as a political monarch (head of state) or otherwise.

George Alexandrovič Ostrogorsky (Russian: , also known as George Ostrogorsky; {19 January 1902 in Saint Petersburg, Russia — 24 October 1976 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia), Russian-born historian and Byzantinist who acquired world-wide reputations in Byzantinology. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...

Trivia

The last year when there was more than one emperor on the throne was 1979 with three: Japan, Iran, and the Central African Empire. The latter two were overthrown that same year. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Central African Empire was the name of the Central African Republic when president Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared himself Emperor Bokassa in 1977. ...


External links

  • Ian Mladjov's site at University of Michigan:
    • Monarchs (chronology and geneaology)
    • Monarchs (more genealogy)

See also

  • Auctoritas
  • Royal and noble ranks<math>Insert non-formatted text here</math>[[Media: == Example.ogg == == == Headline text == == == --~~~~Headline text == == == Headline text == ---- --~~~~--~~~~--~~~~--~~~~<sub><sup>Subscript text</sup><blockquote> <blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class="wikitable" |- {| class="wikitable" |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2, cell 1 | row 2, cell 2 | row 2, cell 3 |} |} </blockquote></sub> == [[Headline text]]'''''Italic text''''' == == == == ]]
  • Lists of emperorsŕ Ś ś Ú ú Ý ý Ź ź

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