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Encyclopedia > Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (born 1929) is a noted French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the ancien regime, focusing on the history of the peasantry. He is a noted pioneer in the fields of history from below and microhistory. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control... History from below is a form of historical narrative which was developed as a result of the Annales School and popularised in the 1960s. ... Microhistory is a branch of the study of history. ...

Contents

Early life

Le Roy Ladurie was born in Les Moutiers-en-Cinglais, France, the son of Jacques Le Roy Ladurie, minister of Agriculture for Pétain, and then resistant. Le Roy Ladurie was educated in Caen at the Collège Saint-Joseph, in Paris at the Lycèe Henri-IV and in Sceaux at the Lycèe Lakanal. Emmanuel Le Roy was awarded an agrègation in History from the Ecole Normale Supèrieure and a doctorat dès lettres from the University of Paris. Le Roy Ladurie has taught at the Lycèe de Montpellier, the University of Montpellier, the Ecole Pratique des Haute Etudes in Paris, the University of Paris and at the Collège de France. Les Moutiers en Cinglais is a commune of the d partement of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie r gion, in France. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Sceaux is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Sceaux, in the Yonne département Sceaux, in the Hauts_de_Seine département Sceaux_dAnjou, in the Maine_et_Loire département Sceaux-du-Gâtinais, in the Loiret département Sceaux_sur_Huisne, in the Sarthe département This is... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ...


Career

Le Roy Ladurie first rose to his fame with his doctoral thesis Les paysans de Languedoc which was published as a book in 1966 and translated into English as The Peasants of Languedoc in 1974. In this study of the peasantry of Languedoc from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 18th century, Le Roy Ladurie employed a huge range of quantitative information such as tithe, wage, tax, rent and profit records together with the use of the theories of such thinkers as Ernest Labrousse, Michel Foucault, David Ricardo, Fernand Braudel, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Thomas Malthus, François Simiand, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber to contend that the history of Languedoc was "l'histoire immobile". Le Roy Ladurie argued that that the history of Langudedoc was marked by waves of growth and decline that in essence changed very little over the passage of time. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Camille-Ernest Labrousse (1895–1988) was a French historian specializing in social and economic history. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... David Ricardo (18th April, 1772–11th September, 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Robert Thomas Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), usually known as Robert Malthus, although he preferred to be known as Thomas Malthus, was an English demographer and political economist. ... François Simiand (Grières 18 April 1873-1935) was a French sociologist and economist best known for role as a participant in the Annee Sociologique. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For the painter, see Max Weber (artist). ...


Le Roy Ladurie argued that the first wave, which was marked by the "low water mark" caused by the Black Death led to a period of economic and population growth. During this period, wages for labor fell, uncultivated lands and forests were converted into farm land, property was constantly divided and those who owned and managed their own land did well. The second wave, which Le Roy Ladurie called "the advance" which went until about 1530 and was marked by continued economic and population growth. After 1530, the "stubborn inelasticity" of French farming practices led to period of decline as farmers were unable to keep up with population growth due to a mixture of rigid farming practices, hostility to innovation, and inablitiy to obtain capital. During this period, people learned to live on less and married later in life, emigration increased, anti-tax revolts became common, belief in witchcraft increased and religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants led to a state of constant civil war. It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Witchcraft (disambiguation). ...


The third wave, which Le Roy Ladurie calls "maturity," began in about 1600. This period saw the birth rate equalize with the death rate, and a decline of agriculture and capital accumulation caused by both a dramatic increase in taxes to the French Crown, tithes to the Catholic Church and loans to bankers together with conservative farming practices. The fourth wave was marked by general decline in living conditions and population caused by unemployment, late marriage, birth control, decreasing farm production, high emigration, and high taxes. During this "long period of recession" land was consolidated by a rural capitalist class. In Le Roy Ladurie's opinion society in Langudedoc ended more or less in the 18th century where it had began in the 15th century.


Le Roy Ladurie argued the determining feature of life in Languedoc was the culture of the people who lived there. Le Roy Ladurie maintained that the reason why the people of Landuedoc could not break the cycles of advance and decline was not so much caused by technological factors, but was due to culture that prevented the people from developing more progressive technology and farming practices. In Le Roy Ladurie's view, there were "structures" comprising long-term and slowly changing material and mental patterns which underlined the more dramatic and in Le Roy Ladurie's opinion less important "conjoncture" of trends and events which traditionally historians have focused upon. Like Braudel, Le Roy Ladurie believes that it is the history of the "structures" which really mattered, but unlike Braudel Le Roy Ladurie has expressed an interest in biography and the histoire èvènementielle (history of events) which Braudel dismissed as irrelevant.


His most noted work is Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 à 1324 (1975), a study of the village of Montaillou in the region of Languedoc in the south of France in the age of the Cathar heresy. In this work, he uses the meticulous notes of a member of the Inquisition, Jacques Fournier who served as the Bishop of Pamiers between 1318-1325 before becoming Pope Benedict XII, to develop a multi-layered study of life in a small French village over the course of several years. Le Roy Ladurie used the records of interrogations conducted by Fournier to offer a picture of both the material and mental worlds of the villagers. Le Roy Ladurie examined the former as reflected in farming practices, houses, relations with other villages and with both secular and ecclesiastical power and the latter as reflected in their beliefs about God, fate, sexuality, death, life, marriage, magic, space, time, and salvation. Montaillou is a small village and commune in southern France. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Benedict XII, née Jacques Fournier (c. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Benedict XII, né Jacques Fournier ( 1280s – April 25, 1342), was Pope from 1334 to 1342. ...


Another noted work by Le Roy Ladurie was Le Carnival de Romans: de la chandeleur au mercredi des cenders (translated into English as Carnival in Romans) which dealt the 1580 massacre of about twenty artisans at the annual carnival in the town of Romans, France. In this book, Le Roy Ladurie used the only two surviving eye-witness accounts of the massacre (one of which was hostile towards to the victims of the massacre, the other sympathetic) together with such information as plague lists and tax lists to treat the massacre as a microcosm of the political, social and religious conflicts of rural society in later half of the 16th century France. Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Carnival or Carnivale is a festival season. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Other more recent treatments of social history by Le Roy Ladurie have included La sorcière de Jasmin (translated into English as Jasmin's Witch and Le siècle des Platter, 1499-1628 (translated into English as The Beggar and the Professor: a Sixteenth Century Family Drama). In Jasmin's Witch, Le Roy Ladurie following the lead of Carlo Ginzburg argued that the idea of witchcraft as seen by peasants was very different from the idea of witchcraft held by judges and churchmen. To understand the "total social fact of witchcraft", Le Roy Ladurie used an 1842 poem Françouneto written by Jacques Boè and based on a traditional French peasant folk tale. Le Roy Ladurie contended that the poem contains many authentic traces of popular beliefs about witchcraft in the 17th century-18th century rural France. Le Roy Ladurie argued that the "crime" of the "witch" Françouneto was the violation of the unwritten social code of "limited wealth", namely that she increased her own wealth at the expense of others. In The Beggar and the Professor, Le Roy Ladurie used the letters and memoirs of the Platter family to examine the social values of the 16th century, especially in regards to religion, medicine, crime, learning, and taxes. Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Carlo Ginzburg is a noted historian and pioneer of microhistory. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Through best known for his work in "microhistory", Le Roy Ladurie has also examined the political history of France between 1460-1774. One of his best known political history books was L'Etat royal: de Louis XI à Henri IV, 1460-1610 (translated into English as The French Royal State: 1460-1610), Le Roy Ladurie traced the development of the French state between 1460-1610. In this book, Le Roy Ladurie argued that the major concerns of the French Crown were the economy, the Reformation and the aristocratic politics, and that the major reasons for the growth of the French state was military expansion into Italy, Provence and Burgundy and rivalry with Spain. In its sequel, Ancien Règime: de Louis XIII à Louis XV, 1610-1774 (translated into English as The Ancien Règime) Le Roy Ladurie argued that there was a close connection between the domestic and foreign policies of the French Crown. In particular, Le Roy Ladurie argued that periods of authoritarianism in domestic policy coincided with periods of aggression in foreign policy and that periods of liberalism in domestic policy coincided with periods of peace in foreign policy. Despite certain lapses in the 1750s, Le Roy Ladurie argued that the reign of Louis XV was characterized by liberalism at home and peace aboard while the rule of Louis XIV and Cardinal Richelieu were marked by aggression and authoritariansim. At the end of his two-volume history, Le Roy Ladurie stated that the growth of popularity of Enlightenment ideas, anti-clericalism, and liberalism had by 1774 already placed France on the road to the French Revolution. Microhistory is a branch of the study of history. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Le Roy Ladurie is also known as one of the first modern environmental historians because his work focused on human agency in environmental change, as well as environmental factors in human history. Environmental history is the study of humans and nature and their past interrelationships. ...


Without doubt one of the most prolific contemporary historians, his mentor was Fernand Braudel, a prominent member of the Annales School. At the beginning of the 1970s, Ladurie founded the movement of the "Nouvelle histoire" (New history). Le Roy Ladurie is and leading champion of "microhistory", in which an historian uses the study of an event, locality, family or life to reveal the "structures" which underlines life in the particular period under study. Some like Niall Ferguson have questioned the value of "microhistory" arguing that it is wrong to assume that the study of one village or one incident in one town or one family reveals wider patterns of life in France, let alone the rest of Europe. Another line of criticism has centered around Le Roy Ladurie's use of the term "structures" which his critics contend he has never clearly defined or explained why "structures" change over time or even if these "structures" Le Roy Ladurie purports to find even exist. Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ... The Annales School (Annales is pronounced // in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Niall Ferguson Niall Ferguson (b. ...


Le Roy Ladurie was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF) between 1945-1963, he left party after doubts caused by the 1956 Hungarian Revolution became too much for him. He has since then analysed his political engagement and Communist totalitarianism in Ouverture, société, pouvoir : De l’Edit de Nantes à la chute du communisme (2004) and Les grands procès politiques ou la pédagogie infernale (2002). This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie has also worked on the history of French regions (Histoire de France des régions, 2004) and on anthropometric history as well as on the impact of climate changes on human history. Besides writing books, Le Roy Ladurie is a prolific essayist writing on variety of subjects such as the utility of computers as method of historical research, rates of delinquency in the French Army in the 19th century, the spread of global diseases and the belief of French peasants that magic could be used to generate impotence. A major intellectual in France, Le Roy Ladurie often writes for the Le Nouvel Observateur, the L’Express, and Le Monde newspapers and often appears on French television. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Le Nouvel Observateur (often shorten to Le Nouvel Obs) is a weekly French newsmagazine. ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ...


He occupied from 1973 to 1999 the chair of History of Modern Civilization at the Collège de France. Courtyard of the Collège de France. ...


Works

  • Les Paysans de Languedoc - 1966
  • Montaillou, village occitan, 1975, ISBN 0-394-72964-1 (English), ISBN 2-07-032328-5 (French)
  • Le Territoire de l'historien Vol. 1 - 1973
  • Le Territoire de l'historien Vol. 2 - 1978
  • Le Carnaval de Romans, 1579-1580 - 1980
  • Histoire du climat depuis l'An Mil, 1983
  • L'État royal - 1987
  • L'Ancien Régime - 1991
  • Le Siècle des Platter (1499-1628), Le mendiant et le professeur - 1995
  • Saint-Simon, le système de la Cour - 1997
  • Histoire de la France des Régions - 2001
  • Histoire des paysans français, de la peste noire à la Révolution - 2002
  • Histoire humaine et comparée du climat - 2004

Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Barzun, Jacques Clio and the Doctors: Psycho-history, Quanto-history and History, Chicago, II: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
  • Burke, Peter The French Historical Revolution: The Annales School, 1929-1989, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.
  • Cantor, Norman Inventing the Middle Ages: the Lives, Works and Ideas of the Great Medievalists in the Twentieth Century, New York: W. Morow, 1991.
  • Carrard, P. "The New History and the Discourse of the Tentative: Le Roy Ladurie's Question Marks" pages 1-14 from Clio, Volume 15, Issue #1, 1985.
  • Carrard, P. Poetics of the New History: French Historical Discourse from Braudel to Chartier, Baltimore, M.D.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
  • Hartigan, F.X. "Montaillou" pages 275-283 from Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History, Volume 21, 1994.
  • Himmelfarb, Gertrude The New History and the Old: Critical Essays and Reappraisals, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Newman, E.L. "Le Roy Ladurie's Magic: Jasmin's Witch" pages 285-292 from The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History, Volume 21, 1994.
  • Sonnino, P. "Les paysans de Languedoc: vingt-sept ans aprèś"pages 293-300 from Proceddings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History, Volume 21, 1994.
  • Stone, Lawrence "In the Alleys of Mentalité" pages 20-23 from New York Review of Books, Volume 26, Issue #17, November 8, 1979.
  • Willis, F.R. "The Contribution of the Annales School to Agrarian History: a Review Essay" pages 538-548 from Agricultural History, Volume 52, Issue #4, 1978.

 
 

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