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Encyclopedia > Empathy

Empathy is the capacity to recognise or understand another's state of mind or emotion. It is often characterized as the ability to "put oneself into another's shoes", or to in some way experience the outlook or emotions of another being within oneself. It may be described metaphorically as an emotional kind of resonance or mirroring. This article is about the mythical creature. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... This article is about resonance in physics. ...

Contents

Etymology

Look up Empathy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The English word empathy is derived the Greek ἐμπάθεια (empatheia), "physical affection, passion, partiality" and that from ἐν (en), "in, at" + πάθος (pathos), "feeling"[1]. The term was adapted by Theodore Lipps to create the German word Einfühlung ("feeling into") from which the English term is then more directly derived.[2] Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Look up Pathos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theodor Lipps (1851-1914) was a German philosopher. ...


Discussion

Since empathy involves understanding the emotions of other people, the way it is characterised is derivative of the way emotions themselves are characterised. If for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterised by bodily feelings, then grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy. On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterised by combinations of beliefs and desires, then grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy. For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ...


Furthermore, a distinction should be made between deliberately imagining being another person, or being in their situation, and simply recognizing their emotion. The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a sophisticated imaginative process. However the basic capacity to recognize emotions is probably innate and may be achieved unconsciously. Yet it can be trained, and achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. Look up innate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The human capacity to recognize the bodily feelings of another is related to one's imitative capacities, and seems to be grounded in the innate capacity to associate the bodily movements and facial expressions one sees in another with the proprioceptive feelings of producing those corresponding movements or expressions oneself. Humans also seem to make the same immediate connection between the tone of voice and other vocal expressions and inner feeling. See neurological basis below. // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ...


There is some debate concerning how exactly the conscious experience (or phenomenology) of empathy should be characterized. The basic idea is that by looking at the facial expressions or bodily movements of another, or by hearing their tone of voice, one may get an immediate sense of how they feel (as opposed to more intellectually noting the behavioral symptoms of their emotion).[3] Though empathic recognition is likely to involve some form of arousal in the empathiser, they may not experience this feeling as belonging to their own body, but instead likely to perceptually locate the feeling 'in' the body of the other person. Alternatively the empathiser may instead get a sense of an emotional 'atmosphere' or that the emotion belongs equally to all the parties involved.


More fully developed empathy requires more than simply recognizing another's emotional state. Since emotions are typically directed towards objects or states of affairs, the empathiser may first require some idea of what that object might be (where object can include imaginary objects, concepts, other people, or even the empathiser). Alternatively the recognition of the feeling may precede the recognition of the object of that emotion, or even aid the empathiser in discovering the object of the other's emotion. The empathiser may also need to determine how the emotional state affects the way in which the other perceives the object. For example, the empathizer needs to determine which aspects of the object to focus on. Hence it is often not enough that the empathiser recognize the object toward which the other is directed, plus the bodily feeling, and then simply add these components together. Rather the empathiser needs to find the way into the loop where perception of the object affects feeling and feeling affects the perception of the object. The following sequence of examples identifies some of the major factors in empathising with another:


I sense that:

  • Frank is feeling annoyed, (via facial, vocal or postural expression).
  • Frank is feeling annoyed due to not getting what he wants, (general object of emotion).
  • Frank is feeling annoyed because he missed his train, (particular object of emotion)
  • Frank is feeling annoyed because he missed his train, but only by a few seconds, (focus of particular object).
  • Frank is feeling annoyed because he only just missed his train and he had an important meeting to get to, (background non-psychological context).
  • Frank is feeling annoyed because he only just missed his train, and he had an important meeting and because he is generally an irritable sort of person (character traits).

Contrasting empathy with other phenomena

Empathy is distinct from sympathy, pity, emotional contagion, and telepathy. Sympathy is the feeling of compassion for another, the wish to see them better off or happier, often described as "feeling sorry" for someone. Pity is feeling that another is in trouble and in need of help as they cannot fix their problems themselves. Emotional contagion is when a person (especially an infant or a member of a mob) imitatively 'catches' the emotions that others are showing without necessarily recognizing this is happening (Hatfield et al 1994). Telepathy is not a psychological phenomenon, but a supposedly paranormal phenomenon, whereby emotions or other mental states can be read directly, without needing to infer, or perceive expressive clues about the other person. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Emotional contagion is the tendency to express and feel emotions that are similar to and influenced by those of others. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ...


Pity is, "Things are bad for you, you seem as though you need help."
Sympathy is, "I'm sorry for your sadness, I wish to help."
Emotional Contagion is, "You feel sad and now I feel sad."
Empathy is, "I recognize how you feel."
Apathy is, "I don't care how you feel. "
Telepathy is, "I read your sadness without you expressing it to me in any normal way."


Empathic development

By the age of 2, children normally begin to display the fundamental behaviors of empathy by having an emotional response that corresponds with another person. Even earlier, at one year of age, infants have some rudiments of empathy, in the sense that they understand that, just like their own actions, other people's actions have goals.[4]. Sometimes, toddlers will comfort others or show concern for them as early as 24 months of age. Also during the second year, toddlers will play games of falsehood or "pretend" in an effort to fool others, and this requires that the child know what others believe before he or she can manipulate those beliefs (Feldman, 1997). Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ...


In 1997, Douglas Olsen defined empathetic maturity as the cognitive structure that determines whether a person can feel or not feel empathy, who one feels it for and how broad a group. Differences in empathetic maturity are differences in the way a person relates self-created meaning to meaning perceived in others. Empathetic maturity provides the criteria for determining whether another will be experienced as "like me" or "different." More inclusive criteria increase the number and diversity of others who will be perceived empathetically. The highest of the hierarchical stages of empathetic maturity is the most inclusive where all others are perceived as "like me." (Olsen, 2001) There are three stages of empathetic maturity (Olsen, 2001; and Olsen, 1997):


Stage 1 – This most primitive pattern and not common in adults. Persons at this stage see others as fundamentally different from themselves. The rationales for another's actions, feelings, or thoughts are not experienced as having human relevance in the sense that one’s own rationales do. Those operating at this stage perceive mutuality with others concretely.


Stage 2 – People at Stage 2 hold that their rationales for behavior are valid for everyone. And so, reasons for behaviors and feelings are legitimate to the degree they coincide with the person at Stage 2. Unlike Stage 1, the Stage 2 person sees others like him or her so long as they make sense of their world the same way. Therefore, positive regard for a sufferer perceived to be participating in negative behaviors is difficult for the Stage 2 person unless the behavior is explicable from his or her point of view. An example of such negative behavior would be AIDS as the result of sex practices not condoned by the Stage 2 observer. If the Stage 2 person believes the sufferer is responsible for the behavior, he or she will have no empathy. If the Stage 2 person can detect an acceptable reason why the sufferer is not actually responsible, for example, illness resulted from blood tranfusion, beyond the sufferer's control, then empathy emerges. [Note: This "example" confuses empathy per se, being the ability to recreate in one's mind the emotional or cognitive state of mind of another being and so understand that other being, with the possible resulting sympathy/compassion a person feels towards a sufferer as a result of the empathy. Whether sympathy/compassion occurs clearly also depends on the empath's value judgments and understanding of what caused the suffering, but the empathy that allows the person to understand that suffering occurs is still present.] Caregivers at Stage 2 who want to feel empathetic toward their patients often try to find factors that mitigate responsibility. Most of society operates at Stage 2.


Stage 3 – At this stage, mutuality occurs prior to any judgment about the person's behavior. The other is perceived as human in the same way the self is experienced, based solely on being a creator of meaning rather than on the content of the meanings created. The perception of another person as responsible for a problem no longer has the power to hinder the development of empathy. If the sufferer is seen as responsible, there is no longer any need to mitigate that responsibility as a method for allowing empathy. A hallmark of Stage 3 is a person's ability to perceive another empathetically while simultaneously and without apparent contradiction perceiving that other as responsible for problematic behavior.


Neurological basis

Research in recent years has focused on possible brain processes as concomitant with empathy (Preston & de Waal, 2002). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has recently been employed to investigate the functional anatomy of empathy (for reviews see Decety & Jackson, 2006; Decety & Lamm, 2006; deVignemont & Singer, 2006). These studies have shown that observing another person’s emotional state activates parts of the neuronal network involved in processing that same state in oneself, whether it is disgust (Wicker et al., 2003), touch (Keysers et al., 2004), or pain (Morrison et al., 2004; Jackson et al., 2005, 2006; Lamm et al., 2007; Singer et al., 2004, 2006).


The study of empathic neuronal circuitries was inspired by the discovery of mirror neurons in monkeys that fire both when the creature watches another perform an action as well as when they themselves perform it presents a possible neural mechanism for mapping others' feelings onto one's own nervous system. Based on some of this work, the simulation theory of empathy has been developed. Locations of mirror neurons A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. ...


Lack of empathy

Some psychologists, psychiatrists, and other scientists believe that not all humans have an ability to feel empathy or perceive the emotions of others. For instance, Autism and related conditions such as Asperger's syndrome are often (but not always) characterized by an apparent reduced ability to empathize with others. The interaction between empathy and autism spectrum disorders is a complex and ongoing field of research, and is discussed in detail below. A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ...


According to recent fMRI studies[5] the syndrome of alexithymia, a condition in which an individual is rendered incapable of recognising and articulating emotional arousal in self or others, is responsible for a severe lack of emotional empathy.[6] The lack of empathetic attunement inherent to alexithymic states may reduce quality[7] and satisfaction[8] of relationships. Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ...


According to Simon Baron-Cohen's ideas, an absence of empathy might also be related to an absence of theory of mind (i.e., the ability to model another's world view using either a theory-like analogy between oneself and others, or the ability to simulate pretend mental states and then apply the consequences of these simulations to others). Again with regard to autism, not all autistics fit this pattern, and the theory remains controversial, and does not differentiate between cognitive empathy and affective empathy, nor do autistic people lack compassion. Francesca Happe showed that autistic children who demonstrate a lack of theory of mind (cognitive empathy) lack theory of mind for self as well as for others [9]. Simon Baron-Cohen is a British professor of developmental psychopathology in the departments of psychiatry and experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and director of the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ...


In contrast, psychopaths are seemingly able to demonstrate the appearance of sensing the emotions of others with such a theory of mind, often demonstrating care and friendship in a convincing manner, and can use this ability to charm or manipulate, but they crucially lack the sympathy or compassion that empathy often leads to. However, it has been claimed that components of circuitry involved in empathy may also be dysfunctional in psychopathy (Tunstall N., Fahy T. and McGuire P. in: Guide to Neuroimaging in Psychiatry, Eds. Fu C et al, Martin Dunitz: London 2003). Empathy certainly does not guarantee benevolence. The same ability may underlie schadenfreude (taking pleasure in the pain of another entity) and sadism (being sexually gratified through the infliction of pain or humiliation on another person).[citation needed] See Also: Antisocial Personality Disorder Theoretically, psychopathy is a three-faceted disorder involving interpersonal, affective and behavioral characteristics. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ...


Empathy and autism spectrum disorders

A common source of confusion in analyzing the interactions between empathy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is that the apparent lack of empathy may mask at least two other underlying causes: The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. ...

  • Excessive sensitivity or "overwhelm," may be a cause of early learned suppression.[10]
  • Failure to demonstrate empathy can arise from inability (or not knowing how) to express empathy to others, as opposed to difficulty feeling it, internally.

With these possible exceptions noted, one would be grossly misled to infer that individuals with ASD's are generally exceptional empathizers when, quite to the contrary, research indicates the reverse. Research suggests that many ASD individuals have a lack of theory of mind[11] (ToM) and alexithymia (85% of those with ASD's have alexithymia),[12] both of which conditions involve severe deficits in the individual's ability to be empathetically attuned to others. Alexithymia involves not just the inability to verbally express emotions, but specifically the inability to identify emotional states in self or others.[13] However, research by Rogers et al. suggests that empathy needs to be differentiated between cognitive empathy and affective empathy in people with Asperger syndrome, suggesting autistic individuals have less developed understanding of the feeling of others, but demonstrate equally much empathy when aware of others state of mind, and respond more to stress experienced by other people than non-autistic people.[14] The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ... Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ...


Dapretto et al. (2006) found that, relative to typically developing children, high-functioning children with autism showed reduced mirror neuron activity in the brain's inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) while imitating and observing emotional expressions. The authors suggest this supports the hypothesis that a dysfunctional mirror neuron system may underlie the social deficits observed in autism. For Frontal gyrys, see: inferior frontal gyrus middle frontal gyrus superior frontal gyrus This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Practical issues

Empathic methods

Proper empathetic engagement is supposed to help to understand and anticipate the behavior of the other. Apart from the automatic tendency to recognise the emotions of others, one may also deliberately engage in empathic reasoning. Two general methods have been identified here (e.g. Goldie 2000).

  • simulate 'pretend' versions of the beliefs, desires, character traits and context of the other and see what emotional feelings this leads to;
  • simulate the emotional feeling and then look around for a suitable reason for this to fit.

Empathic accuracy

Some research suggests that people are more able and willing to empathize with those most similar to themselves. In particular, empathy increases with similarities in culture and living conditions. We are also more likely to empathize with those with whom we interact more frequently (See Levenson and Reuf 1997 and Hoffman 2000: 62).


A measure of how well a person can infer the specific content of another person's thoughts and feelings has been developed by William Ickes (1997, 2003). Ickes and his colleagues have developed a video-based method to measure empathic accuracy and have used this method to study the empathic inaccuracy of maritally aggressive and abusive husbands, among other topics.


In general, there are concerns that the empathiser's own emotional background may affect or distort what emotions they perceive in others (e.g. Goleman 1996: p. 104). Empathy is not a process that is likely to deliver certain judgements about the emotional states of others. It is a skill that is gradually developed throughout life, and which improves the more contact we have with the person with whom we empathise. Accordingly, any knowledge we gain of the emotions of the other must be revisable in light of further information.


Ethical issues

It should be noted that the extent to which a person's emotions are publicly observable, or mutually recognised as such has significant social conseqences. Empathic recognition may or may not be welcomed or socially desirable. This is particularly the case where we recognise the emotions that someone has towards ourselves during real time interactions. Based on a metaphorical affinity with touch, Philosopher Edith Wyschogrod claims that the proximity entailed by empathy increases the potential vulnerability of either party.[15]


The appropriate role of empathy in our dealings with others is highly dependent on the circumstances. For instance, it is claimed that clinicians or caregivers must take care not to be too sensitive to the emotions of others, to over-invest their own emotions, at the risk of draining away their own resourcefulness. Furthmore an awareness of the limitations of empathic accuracy is prudent in a caregiving situation. Caregiver may refer to: A voluntary caregiver An assisted living situation A nursing home A hospice care situation This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Intense Empathy

In addition to the above use, the term empathy is also used by some people to signify their heightened or higher sensitivity to the emotions and state of others. Empathy may be here conceptualised as the ability to fully "read" another person, completely translating each movement into understandable conversation. This, reportedly, can lead to both positive aspects such as a more skilled instinct for what is "behind the scenes" with people, but also to difficulties such as rapid over-stimulation, or overwhelming stress caused by an inability to protect oneself from this so-called 'pick-up'. Such people may for example find crowds stressful simply due to picking up what is often described as "white noise" or multiple emotions as they pass through it, a phenomenon not to be confused with agoraphobia and sometimes informally known as crowd-sickness. A recurrent theme of discussion on such websites relates to the impact upon individuals, and therefore also methods (including mental practices, emotional processes and ritual) which anecdotally can help reduce the intensity of empathic reactions to others' feelings to a more bearable level (informally called 'shielding' or emotional detachment). --76. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Emotional detachment, in psychology, can mean two different things. ...


Empathy in this sense is ascribed by such people to various mechanisms. These include simply more sophisticated subconscious processing of sensory cues or stronger emotional feedback than the norm, (i.e. the normal human experience but more so), and therefore fit within present models. Some people, perhaps due to synesthesia, believe it instead to be a direct emotional sense or a feel for others' "energy". The New Age religion(s) have constructed belief systems around anecdotal evidence of persons who claim to be empaths in this sense. This aspect of empathy is not clinically recognized, and someone calling themselves an "empath" usually does not intend to imply that they are gifted with any psychic ability. For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Empathy is awareness of the thoughts, feelings, or states of mind of others, perhaps by means of some degree of vicarious experience of others feelings or mental states. ... Psionics is a term used mostly in fiction and games to denote a variety of paranormal psychic abilities, especially those that are under a persons conscious control. ...


In general empathy may be painful to oneself: seeing the pain of others, especially as broadcasted by mass media, can cause one temporary or permanent clinical depression; a phenomenon which is sometimes called weltschmerz. However, since a basic emotional understanding of others is an important pre-requisite of human relationships, subjects face a dilemma to protect oneself from the pain of empathy or seek to relate to other humans despite the potential risk of injury. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Look up Weltschmerz in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Disciplinary approaches to empathy

Empathy and psychotherapy

Heinz Kohut is the main introducer of the principle of empathy in psychoanalysis. His principle applies to the method of gathering unconscious material. The possibility of not applying the principle is granted in the cure. For instance when you must reckon with another principle, that of reality. Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ...


Developing skills of empathy is often a central theme in the recovery process for drug addicts.[citation needed]


Empathy and evolutionary psychology

In evolutionary psychology, attempts at explaining pro-social behavior often mention the presence of empathy in the individual as a possible variable. Although exact motives behind complex social behaviors are difficult to distinguish, the "ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and experience events and emotions the way that person experienced them" is the definitive factor for truly altruistic behavior according to Batson's empathy-altruism hypothesis. If empathy is not felt, social exchange (what's in it for me?) supersedes pure altruism, but if empathy is felt, an individual will help regardless of whether it is in their self-interest to do so and even if the costs outweigh potential rewards.[16]


Empathy and education

An important target by the method Learning by teaching (LdL) is to train systematically and in each lesson the students-empathy. They have to transmit new contents to the classmates, so they have to reflect continuously on the mental processes by the other students in the classroom. This way - in addition - it is possible to develop step by step the students-feeling for group-reactions and networking. In professional education learning by teaching designates a method which centers on student voice, allowing pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. ...


Empathy and animals

Some students of animal behavior claim that empathy is not restricted to humans as the definition implies. Examples include dolphins saving humans (sympathy) from drowning or from shark attacks, and a multitude of behaviors observed in primates, both in captivity and in the wild. See, for instance, the popular book The Ape and the Sushi Master by Frans de Waal. Rodents have been shown to demonstrate empathy for cagemates (but not strangers) in pain.[17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Popular science book The Ape and the Sushi Master, by Frans de Waal, is an overview of animal behavior and psychology, with emphasis on primates. ... Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ...


Furthermore people can empathize with animals. As such, empathy is thought to be a driving psychological force behind the animal rights movement (an example of sympathy), whether or not using empathy is justified by any real similarity between the emotional experiences of animals and humans.[citation needed] A man holds a monkey by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ...


Empathy and fiction

Some philosophers (such as Martha Nussbaum) suggest that novel reading cultivates readers' empathy and leads them to exercise better world citizenship. For a critique of this application of the empathy-altruism hypothesis to experiences of narrative empathy, see Keen's Empathy and the Novel (Oxford, 2007). Empathy is awareness of the thoughts, feelings, or states of mind of others, perhaps by means of some degree of vicarious experience of others feelings or mental states. ...


In some works of science fiction and fantasy, empathy is understood to be a paranormal or psychic ability to sense the emotions of others, as opposed to telepathy, which allows one to perceive thoughts as well. A person who has that ability is also called an "empath" or "telempath" in this context. Occasionally these empaths are also able to project their own emotions, or to affect the emotions of others. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ...


Empathy and history

Some postmodern historians such as Keith Jenkins in recent years have debated whether or not it is possible to empathise with people from the past. Jenkins argues that empathy only enjoys such a privileged position in the present because it corresponds harmoniously with the dominant Liberal discourse of modern society and can be connected to John Stuart Mill's concept of reciprocal freedom. Jenkins argues the past is a foreign country and as we do not have access to the epistemological conditions of bygone ages we are unable to empathise.[18] The reader will not be astonished at the conclusive issue about empathy and history. Only events and their products meet or not empathy. It is impossible to forecast the effect of empathy on the future. We can pay attention to the means of language of telling events. We above checked a contemporary subject may not take part in the past. A past subject may take part in the present by the so-called historic present. If we watch from a fictitious past, can tell the present with the future tense, as it happens with the trick of the false prophecy. There is no way of telling the present with the means of the past.[19] The way of making the study of empathy functional is still long. Keith Jenkins is one of Britains leading dudes of postmodern history. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ...


Empathy and moral theory

In research published in 2007 in the book "The Ethics of Care and Empathy," Philosopher Michael Slote introduces a theory of care based ethics that is grounded in empathy. His claim is that moral motivation does, and should stem from a basis of empathic response. He claims that our natural reaction to situations of moral significance are explained by empathy. He explains that the limits and obligations of empathy and in turn morality are natural. These natural obligations include a greater empathic, and moral obligation to family and friends, along with an account of temporal and physical distance. In situations of close temporal and physical distance, and with family or friends, our moral obligation seems stronger to us than with strangers at a distance naturally. Slote explains that this is due to empathy and our natural empathic ties. He further adds that actions are wrong if and only if they reflect or exhibit a deficiency of fully developed empathic concern for others on the part of the agent.


Empathy and music

The metaphor of musical resonance reinforces certain ideas around empathy that are often misconstrued. Gauss, suggests that, “In popular usage the idea refers to the emotional resonance between two people, when, like strings tuned to the same frequency, each responds in perfect sympathy to the other and each reinforces the responses of the other”[20]


However, within the musical semantic universe, the better metaphor is that of overtones and undertones, by which an instrument incapable of replicating a particular frequency (pitch) a nevertheless resonate with pitches sharing certain harmonic structures. Harmonic resonance, unlike pitch replication, suggests appropriate differentiation between the two instruments, between model and beholder, while retaining a sense that some accuracy is required.


Interestingly, one Chinese translation for empathy contains the two characters not for the replication of pitch, but for harmonic resonance. This Chinese translation aligns with the forms of empathy which arise intuitively or non-cognitively.[citation needed]


Notable theorists of empathy

  • Edith Stein: Empathy… is the experience of foreign consciousness in general[21]
  • Heinz Kohut: Empathy is the capacity to think and feel oneself into the inner life of another person.[22]
  • Nancy Eisenberg: An affective response that stems from the apprehension or comprehension of another’s emotional state or condition, and that is similar to what the other person is feeling or would be expected to feel[23]
  • Roy Schafer: Empathy involves the inner experience of sharing in and comprehending the momentary psychological state of another person.[24]
  • D. M. Berger: The capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person, the capacity to sample the feelings of another or to put oneself in another’s shoes.[25]
  • R. R. Greenson: To empathize means to share, to experience the feelings of another person.[26]
  • Wynn Schwartz: "We recognize others as empathic when we feel that they have accurately acted on or somehow acknowledged in stated or unstated fashion our values or motivations, our knowledge, and our skills or competence, but especially as they appear to recognize the significance of our actions in a manner that we can tolerate their being recognized."[27]
  • Carl Rogers: To perceive the internal frame of reference of another with accuracy and with the emotional components and meanings which pertain thereto as if one were the person, but without ever losing the "as if" condition. Thus, it means to sense the hurt or the pleasure of another as he senses it and to perceive the causes thereof as he perceives them, but without ever losing the recognition that it is as if I were hurt or pleased and so forth.[28]
  • Jean Decety: a sense of similarity in feelings experienced by the self and the other, without confusion between the two individuals.[29]
  • Martin Hoffman: An affective response more appropriate to another's situation than one's own.[30]

Edith Stein (October 12, 1891 – August 9, 1942) was a German philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ... // When telling a lifestory it is always possible to develop and communicate meaning in more than one way. ... For other persons named Carl Rogers, see Carl Rogers (disambiguation). ... Jean Decety Jean Decety is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the College at the University of Chicago. ... Martin Hoffman is currently serving as a professor of psychology at NYU. His work largely has to do with the development of empathy, and its relationship with moral development. ...

See also

In psychology, affect display or affective display is a subjects externally displayed affect. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Introjection is a psychological process where the subject replicates in itself behaviors, attributes or other fragments of the surrounding world, especially of other subjects. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a mental disorder defined by the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual: The essential feature for the diagnosis is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... Emotional Intelligence (EI), often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ), describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of others, and of groups. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Emotional intelligence. ... Emotional competence refers to a persons competence in expressing or releasing their emotions. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... John D. Mayer is a psychologist at the University of New Hampshire. ... Dr. Marshall B. Rosenberg, born in 1934, to Jewish parents: Jean (Weiner) Rosenberg and Fred Rosenberg. ... Peter Salovey is a psychologist currently working at Yale University. ... Daniel Goleman (born March 7, 1946) is an internationally renouned author, psychologist, science journalist and corporate consultant. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Empatheia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  2. ^ Preston, Stephanie D. and Frans B. M. de Waal. 2002. Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25: 1-72.
  3. ^ See for instance Austin (1979).
  4. ^ Terje Falck-Ytter, Gustaf Gredebäck & Claes von Hofsten, Infants predict other people's action goals, Nature Neuroscience 9 (2006)
  5. ^ Moriguchi, Y., Decety, J., Ohnishi, T., Maeda, M., Matsuda, H., & Komaki, G. Empathy and judging other’s pain: An fMRI study of alexithymia. Cerebral Cortex (2007); Bird, J., Silani, G., Brindley, R., Singer, T., Frith, U., and Frith, C. Alexithymia In Autistic Spectrum Disorders: and fMRI Investigation (2006)  : and Bird, G., Silani, G., Brindley, R., Singer, T., Frith, U & C. Alexithymia in Autism Spectrum Disorders: an fMRI Investigation (2006).
  6. ^ Moriguchi, Y., Decety, J., Ohnishi, T., Maeda, M., Matsuda, H., & Komaki, G. Empathy and judging other’s pain: An fMRI study of alexithymia. Cerebral Cortex (2007); Bird, J., Silani, G., Brindley, R., Singer, T., Frith, U., and Frith, C. Alexithymia In Autistic Spectrum Disorders: and fMRI Investigation (2006)  : and Bird, G., Silani, G., Brindley, R., Singer, T., Frith, U & C. Alexithymia in Autism Spectrum Disorders: an fMRI Investigation (2006).
  7. ^ Brackett et al - 'Emotional Intelligence and Relationship Quality Among Couples' in Personal Relationships, 12 (2005) p.197-212 [1]
  8. ^ Yelsma, P., Marrow, S. - 'An Examination of Couples' Difficulties With Emotional Expressiveness and Their Marital Satisfaction' in Journal of Family Communication 3 (2003) p.41-62 [2]
  9. ^ IMFAR 2007 abstract http://www.autism-insar.org/docs/IMFAR2007_Program.pdf
  10. ^ This is cited by Phoebe Caldwell, an author on ASD, who writes: What is clear is that, while people on the spectrum may not respond easily to external gestures/sounds, they do respond most readily if the initiative they witness is already part of their repertoire. This points to the selective use of incoming information rather than absence of recognition. It would appear that people with autism are actually rather good at recognition and imitation if the action they perceive is one that has meaning and significance for their brains. As regards the failure of empathetic response, it would appear that at least some people with autism are oversensitive to the feelings of others rather than immune to them, but cannot handle the painful feed-back that this initiates in the body, and have therefore learnt to suppress this facility. ("Letters", London Times, Dec 30 2005)
  11. ^ Beaumont, R. and Newcombe, P. (2006) Theory of mind and central coherence in adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome, Autism: The International Journal of Research & Practice 10.(4) 365-382
  12. ^ Hill, E., Berthoz, S., & Frith, U (2004) 'Brief report: cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives.' Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34, (2) 229-235.
  13. ^ Taylor, G.J. and Bagby, R.M & Parker, J.D.A. Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in Medical and Psychiatric Illness. (1997) Cambridge Uni. Press.
  14. ^ Rogers K, Dziobek I, Hassenstab J, Wolf OT, Convit A. Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Apr;37(4):709-15.
  15. ^ Wyschogrod, E. 1981. Empathy and sympathy as tactile encounter. J Med Philos 6 (1):25-43
  16. ^ Aronson, Elliot; Wilson Timothy D., and Akert, Robin (2007). Social Psychology, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0132382458. 
  17. ^ Dale J. Langford, Sara E. Crager, Zarrar Shehzad, Shad B. Smith, Susana G. Sotocinal, Jeremy S. Levenstadt, Mona Lisa Chanda, Daniel J. Levitin, Jeffrey S. Mogil (June 30, 2006). "Social Modulation of Pain as Evidence for Empathy in Mice". Science 312: 1967–1970. doi:10.1126/science.1128322. PMID 16809545. 
  18. ^ Jenkins, K. (1991) Re-thinking History London: Routledge
  19. ^ Pozzi, G. (1976) Prefazione 6.L'elemento storico e politico -sociale, in G.B. Marino, L'Adone Milano
  20. ^ Gauss, Charles Edward. 1973. Empathy. In Dictionary of the history of ideas: Studies of selected pivotal ideas, edited by P. P. Wiener. New York: Scribner. 85-89.
  21. ^ Stein, E. (1989). On the problem of empathy, p. 11. Washington: ICS Publications. (Original work published 1917)
  22. ^ Kohut, Heinz; Goldberg, Arnold, and Stepansky, Paul E.. How Does Analysis Cure?. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226450341. 
  23. ^ Eisenberg, N. (2002). Empathy-related emotional responses, altruism, and their socialization. In R. J. Davidson & A. Harrington (Eds.). Visions of compassion: Western scientists and Tibetan Buddhists examine human nature. (pp. 135; 131-164). London: Oxford University Press.
  24. ^ Schafer, R. (1959). Generative empathy in the treatment situation. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 28, pp. 345; 342-373.
  25. ^ Berger, D. M. (1987). Clinical empathy. Northvale: Jason Aronson, Inc.
  26. ^ Greenson, R. R. (1960). "Empathy and its vicissitudes". International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 41, pp. 418; 418-424
  27. ^ Schwartz, W.,(2002) "From passivity to competence: A conceptualization of knowledge, skill, tolerance, and empathy". Psychiatry 65(4) pp. 338-345.
  28. ^ Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of science, (Vol. 3, pp. 210-211; 184-256). New York: Mc Graw Hill.
  29. ^ (Decety, J., & Jackson, P.L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71-100.
  30. ^ Hoffman, Martin (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521012973. 

For other uses, see Times. ... Elliot Aronson Elliot Aronson is an eminent American psychologist, best known for his Jigsaw Classroom experiments, cognitive dissonance research, and bestselling Social Psychology textbooks. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Professor Daniel J. Levitin, (born December 27, 1957, San Francisco) is an American cognitive psychologist, neuroscientist, record producer, musician, and writer. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Best known for his development of Self Psychology, a school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory, psychiatrist Heinz Kohuts contributions transformed the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches. ... Martin Hoffman is currently serving as a professor of psychology at NYU. His work largely has to do with the development of empathy, and its relationship with moral development. ...

Bibliography

  • Austin, J. L. (1979). 'Other Minds'. In Philosophical Papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 76-116.
  • Batson, C. D., Håkansson Eklund, J., Chermok, V. L., Hoyt, J. L., & Ortiz, B. G. (2007). An additional antecedent of empathic concern: Valuing the welfare of the person in need. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 65-74.
  • B. Bower "Goal-oriented brain cells: neurons may track action as a prelude to empathy" in Science News, April 30, 2005
  • Corazza, Eros (2004). "Empathy, Imagination, and Reports". Chapter 7 in Reflecting the Mind - Indexicality and Quasi-Indexicality. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Currie, Greg (2004). "Anne Brontë and the uses of imagination". Chapter 9 in Arts and Minds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Currie, Greg & Ravenscroft, Ian (2002). Recreative Minds: Imagination in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Dapretto, M. et al. (2006). Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 28-30.
  • Davis, Mark H. (1996). Empathy: A Social-Psychological Approach. Westview.
  • Decety, J., & Jackson, P.L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71-100.
  • Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2006). Human empathy through the lens of social neuroscience. The Scientific World Journal, 6, 1146–1163.
  • Feldman, R.S. (1997). Development across the life span. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Goldie, Peter (2000). The Emotions, A Philosophical Exploration. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Håkansson, J., & Montgomery, H. (2003). Empathy as an interpersonal phenomenon. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20(3), 267-284.
  • Hoffman, M. L. (1978), "Empathy, Its Development and Prosocial Implications", in C. B. Keasey (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 25: 169-218.
  • Hoffman, M. L. (2000), Empathy and Moral Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ickes, W. (Ed.) (1997). Empathic Accuracy. Guilford Press, New York.
  • Ickes, W. (2003). Everyday Mind Reading: Understanding What Other People Think and Feel. Prometheus Books.
  • Jackson, P.L., Brunet, E., Meltzoff, A.N., & Decety, J. (2006). Empathy examined through the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you feel pain: An event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 44, 752-61.
  • Keen, Suzanne (2007). Empathy and the Novel. Oxford University Press.
  • Lamm, C., Batson, C.D., & Decety, J. (2007). The neural basis of human empathy – Effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 42-58.
  • Lampert, K.(2005); Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan; ISBN 1-4039-8527-8
  • Levenson, R. W. and Reuf, A. M. (1997), "Physiological Aspects of Emotional Knowledge and Rapport", in W. Ickes (Ed.), Empathic Accuracy (New York: Guilford), 44-72.
  • Rose Rosetree (2001), "Empowered by Empathy". Women's Intuition Worldwide, ISBN 0-9651145-8-9.
  • Stein, Edith (1917), "On the problem of empathy". ICS Publications, Washington, 1989, ISBN 0-935216-11-1
  • Evan Thompson (ed.)(2001), "Between Ourselves. Second-Person Issues in the Study of Consciousness", Imprint Academic, 2001 ISBN 0 907845 14 2; Journal of Consciousness studies, 8, number 5-7, 2001 ISSN 1355 8250
  • Slote, Michael (2007). "The Ethics of Care and Empathy."

External links

  • Evolutionary Aspects of Love and Empathy
  • The Joys and Pitfalls of Being an Empath
  • News about empathy
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Empathy
  • Empathic listening skills How to listen so others will feel heard, or listening first aid (University of California). Download a one hour seminar on empathic listening and attending skills.
  • Literature about empathy Articles, books, and book chapters about empathy
  • Empathy as a basic brain function (New Scientist, 2004)
  • IQ is Only Half The Picture: Cultivating your Child's Emotional Intelligence
  • To hear a definition of empathy given by Marshall Rosenberg (Nonviolent communication), through a parallel between empathy and surf.
  • The Empathy Symbol Just like the peace symbol, there is now an empathy symbol.
  • Exploring the phenomenon of empathy Doctoral Dissertation
  • Empathize Empathize promotes the use of cooperative learning in schools as well as the building of schools in Cyprus and Jerusalem for the children of opposing governments.
  • The Paradox of Empathy Discussion about whether it is possible to empathize with another.
  • The Swedish Empathy Center Organizes knowledge about empathy across disciplines
  • Greater Good magazine article examines human empathy Articles about empathy
  • Study: People Literally Feel Pain of Others - mirror-touch synesthesia Live Science, 17 June 2007
Nonviolent communication (NVC) is a process developed by Marshall Rosenberg and others which people use to communicate with greater compassion and clarity. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... This is a list of emotions. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... Alertness is the the process of paying close and continuous attention. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from ones conscious thinking. ... Anticipation is an emotion involving pleasure (and sometimes anxiety) in considering some expected or longed-for good event, or irritation at having to wait. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... For other uses, see Contempt (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up desire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Disappointment is the emotion felt when a strongly held expectation of something desired is not met. ... A woman showing disgust. ... This article is about the mental state. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... For other uses, see Emptiness (disambiguation). ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a feeling, for other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gratification is the positive emotional response (happiness) to a fulfillment of desire. ... For other uses, see Gratitude (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the emotion. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Look up despair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Hostile redirects here. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Inspiration in artistic composition refers to an irrational and unconscious burst of creativity. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... A demon sating his lust in a 13th century manuscript Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification and excitement. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Rage, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Rage, in psychiatry, is a mental state that is one extreme of the intensity spectrum of anger. ... Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Righteous indignation is an emotion one feels when one gets angry over perceived mistreatment, insult, or malice. ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... In humans, shyness is the feeling of apprehension or lack of confidence experienced in regard to social association with others, e. ... ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses, see Surprise. ...

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