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Encyclopedia > Emir
Entrance to the emir's palace in Bukhara. From a photograph taken ca. 1912 by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii.
Entrance to the emir's palace in Bukhara. From a photograph taken ca. 1912 by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii.

Emir (Arabic: أمير; ʾamīr, "commander" or "general", later also "prince"; also transliterated as amir or ameer) is a high title of nobility or office, historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Turkic world, among others. Image File history File links Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Image File history File links Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: ‎, Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Sergei Prokudin-Gorski. ... Amir may refer to: Amir or Emir, the title of rulers or military leaders in many Muslim countries. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


While emir is the predominant spelling in English and many other languages, amir, closer to the original Arabic, is more common for its numerous compounds and in individual names. Spelling thus differs depending on the sources consulted.

Contents

Origins

Emir, meaning "commander" in Arabic, is derived from the Arabic root Amr, "command". Originally simply meaning commander or leader, usually in reference to a group of people, it came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and in modern Arabic usually renders the English word "prince. Amir Sadri." The word entered English in 1595, from the French émir. [1] In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ...


Usage

  • A state ruled by an independent emir is an emirate. Some emirates are sovereign, such as the Kuwaiti monarchy (ruled by the al-Sabah dynasty since the country gained independence in 1961), Qatar (since 1971), and Bahrain (1971-2002). Emirates can also be constitutive parts of a state, notably the seven United Arab Emirates, which belong to a federal monarchy, and are the electors of its presidency and prime minister.
  • Another meaning of the word emir is "prince" (specifically, the male descendant of a sovereign). This title was used in the sultanate of the Maldives alongside the native title Manippulu. In some states it could mean "crown prince" (more typically Wali al-Ahd). For example, before he was crowned as King Abdullah of Jordan, the son of King Hussein was still referred to as "Emir Abdullah" (in this case an obsolete title of the dynasty, which adopted the higher title of malik, king).
  • In various Muslim states, Amir was also a nobiliary title, as under the (Turkic?) form ämir in the Tartar Khanate of Kazan.
  • Emir is also the title of the religious leader (without political power) of the Ahmadiyya anjuman ishaat-i Islam, a minor Muslim sect, established in Lahore in April 1914, with five incumbents to date.
  • In northern Nigeria and other parts of the Sahel (including various Fulbe jihad states), the title of some Muslim traditional rulers is emir or a corruption such as lamido, sometimes used in addition to a native title. The most prominent of these are the emirs of Kano, Bauchi, Zaria and Adamawa.
  • The Yazidi religion has an emir as its secular leader alongside a chief sheikh as its religious leader.

Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... As-Sayyid Muhammad Abdullah II bin al-Hussein al Hashimi, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎) (born January 30, 1962 in Amman, Jordan), is the current King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is a word meaning king in Arabic, also adopted in various other oriental languages, also in derived meanings. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Ahmadis (Urdu: ‎ Ahmadiyya), is the collective name given to the two distinct groups (The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement) comprising of followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (d. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and the second most populated city in Pakistan, also known as the Gardens of the Mughals or City of Gardens, after the significant rich heritage of the Mughal Empire. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Fula is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, from Mauritania in the northwest to Cameroon in the east. ... Lamido (plural Lamibe) is a corruption in local languages (Fulbe?) of the Arabic title Emir, used by the traditional leaders of certain Islamic communities in West Africa, originally as head of (often vassal) states, nowadays persisting within post-colonial republics. ... For other uses of the word Kano see Kano (disambiguation). ... Bauchi is the capital of Bauchi State in Nigeria. ... Zaria or Zoria is the Slavic goddess of beauty, very popular in Eastern Slavic mythology. ... Adamawa may refer to several geographical or political areas: The Adamawa Emirate, founded by Modibo Adama; The Adamawa Plateau, which rises in Nigeria, cuts across Central African Republic; The Adamawa Province of Cameroon; The Adamawa State of Nigeria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ...

Princely, ministerial and noble titles

  • The caliphs first used the title Amir al-Muminin ("Commander of the Faithful"), stressing their leadership over all Islam, especially in the military form of jihad; both this command and the title have been assumed by various other Muslim rulers, including sultans and emirs.
  • The Abbasid (in theory still universal) Caliph Ar-Radi created the post of Amir al-Umara ("Amir of the Amirs") for his -in fact governing- Wasir (chief minister) Ibn Raik; the title was used in various Islamic monarchies; cfr. infra for military use
  • In Lebanon, the ruling Emir formally used the style al-Amir al-Hakim since, specifying it was still a ruler's title, but now as part of the Ottoman Empire; unchanged when in 1698 the Banu Shihab replaced the Banu Ma'n dynasty and on 27 May 1832 was annexed by khedival Egypt (both nominally Ottoman), but Ottoman rule was restored on October 10, 1840, until the Mount Lebanon emirate ended on January 16, 1842, as the Ottoman Sultans divided their Lebanese province administratively, creating a Christian district in the north and an area under Druze control in the south.
  • The word Emir is also used less formally for leaders in certain contexts, for example the leader of a group of pilgrims to Mecca is called an emir hadji, a style sometimes used by ruling princes (as a mark of Muslim piety), sometimes awarded in their name. Where an adjectival form is necessary, "emiral" suffices.
  • Amirzada, the son (hence the Persian patronymic suffix -zade) of a prince, hence the Persian princely title Mirza.

For main article see: Caliphate Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) usually translated Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful (a better translation might be Leader of the Believers), is the Arabic style of Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... Ar-Radi (d. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ... Hakim may refer to: al-Hakim one of names of Allah Hakim, a character on Sesamstraat Naji Hakim, the Lebanese-born organist Hakim Rifle, Egyptian rifle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Khedive (from Persian for lord, also known as viceroy) was a title granted to governor and monarch of Egypt Ismail Pasha in 1867 by his nominal overlord the Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Mirza The title Mirza(ميرزا), from Persian languages during the Moghul Emperor times of India, means, literally, a Prince. ...

Military ranks and titles

From the start, Emir has been a military title, roughly meaning "general" or "commander."


The Western naval rank "admiral" comes from the Arabic naval title amir al-bahr, general at sea, which has been used for naval commanders and occasionally the Ministers of Marine. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ...


In certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank; e.g. in Mughal India Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen (divided into ten units, each under a Sipah salar), ten of them under one Malik. In the imperial army of Qajar Persia: The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han, Polish chan) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is a word meaning king in Arabic, also adopted in various other oriental languages, also in derived meanings. ...

  • Amir-i-Nuyan, Lieutenant general
  • Amir Panj, "Commander of 5,000" (Brigadier general)
  • Amir-i-Tuman, "Commander of 10,000' (Major general)
  • Amir ul-Umara, "Amir of Amirs" (cfr. supra) or 'Commander of Commanders'
  • Amir Yavarianfar, "Supreme amir"

In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amir-i-Kabir was a title meaning "great prince" or "great commander." Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ...


Other uses

  • Amir-i-Il designates the head of an Il (tribe) in imperial Persia.
  • Emir is also a common Muslim male name for Arab and non-Arab Muslims (see also Azra), taken from Arabic just as the Western name Rex ("king") is borrowed from Latin. In Bosnia and Herzegovina female-name Emira - often interpreted as "princess" - is a derivative of male-name Emir.

Azra album cover (1980) Azra was a rock band from Zagreb, Croatia that was popular across former Yugoslavia in the 1980s. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Landsat image of Emirau Island Emirau Island, also called Emira, is an island in the Bismarck Archipelago located at . ...

See also

Specific emirates of note

Islamic titles The Emirs of Harrar are as follows: 1671 - 1700 — `Abd Allah I ibn `Ali 1700 - 1721 — Talha ibn `Abd Allah 1721 - 1732 — Abu Bakr I ibn `Abd Allah 1732 - 1733 — Khalaf ibn Abi Bakr 1733 - 1747 — Hamid ibn Abi Bakr 1747 - 1755 — Yusuf ibn... This is an (incomplete) list of emirs of Kuwait: The Sabah dynasty came to power in 1752, before which date the Bani Khalid tribe ruled the region. ... This is a list of emirs of Qatar: The emirs of Qatar are members of the Al-Thani dynasty and the state of Qtar was founded in 1868 by Muhammad bin Thani as a sheikdom. ...

Emirs in fiction: Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) usually translated Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful (a better translation might be Leader of the Believers), is the Arabic style of Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... For main article see: Caliphate Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mir, a Persian word (مير), derived from the Arabic title Emir or Amir (Arabic: أمير ), was adopted in many languages under Islamic influence, such as Urdu, and means leader of a group or tribe in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Mirza The title Mirza(ميرزا), from Persian languages during the Moghul Emperor times of India, means, literally, a Prince. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...

Abdul Abulbul Amir is a folk song written in 1877 by Percy French and later set to music. ...

Sources and references

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=amir&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine
  • WorldStatesmen Here Religious Organisations - see also many present Muslim countries

  Results from FactBites:
 
Emir - ArticleWorld (319 words)
A good example is emir hadji, which is a leader of pilgrims bound for Mecca.
Emir is also a title of nobility, but seems one of less formal nature and is given in more loosely fit groups.
Amir is more of a title that is in the beginning of a title and Emir is one that is either added to a name or is part of a title in general.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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