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Encyclopedia > Emotional intelligence

Emotional Intelligence (EI), often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ), describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. As a relatively new area of psychological research, the definition of EI is constantly changing. Look up ability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ability - the quality of person of being able to perform; A quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. ... A group of people share a range of qualities and characteristics which signifies it from other groups. ...


Origins of the concept

The distal roots of EI can be traced back to Darwin ’s (1872/ 1965) early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation[1]. In the 1900's, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E. L. Thorndike at Columbia University, used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. [2]
For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism. ... There are various types of intelligence. ...

Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors.[1] In 1975, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences [3] introduced the idea of Multiple Intelligences which included both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner's view, traditional types intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability [4]. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes.
David Wechsler (January 12, 1896, Lespedi, Romania - May 2, 1981, New York, New York) was a leading Romanian-American psychologist. ... It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory proposed by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983. ...

The first explicit application of the term "Emotional Intelligence" is mostly attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A study of emotion: Developing emotional intelligence from 1985 [5]. Payne, however, did not publish his theory, so the article published in 1990 by Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer (1990) is generally regarded as the first systematic theoretical account of the construct. [6]

As a result of the growing acknowledgement of professionals for the importance and relevance of emotions to work outcomes [7], the research on the topic continued to gain momentum, but it wasn’t until the publication of Daniel Goleman's best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ that the term became widely popularized. [8]. Nancy Gibbs' 1995 Time magazine article highlighted Goleman's book and was the first in a string of mainstream media interest in EI [9]. Thereafter, articles on EI began to appear with increasing frequency across a wide range of academic and popular outlets. Daniel Goleman (born March 7, 1946) is an internationally renouned author, psychologist, science journalist and corporate consultant. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Defining emotional intelligence

There are a lot of arguments about the definition of EI, arguments that regard both terminology and operationalizations. The first published attempt toward a definition was made by Salovey and Mayer (1990) who defined EI as “the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions” [10]
Despite this early definition, there has been confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. The definitions are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly, that researchers are constantly amending even their own definitions of the construct. [11]. Up to the present day, there are three main models of EI: Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... Operationalization is the process of converting concepts into specific observable behaviors that a researcher can measure. ...

The ability - based model

Mayer and Salovey's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions, and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth" [12].

The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment [13]. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. The model proposes that EI includes 4 types of abilities: [12]
The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  1. Perceiving emotions - the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible.
  2. Using emotions - the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.
  3. Understanding emotions - the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.
  4. Managing emotions - the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.

A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... A mood is a relatively lasting emotional or affective state. ...

Measurement of the ability - based model

Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures might overlap, most researchers agree that they tap slightly different constructs. The current measure of Mayer and Salovey’s model of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) involves a series of emotion-based problem solving items[13]. Consistent with the model's notion of EI as a type of intelligence, the test is modeled off of ability-based IQ tests. By testing a person’s abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence, it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score.
For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... IQ tests are designed to give approximately this Gaussian distribution. ...

Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. Therefore, the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion, with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual’s answers and those provided by a world wide sample of thousands of respondents. The MSCEIT can also be expert scored, so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual’s answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers[13].
In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... Consensus Based Assessment expands on the common practice of consensus decision-making and the theoretical observation that expertise can be closely approximated by large numbers of novices or journeymen. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Although promoted as an ability test, the MSCEIT is most unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses. Among other problems, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents can solve, because, by definition, responses are deemed emotionally 'intelligent' only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. This and other similar problems have led cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence.

Mixed models of EI

The Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

The EI model introduced by Daniel Goleman [14] focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive managerial performance, measured by multi-rater assessment and self-assessment (Bradberry and Greaves, 2005). In Working with Emotional Intelligence (1998), Goleman explored the function of EI on the job, and claimed EI to be the largest single predictor of success in the workplace, with more recent confirmation of these findings on a worldwide sample seen in Bradberry and Greaves, "The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book" (2005)..
Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: [14] In human resources, 360-degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment, is employee development feedback that comes from all around the employee. ...

  1. Self-awareness - the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions.
  2. Self-management - involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.
  3. Social awareness - the ability to sense, understand, and react to other's emotions while comprehending social networks.
  4. Relationship management - the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict.

Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies.[15]
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... Italic text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. ... Emotional competence refers to a persons competence in expressing or releasing their emotions. ...

Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

Measurement tools based on Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence include the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI[15]) and the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment (Bradberry and Greaves, 2005) (EIA[16]).

The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)

Psychologist Reuven Bar-On (2006) developed one of the first measures of EI that used the term "Emotion Quotient". He defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands [17]. Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy [1]. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average E.Q.’s are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. Problems in coping with one’s environment is thought, by Bar-On, to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person’s general intelligence, which then offers an indication of one’s potential to succeed in life [1]
In psychology, coping is the process of managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize, reduce or tolerate stress or conflict. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a widely accepted but controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ...

Measurement of the ESI Model

The Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. The EQ-i is not meant to measure of personality traits or cognitive capacity, but rather to measure one’s ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures [1]. One hundred and thirty three items are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotion Quotient) and to produce five composite scales corresponding to the 5 main components of the Bar-On model.The major problem with this model and test is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items.

The Trait EI model

Petrides and Furnham (2000a) proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI[18]. Trait EI (or ‘trait emotional self-efficacy’) refers to "a constellation of behavioral dispositions and self-perceptions concerning one’s ability to recognize, process, and utilize emotion-laden information". This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities as they express themselves in performance based measures. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. [19]
Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Overall personality tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. ... Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. ... A Self-report inventory is a type of psychological test in which a patient fills out a survey or questionaire with or without the help of a mental health professional. ... Know Your Personality - a poster describing some of the theoretical aspects in the personality research. ...

This conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it [18]. The trait EI model is represented (often incorrectly) in dozens of peer-reviewed publications in the scientific literature. Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Measurement of the Trait EI model

There are many self-report measures of EI, including the EQi, the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), the Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence Assessment (SEI), the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), a test by Tett, Fox, and Wang (2005). From the perspective of the trait EI model, none of these assess intelligence, abilities, or skills (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited measures of trait emotional self-efficacy (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is an open-access measure that was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is currently available in 15 languages.

The TEIQue provides an operationalization for Petrides and colleagues' model that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality [20]. The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a recent study on a French-Speaking Population, where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable[21].
The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... For other uses, see Self control (disambiguation). ... Emotionality is the physiological component of anxiety, and can manifest itself as muscle tension, elevated heart rate, sweating, feeling sick and shaking. ... Sociability is the ability to be fond of the company of others, people who are sociable are inclined to conversating with others. ... Probability density function of Gaussian distribution (bell curve). ... In statistics, reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or measuring instrument. ...

The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven’s matrices), which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). As expected, TEIQue scores were positively related to some personality dimensions (optimism, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others(alexithymia, neuroticism); TEIQue scores were also found to be related to socially desirable responding. The cover of a test booklet for Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices Ravens Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Ravens Matrices) are multiple choice tests of abstract reasoning, originally developed by Dr John C. Raven in 1938. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... The personality trait of agreeableness reflects individual differences in the extent to which people are concerned with cooperation and social harmony. ... Openness to experience is a capacity within oneself to apprehend, absorb, and appreciate the world in its multitude of aspects and dimension. ... Conscientiousness is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of being in accord with the dictates of ones conscience. ... Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ... For the band, see Neurotic (band). ... Social desirability bias is the inclination to present oneself in a manner that will be viewed favourably by others. ...

Alexithymia and EI

Alexithymia from the Greek words λέξις and θυμός (literally "without words for emotions") is a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973 [22][23] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. Viewed as a spectrum between high and low EI, the alexithymia construct is strongly inversely related to EI, representing its lower range.[24] The individual's level of alexithymia can be measured with self-scored questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) or the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ)[25] or by observer rated measures such as the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ... In mathematics, a deficient number or defective number is a number n for which &#963;(n) < 2n. ... A questionnaire is a type of survey handed out in paper form usually to a specific demographic to gather information in order to provider better service or goods. ...

Criticism of the theoretical foundation of EI

EI is too broadly defined and the definitions are unstable

One of the arguments against the theoretical soundness of the concept pertains that the constant changing and broadening of its definition- which has come to encompass many unrelated elements - had rendered it an unintelligible concept: [26]

"What is the common or integrating element in a concept that includes: introspection about emotions, Emotional expression, non-verbal communication with others, empathy, self-regulation, planning, creative thinking and the direction of attention? There is none." (Locke, 2005)
This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... In psychology, an emotional expression is a representation of emotions. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ...

Other critics[27]mention that without some stabilization of the concepts and the measurement instruments, meta-analyses are difficult to implement , and the theory coherence is likely to be adversely impacted by this instability. In statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. ...

EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence

Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's description of EI contains unsubstantiated assumptions about intelligence in general, and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence:

"Goleman exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behaviour as an 'intelligence'. . . .If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence', we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand; there is no sound scientific basis".

Similarly, Locke (2005) [26] claims that the concept of EI in itself is a misinterpretation of the intelligence construct, and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence, but intelligence (the ability to grasp abstractions) applied to a particular life domain: emotions. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a skill. An abstraction is an idea, concept, or word which defines the phenomena which make up the concrete events or things which the abstraction refers to, the referents. ...

EI has no substantial predictive value

Landy (2005) [27] has claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have demonstrated that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably academic and work success. Landy proposes that the reason some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is in fact a methodological fallacy - incomplete consideration of alternative explanations:
"EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence.Landy (2005)"
An increment is an increase, either of some fixed amount, for example added regularly, or of a variable amount. ... In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method...

In accordance with this suggestion, other researchers have raised concerns with the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure traits, and because they are both measured in the self-report form [28]. Specifically, there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI – neuroticism and extraversion. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. [28]
In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... For the band, see Neurotic (band). ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ...

The interpretations of the correlations between self-report EI and personality have been varied and inconsistent. Some researchers have asserted that correlations in the .40 range constitute outright construct redundancy[29], while others have suggested that self-report EI is a personality trait in itself.[18]
In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ...

Criticism on measurement issues

Ability based measures are measuring conformity, not ability

One criticism of the works of Mayer and Salovey comes from a study by Roberts et.al. (2001) [30], which suggests that the EI, as measured by the MSCEIT, may only be measuring conformity. This argument is rooted in the MSCEIT's use of consensus-based assessment, and in the fact that scores on the MSCEIT are negatively distributed (meaning that its scores differentiate between people with low EI better than people with high EI).

Ability based measures are measuring knowledge (not actual ability)

Further criticism has been offered by Brody (2004)[31], who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability, the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed". The main argument is that even though someone knows how he should behave in an emotionally laden situation, it doesn’t necessarily follow that he could actually carry out the reported behavior.

Self report measures are susceptible to faking good

More formally termed socially desirable responding (SDR), faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias (Paulhus, 2002). This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on personality inventories (Holtgraves, 2004; McFarland & Ryan, 2000; Peebles & Moore, 1998; Nichols & Greene, 1997; Zerbe & Paulhus, 1987), acting as a mediator of the relationships between self-report measures (Nichols & Greene, 1997; Ganster et al., 1983).

It has been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response set, which is a situational and temporary response pattern (Pauls & Crost, 2004; Paulhus, 1991). This is contrasted with a response style, which is a more long-term trait-like quality. Considering the contexts some self-report EI inventories are used in (e.g., employment settings), the problems of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear (Paulhus & Reid, 2001).

There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test (e.g., McFarland, 2003). Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items.

Claims for the predictive power of EI are too extreme

Landy [27] distinguishes between the 'commercial wing' and 'the academic wing' of the EI movement, basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. According to Landy, the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI, while the later is trying to warn users against these claims. As an example. Goleman (1998) asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. ...emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership". In contrast, Mayer (1999) cautions "the popular literature’s implication—that highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in life—appears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards."

Landy further reinforces this argument by reminding that the data that constitutes the basis for all these claims is unfortunately held in ‘proprietary databases' thus redeeming it unavailable to independent researchers for reanalysis, replication, or verification[27]. Thus, the credibility of the findings cannot be substantiated in a scientific manner, unless those datasets are made public and available for independent analysis.

Corporate uses and misuses of EI testing

Whenever a new assessment tool is proposed for hiring practices, the concern rises that it might create unfair job discrimination. In the EI context, Goleman's (1995) and Salovey and Mayer's (1990) suggestions that EI is a key working skill are not widely enough accepted. Consequently, using EI scores as a standard for hiring employees might arbitrarily discriminate against individuals.

See also

Alexithymia (pronounced: ) from the Greek words λεξις and θυμος, literally without words for emotions) was a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973[1][2] to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding, processing, or describing their emotions. ... Collaborative Intelligence, collaborative intelligence quotient. ... Consensus Based Assessment (CBA) Peter Legree and Joseph Psotka proposed that psychometric g could be measured unobtrusively through survey-like scales requiring judgments. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cultural Intelligence, Cultural Quotient or CQ, is a theory within management and organisational psychology, positing that understanding the impact of an individuals cultural background on their behaviour is essential for effective business, and measuring an individuals ability to engage successfully in any environment or social setting. ... // Overall personality tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways. ... Emotion work is a concept with two different meanings. ... Emotional competence refers to a persons competence in expressing or releasing their emotions. ... Emotional contagion is the tendency to express and feel emotions that are similar to and influenced by those of others. ... wwwwwrrrrrrrrrroooooooooooooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggg Emotional labor is a form of emotional regulation in which workers are expected to display certain emotions as part of their job and to promote organizational goals. ... Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor... // One of the most common theories in the field of decision making is the expected utility theory (EU). ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... IQ redirects here. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... This is a list of emotions. ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Psychological Mindedness (PM) is a useful though not exactly defined umbrella concept which refers to an individuals capacity for self-examination, self-observation, introspection and ultimately insight. ... Romantic Relationship Intelligence is measured as an Romantic Relationship Intelligence Quotient (RRQ) or Love Quotient (LQ), describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the romantic relationship of oneself with others. ... Social IQ is a measure of a persons social ability compared to other people of their age. ... Systems intelligence is a concept developed in the fields of engineering sciences and applied philosophy. ... Multiple intelligences is educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exists in human beings. ...

External links

“TIME” redirects here. ... Daniel Goleman (born March 7, 1946) is an internationally renouned author, psychologist, science journalist and corporate consultant. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Edutopia is the magazine of The George Lucas Educational Foundation (GLEF). ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18 , supl., 13-25.
  2. ^ Thorndike, R.K. (1920). "Intelligence and Its Uses", Harper's Magazine 140, 227-335.
  3. ^ Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
  4. ^ Smith, M. K. (2002) "Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences", the encyclopedia of informal education, Downloaded from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm on October 31, 2005.
  5. ^ Payne, W.L. (1983/1986). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self integration; relating to fear, pain and desire. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, p. 203A. (University microfilms No. AAC 8605928)
  6. ^ Ashkanasy and Daus (2005). The case for the ability-based model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 453–466
  7. ^ Feldman-Barrett, L., & Salovey, P. (eds.). (2002). The wisdom in feeling: psychological processes in emotional intelligence. New York: Guilford Press.
  8. ^ Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books
  9. ^ Gibbs, Nancy (1995, October 2). The EQ Factor. Time magazine. Web reference at http://www.time.com/time/classroom/psych/unit5_article1.html accessed January 2, 2006.
  10. ^ Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990) "Emotional intelligence" Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211
  11. ^ Dulewicz V & Higgs M. (2000). Emotional intelligence – A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology 15 (4), 341 – 372
  12. ^ a b Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (eds.): Emotional development and emotional intelligence: educational applications (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
  13. ^ a b c Salovey P and Grewal D (2005) The Science of Emotional Intelligence. Current directions in psychological science, Volume14 -6
  14. ^ a b Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books
  15. ^ a b Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). In R. Bar-On & J.D.A. Parker (eds.): Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 343-362). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  16. ^ Bradberry, T. & Greaves, J. (2005). The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book, (New York: Simon and Schuster). Bradberry, T. and Greaves J. (2005) "Heartless Bosses," The Harvard Business Review.
  17. ^ Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): a test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
  18. ^ a b c Petrides, K. V. & Furnham, A. (2000a). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320
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  Results from FactBites:
Emotional intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2489 words)
Emotional Intelligence, also called EI and often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient or EQ, describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups.
However, being a relatively new area, the definition of emotional intelligence is still in a state of flux.
Self-report measures of EI The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal by Bradberry and Greaves (2005c), is administered as a self- or 360-degree assessment of the emotional intelligence skills popularized by Goleman.
These are: abstract intelligence which pertains to the ability to understand and manipulate verbal and mathematical symbols; concrete intelligence, which describes the ability to understand and manipulate objects; and social intelligence, which describes the ability to understand and relate with people.
The result of the correlational analysis in Table 1 shows that both emotional intelligence and self-efficacy have negative relationships with occupational stress, meaning that higher EQ and self-efficacy scores are inversely correlated to occupational stress.
By the nature of the construct of emotional intelligence, it is expected that the understanding of one’s and other people’s emotions, and one’s ability to regulate and manage them will have a buffering effect on work related stress.
  More results at FactBites »



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