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Encyclopedia > Emily Dickinson
From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847. It is the only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood.
From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847. It is the only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood.

Emily Dickinson (December 10, 1830May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life. After being schooled at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she spent a short time at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before retiring to her family's house, the Homestead. Thought of as an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ... The Dickinson Homestead, located at 280 Main Street, Amherst, Massachusetts, was the home of poet Emily Dickinson, and currently is the site of a museum dedicated to her. ...


Dickinson was a prolific private poet, choosing to publish fewer than a dozen of her nearly eighteen hundred poems.[1] The work that was published during her lifetime was usually altered significantly by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Dickinson's poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often utilize slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation.[2] Her poems also tend to deal with themes of death and immortality, two subjects which infused her letters to friends. Half rhyme, sometimes called slant, sprung, lose or near rhyme, and less commonly eye rhyme (a term covering a broader phenomenon), is consonance on the final consonants of the words involved. ...


Although most of her acquaintances were probably aware of Dickinson's writing, it was not until after her death in 1886—when Lavinia, Emily's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems—that the breadth of Dickinson's work became apparent. Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, both of whom heavily edited the content. A complete and mostly unaltered collection of her poetry became available for the first time in 1955 when The Poems of Emily Dickinson was published by scholar Thomas H. Johnson. Despite unfavorable reviews and skepticism of her literary prowess during the late 19th and early 20th century, critics now consider Dickinson to be a major American poet.[3] Thomas Wentworth Higginson (December 22, 1823 - May 9, 1911) was an American author, abolitionist, and soldier. ... Mabel Loomis Todd or Mabel Loomis (November 10, 1856 - October 14, 1932) was an U.S. editor and writer, and wife of astronomer David Peck Todd. ...

Contents

Life

Family and early childhood

A drawing of the young Emily Dickinson, age nine. It was made from a portrait featuring Emily, Austin and Lavinia as children.
A drawing of the young Emily Dickinson, age nine. It was made from a portrait featuring Emily, Austin and Lavinia as children.

Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the Homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts on December 10, 1830 into a prominent, but not opulent, family.[4] Two hundred years earlier, the Dickinsons had arrived in the New World—in the puritan Great Migration—where they prospered.[5] Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, had almost single-handedly founded Amherst College.[6] In 1813, he built the Homestead, the large mansion on the town's Main Street that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century.[7] Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, Edward, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, and represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson. They had three children: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dickinson Homestead, located at 280 Main Street, Amherst, Massachusetts, was the home of poet Emily Dickinson, and currently is the site of a museum dedicated to her. ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Great Migration may refer to the Winthrop Fleet of 1630; where in 700 passengers migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in eleven ships. ... Amherst College is a private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. It is the third oldest college in Massachusetts. ... Edward Dickinson (January 1, 1803 - June 16, 1874) was a Massachusetts politician. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Monson (pronounced IPA ) is a town located in Hampden County, Massachusetts. ...

  • William Austin (1829–1895), known as Austin, Aust or Awe;
  • Emily Elizabeth and;
  • Lavinia Norcross (1833–1899), known as Lavinia or Vinnie.[8]

By all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented—She is a very good child & but little trouble."[9] Emily's aunt also noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic".[10] William Austin Dickinson (April 16, 1829 – August 16, 1895) was an American lawyer. ... Lavinia Norcross Dickinson (February 28, 1833 – August 31, 1899) was the younger sister of famed American poet, Emily Dickinson. ...


Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street.[11] Her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".[12] Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress even while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home reminding his children to "keep school, and learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned".[13] While Emily consistently described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was regularly cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe [Austin] when a child, if anything befell me. He was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."[14]


On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Vinnie started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier.[11] At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street.[15] Emily's brother Austin later described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent.[16] The house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".[15] is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Teenage years

They shut me up in Prose –
As when a little Girl
They put me in the Closet –
Because they liked me "still" –


Still! Could themself have peeped –
And seen my Brain – go round –
They might as wise have lodged a Bird
For Treason – in the Pound –

Emily Dickinson, c. 1862[17]

Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, Latin, botany, geology, history, "mental philosophy" and arithmetic.[18] She had a few terms off due to illness: the longest absence was in 1845–1846 when she was only enrolled for eleven weeks.[19] English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ...


Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death, especially the deaths of those who were close to her. When Sophia Holland, her second cousin and a close friend, grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844, Emily was traumatized.[20] Recalling the incident two years later, Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or even look at her face."[21] She became so melancholic that her parents sent her to stay with family in Boston to recover.[22] With her health and spirits restored, she soon returned to Amherst Academy to continue her studies.[23] During this period, she first met people who were to become lifelong friends and correspondents, such as Abiah Root, Abby Wood, Jane Humphrey and Susan Huntington Gilbert (who later married Emily's brother Austin). For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


In 1845, a religious revival took place in Amherst, resulting in 46 confessions of faith among Dickinson's peers.[24] Dickinson wrote to a friend the following year: "I never enjoyed such perfect peace and happiness as the short time in which I felt I had found my savior."[25] She went on to say that it was her "greatest pleasure to commune alone with the great God & to feel that he would listen to my prayers".[25] The experience did not last: Dickinson never made a formal declaration of faith and attended services regularly for only a few years.[26] After her church-going ended, about 1852, she wrote a poem opening: "Some keep the Sabbath going to Church – / I keep it, staying at Home".[27] A Confession of Faith is a statement of doctrine very similar to a creed, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic. ...


During the last year of her stay at the Academy, Emily became friendly with Leonard Humphrey, its popular new young principal. Later, she referred to him as "Master", a term that she reserved for the few men in her life whose wisdom, advice, or love she sought.[28]


After finishing her final term at the Academy on August 10, 1847, Dickinson began attending Mary Lyon's Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (which later became Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley, about ten miles (16 km) from Amherst.[29] She was at the Seminary for only ten months. Although she liked the girls at Holyoke, Dickinson made no lasting friendships there.[30] The explanations for her brief stay at Holyoke differ considerably: either she was in poor health, her father wanted to have her at home, she rebelled against the evangelical fervor present at the school, she disliked the discipline-minded teachers, or she was simply homesick.[31] Whatever the specific reason for leaving Holyoke, her brother Austin appeared on March 25, 1848 to "bring [her] home at all events".[32] Back in Amherst, Dickinson occupied her time with household activities.[33] She took up baking for the family and enjoyed attending local events and activities in the budding college town.[34] is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the 19th century American educator. ... Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ... Mount Holyoke College is a liberal arts womens college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. ...   Settled: 1659 â€“ Incorporated: 1775 Zip Code(s): 01075 â€“ Area Code(s): 413 Official website: http://www. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Early influences and writing

When she was eighteen, Dickinson's family befriended a young attorney by the name of Benjamin Franklin Newton. According to a letter written by Dickinson after Newton's death, he had been "with my Father two years, before going to Worcester – in pursuing his studies, and was much in our family."[35] Although their relationship was probably not romantic, Newton was a formative influence and would become the second in a series of older men (after Humphrey) that Dickinson referred to variously as her tutor, preceptor or master.[36]


Newton likely introduced her to the writings of William Wordsworth, and his gift to her of Ralph Waldo Emerson's first book of collected poems had a liberating effect. She wrote later that he, "whose name my Father's Law Student taught me, has touched the secret Spring".[37] Newton held her in high regard, believing in and recognizing her as a poet. When he was dying of tuberculosis, he wrote to her, saying that he would like to live until she achieved the greatness he foresaw.[37] Biographers believe that Dickinson's statement of 1862—"When a little Girl, I had a friend, who taught me Immortality – but venturing too near, himself – he never returned"—refers to Newton.[38] Wordsworth redirects here. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Dickinson was familiar not only with the Bible but also with contemporary popular literature.[39] Dickinson was probably influenced by Lydia Maria Child's Letters from New York, another gift from Newton[40] (after reading it, she enthused "This then is a book! And there are more of them!"[40]). Her brother smuggled a copy of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Kavanagh into the house for her (because her father might disapprove)[41] and a friend lent her Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre in late 1849.[42] Jane Eyre's influence cannot be measured, but when Dickinson acquired her first and only dog, a Newfoundland, she named him Carlo after the character St. John Rivers' dog.[42] William Shakespeare was a potent influence in her life. Referring to his plays, she wrote to one friend "Why clasp any hand but this?" and to another "Why is any other book needed?"[43] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Lydia Maria Child (February 11, 1802, Medford - July 7, 1880, Wayland) was an American abolitionist, novelist, and journalist. ... Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... This article is about the Victorian novel. ... A Landseer painting of a Landseer Newfoundland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

The Evergreens, the home of Austin and Susan Dickinson, as it appears today
The Evergreens, the home of Austin and Susan Dickinson, as it appears today

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 2,560 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 2,560 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Adulthood and seclusion

In early 1850 Dickinson wrote that "Amherst is alive with fun this winter ... Oh, a very great town this is!"[33] Her high spirits soon turned to melancholy after another untimely death. The Amherst Academy principal, Leonard Humphrey, died suddenly of "brain congestion" at age 25.[44] Two years after his death, she revealed to her friend Abiah Root the extent of her depression: "... some of my friends are gone, and some of my friends are sleeping – sleeping the churchyard sleep – the hour of evening is sad – it was once my study hour – my master has gone to rest, and the open leaf of the book, and the scholar at school alone, make the tears come, and I cannot brush them away; I would not if I could, for they are the only tribute I can pay the departed Humphrey".[28]


During the 1850s, Emily's strongest and most affectionate relationship was with Susan Gilbert. Emily eventually sent her over three hundred letters, more than to any other correspondent, over the course of their friendship. Her missives typically dealt with demands for Sue's affection and the fear of unrequited admiration, but because Sue was often aloof and disagreeable, Emily was continually hurt by what was mostly a tempestuous friendship.[45] Sue married Austin in 1856 after a four-year courtship, although their marriage was not a happy one. Edward Dickinson built a house for him and Sue called the Evergreens, which stood on the west side of the Homestead.[46] The Dickinson Homestead, located at 280 Main Street, Amherst, Massachusetts, was the home of poet Emily Dickinson, and currently is the site of a museum dedicated to her. ...

Supposedly one of only two known daguerreotypes of Emily Dickinson. Made in the 1850s and discovered in 2000 on eBay by Philip F. Gura, its authenticity is questioned.
Supposedly one of only two known daguerreotypes of Emily Dickinson. Made in the 1850s and discovered in 2000 on eBay by Philip F. Gura, its authenticity is questioned.[47]

Until 1855, Dickinson had not strayed far from Amherst. That spring, accompanied by her mother and sister, she took one of her longest and farthest trips away from home.[48] First, they spent three weeks in Washington, where her father was representing Massachusetts in Congress. Then they went to Philadelphia for two weeks to visit family. In Philadelphia, she met Charles Wadsworth, a famous minister of the Arch Street Presbyterian Church, with whom she forged a strong friendship which lasted until his death in 1882.[49] Despite only seeing him twice after 1855 (he moved to San Francisco in 1862), she variously referred to him as "my Philadelphia", "my Clergyman", "my dearest earthly friend" and "my Shepherd from 'Little Girl'hood".[50] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The 10th District includes the South Shore of Massachusetts, running from Quincy to Weymouth and Abington and includes all of Cape Cod, Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


From the mid-1850s, Emily's mother became effectively bedridden with various chronic illnesses until her death in 1882.[51] Writing to a friend in summer 1858, Emily said that she would visit if she could leave "home, or mother. I do not go out at all, lest father will come and miss me, or miss some little act, which I might forget, should I run away – Mother is much as usual. I Know not what to hope of her".[52] As her mother continued to decline, Dickinson's domestic responsibilities weighed heavier upon her and she confined herself within the Homestead. Forty years later, Vinnie stated that because their mother was chronically ill, one of the daughters had to remain always with her.[52] Emily took this role as her own, and "finding the life with her books and nature so congenial, continued to live it".[52]


Withdrawing more and more from the outside world, Emily began in the summer of 1858 what would be her lasting legacy. Reviewing poems she had written previously, she began making clean copies of her work, assembling carefully pieced-together manuscript books.[53] The forty fascicles she created from 1858 through 1865 eventually held nearly eight hundred poems.[53] No one was aware of these books' existence until after her death.


In the late 1850s, the Dickinsons befriended Samuel Bowles, the owner and editor-in-chief of the Springfield Republican, and his wife, Mary.[54] They visited the Dickinsons regularly for years to come. During this time Emily sent him over three dozen letters and nearly fifty poems.[55] Their friendship brought out some of her most intense writing and Bowles published a few of her poems in his journal.[56] Samuel Bowles (9 February 1826-16 January 1878) was an American journalist born in Springfield, Massachusetts. ... The Springfield Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts. ...


The first half of the 1860s, after she had largely withdrawn from social life,[57] proved to be Dickinson's most productive writing period.[58]


Is "my Verse ... alive?"

In April 1862, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a literary critic, radical abolitionist and ex-minister, wrote a lead piece for The Atlantic Monthly entitled "Letter to a Young Contributor". Higginson's essay, in which he urged aspiring writers to "Charge your style with life", contained practical advice for those wishing to break into print.[59] Seeking literary guidance that no one close to her could provide, Dickinson sent him a letter which read in full:[60] Thomas Wentworth Higginson (December 22, 1823 - May 9, 1911) was an American author, abolitionist, and soldier. ... This article is about slavery. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ...

Thomas Wentworth Higginson in uniform; he was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers from 1862 to 1864.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson in uniform; he was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers from 1862 to 1864.

Mr Higginson,
Are you too deeply occupied to say if my Verse is alive?
The Mind is so near itself – it cannot see, distinctly – and I have none to ask –
Should you think it breathed – and had you the leisure to tell me, I should feel quick gratitude –
If I make the mistake – that you dared to tell me – would give me sincerer honor – toward you –
I enclose my name – asking you, if you please – Sir – to tell me what is true?
That you will not betray me – it is needless to ask – since Honor is it's [sic] own pawn – Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas Wentworth Higginson (December 22, 1823 - May 9, 1911) was an American author, abolitionist, and soldier. ... The First South Carolina Volunteers was a Union Army regiment during the American Civil War. ...

The letter was unsigned, but she had included her name on a card and enclosed it in an envelope along with four of her poems.[61] He praised her work but suggested that she delay publishing until she had written longer, being unaware that she had already appeared in print. She assured him that publishing was as foreign to her "as Firmament to Fin" but also proposed that "If fame belonged to me, I could not escape her".[62]


Dickinson delighted in dramatic self-characterization and mystery in her letters to Higginson.[63] She said of herself: "I am small, like the wren, and my hair is bold, like the chestnut bur, and my eyes like the sherry in the glass that the guest leaves."[64] She stressed her solitary nature, stating that her only real companions were the hills, the sundown and her dog, Carlo. She also mentioned that whereas her mother did not "care for Thought", her father bought her books, but begged her "not to read them – because he fears they joggle the Mind".[65] Dickinson valued his advice, going from calling him "Mr. Higginson" to "Dear friend" as well as signing her letters "Your Gnome" and "Your Scholar".[66] His interest in her work certainly provided great moral support; many years later, Dickinson exaggeratedly told Higginson that he had saved her life in 1862.[67] They corresponded until her death.[68]


The woman in white

In direct opposition to the immense productivity that she displayed in the early 1860s, Dickinson wrote many fewer poems in 1866.[69] Beset with personal loss as well as loss of domestic help, it is possible that Dickinson was too overcome to keep up her previous level of writing.[70] Carlo died during this time after sixteen years of companionship; Dickinson never owned another dog. Although the household servant of nine years had married and left the Homestead that same year, it was not until 1869 that her family brought in a permanent household servant to replace the old one.[71] Emily once again was responsible for chores, including the baking, at which she excelled.

A solemn thing – it was – I said –
A Woman – White – to be –
And wear – if God should count me fit –
Her blameless mystery –

Emily Dickinson, c. 1861[72]

Around this time, Dickinson's behavior began to change. She did not leave the Homestead unless it was absolutely necessary and as early as 1867, she began to talk to visitors from the other side of a door rather than speaking to them face to face.[73] She acquired local notoriety; she was rarely seen and when she was, she was usually clothed in white. Dickinson's one surviving article of clothing is a white cotton dress, possibly sewn circa 1878–1882.[74] Few of the locals who exchanged messages with Dickinson during her last fifteen years ever saw her in person.[75] Austin and his family began to protect Emily's privacy, deciding that she was not to be a subject of discussion with outsiders.[76] Despite her physical seclusion, however, Dickinson was socially active and expressive through what makes up two-thirds of her surviving notes and letters. When visitors came to either the Homestead or the Evergreens, she would often leave or send over small gifts of poems or flowers.[77] Dickinson also had a good rapport with the children in her life. Mattie Dickinson, the second child of Austin and Sue, later said that "Aunt Emily stood for indulgence."[78] MacGregor (Mac) Jenkins, the son of family friends who later wrote a short article in 1891 called "A Child's Recollection of Emily Dickinson", thought of her as always offering support to the neighborhood children.[78]


When Higginson urged her to come to Boston in 1868 so that they could formally meet for the first time, she declined, writing: "Could it please your convenience to come so far as Amherst I should be very glad, but I do not cross my Father's ground to any House or town".[79] It was not until he came to Amherst in 1870 that they met. Later he referred to her, in the most detailed and vivid physical account of her on record, as "a little plain woman with two smooth bands of reddish hair ... in a very plain & exquisitely clean white pique & a blue net worsted shawl."[80] He also felt that he never was "with any one who drained my nerve power so much. Without touching her, she drew from me. I am glad not to live near her."[81]


Posies and poesie

Scholar Judith Farr notes that Dickinson, during her lifetime, "was known more widely as a gardener, perhaps, than as a poet".[82] Dickinson had studied botany from the age of nine and had tended the garden at Homestead since age twelve.[82] As a teenager, she pieced together a sixty-six page leather-bound herbarium containing 424 pressed flower specimens that she had collected, classified and labeled using the Linnaean system.[83] The Homestead garden was well-known and admired locally in its time. It has not survived and Dickinson kept no garden notebooks or plant lists, but a clear impression can be formed from the letters and recollections of friends and family. One niece, for example, remembered "carpets of lily-of-the-valley and pansies, platoons of sweetpeas, hyacinths enough in May to give all the bees of summer dyspepsia. There were ribbons of peony hedges and drifts of daffodils in season, marigolds to distraction—a butterfly utopia".[84] In particular, Dickinson cultivated scented exotic flowers, writing that she "could inhabit the Spice Isles merely by crossing the dining room to the conservatory, where the plants hang in baskets". Dickinson would often send her friends bunches of flowers with verses attached, but "they valued the posy more than the poetry".[84] Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... For the Author whose pseudonym was Pansy, see Isabella Macdonald Alden. ... Binomial name Lathyrus odoratus Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus) is a flowering plant of the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (the legumes). ... species Hyacinthus litwinowii Hyacinthus orientalis Hyacinthus transcaspicus A Hyacinth is any plant of genus Hyacinthus, which are bulbous herbs formerly placed in the lily family Liliaceae but now regarded as the type genus of the separate family Hyacinthaceae. ... Species See text A white peony in Warren County, Indiana. ... Daffodil redirects here. ... Species About 20, see text : also numerous garden hybrids and cultivars The marigolds, genus Calendula L., are a genus of about 20 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ...


Later life

On June 16, 1874, while in Boston, Edward Dickinson suffered a stroke and died. When the simple funeral was held in the Homestead's entrance hall, Emily stayed in her room with the door cracked open. Neither did she attend the memorial service on June 28.[85] She wrote to Higginson that her father's "Heart was pure and terrible and I think no other like it exists."[86] A year later, on June 15, 1875, Emily's mother also suffered a stroke, which produced a partial lateral paralysis and impaired memory. Lamenting her mother's increasing physical as well as mental demands, Emily wrote that "Home is so far from Home".[87] is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Paralysed redirects here. ...

Though the great Waters sleep,
That they are still the Deep,
We cannot doubt –
No vacillating God
Ignited this Abode
To put it out –

Emily Dickinson, c. 1884[88]

Otis Phillips Lord, an elderly judge on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court from Salem, in 1872 or 1873, became an acquaintance of Dickinson's, and her last Master. After the death of Lord's wife in 1877, his friendship with Dickinson probably became a late-life romance though, as their letters were destroyed, this is surmise.[89] Dickinson found a kindred soul in Lord, especially in terms of shared literary interests; the few letters which survived contain multiple quotations of Shakespeare's work, including the plays Othello, Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet and King Lear. In 1880 he gave her Cowden Clarke's Complete Concordance to Shakespeare (1877).[90] Dickinson wrote that "While others go to Church, I go to mine, for are you not my Church, and have we not a Hymn that no one knows but us?"[91] She referred to him as "My lovely Salem"[92] and they wrote to each other religiously every Sunday. Dickinson looked forward to this day greatly; a surviving fragment of a letter written by her states that "Tuesday is a deeply depressed Day".[93] The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see King Lear (disambiguation). ...


After being critically ill for several years, Judge Lord died in March 1884. Dickinson referred to him as "our latest Lost".[94] Two years before this, on April 1, 1882, Dickinson's "Shepherd from 'Little Girl'hood", Charles Wadsworth, also died after a long illness. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Decline and death

Although she continued to write in her last years, Dickinson stopped editing and organizing her poems. She also exacted a promise from her sister Vinnie to burn her papers.[95] Vinnie, who also never married, remained at the Homestead until her own death in 1899.

Emily Dickinson's tombstone in the family plot

The 1880s were a difficult time for the remaining Dickinsons. Irreconcilably alienated from his wife, Austin fell in love in 1882 with Mabel Loomis Todd, an Amherst College faculty wife who had recently moved to the area. Todd never met Dickinson but was intrigued by her, referring to her as "a lady whom the people call the Myth".[96] Austin distanced himself from his family as his affair continued and his wife became sick with grief.[97] Dickinson's mother died on November 14, 1882. Five weeks later, Dickinson wrote "We were never intimate ... while she was our Mother – but Mines in the same Ground meet by tunneling and when she became our Child, the Affection came."[98] The next year, Austin and Sue's third and youngest child, Gilbert—Emily's favorite—died of typhoid fever.[99] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mabel Loomis Todd or Mabel Loomis (November 10, 1856 - October 14, 1932) was an U.S. editor and writer, and wife of astronomer David Peck Todd. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


As death succeeded death, Dickinson found her world upended. In the fall of 1884, she wrote that "The Dyings have been too deep for me, and before I could raise my Heart from one, another has come."[100] That summer she had seen "a great darkness coming" and fainted while baking in the kitchen. She remained unconscious late into the night and weeks of ill health followed. On November 30, 1885, her feebleness and other symptoms were so worrying that Austin canceled a trip to Boston.[101] She was confined to her bed for a few months, but managed to send a final burst of letters in the spring. What is thought to be her last letter was sent to her cousins, Louise and Frances Norcross, and simply read: "Little Cousins, Called Back. Emily".[102] On May 15, 1886, after several days of worsening symptoms, Emily Dickinson died at the age of 55. Austin wrote in his diary that "the day was awful ... she ceased to breathe that terrible breathing just before the [afternoon] whistle sounded for six."[103] Dickinson's chief physician gave the cause of death as Bright's disease and its duration as two and a half years.[104] is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ...


Dickinson was buried, laid in a white coffin with vanilla-scented heliotrope, a Lady's Slipper orchid and a "knot of blue field violets" placed about it.[84][105] The funeral service, held in the Homestead's library, was simple and short; Higginson, who had only met her twice, read "No Coward Soul Is Mine", a poem by Emily Brontë that had been a favorite of Dickinson's.[103] At Dickinson's request, her "coffin [was] not driven but carried through fields of buttercups" for burial in the family plot at West Cemetery on Triangle Street.[82] Binomial name L. The Garden Heliotrope (Heliotropium arborescens) is a highly fragrant perennial plant, originally from Peru. ... Genera See Taxonomy of the orchid family. ... Orchid redirects here. ... Species List of Viola species Viola, commonly called Violets, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species distributed around the world. ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ...


Publication

Despite Dickinson's prolific writing, fewer than a dozen of her poems were published during her lifetime. After her younger sister Vinnie discovered the collection of nearly eighteen hundred poems, Dickinson's first volume was published four years after her death. Until the 1955 publication of Dickinson's Complete Poems by Thomas H. Johnson, her poetry was considerably edited and altered from their manuscript versions. Since 1890 Dickinson has remained continuously in print.


Contemporary

"Safe in their Alabaster Chambers –," entitled "The Sleeping," as it was published in the Springfield Republican in 1862.
"Safe in their Alabaster Chambers –," entitled "The Sleeping," as it was published in the Springfield Republican in 1862.

A few of Dickinson's poems appeared in Samuel Bowles' Springfield Republican between 1858 and 1868. They were published anonymously and heavily edited, with conventionalized punctuation and formal titles.[106] The first poem, "Nobody knows this little rose", may have been published without Dickinson's permission.[107] The Republican also published "A narrow Fellow in the Grass" as "The Snake"; "Safe in their Alabaster Chambers –" as "The Sleeping"; and "Blazing in the Gold and quenching in Purple" as "Sunset".[108][109] The poem "I taste a liquor never brewed –" is an example of the edited versions, the last two lines in the first stanza were completely rewritten for the sake of conventional rhyme. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 305 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (512 × 1,007 pixels, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two poems by Emily Dickinson (uncredited) published in The Springfield Republican in 1862 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 305 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (512 × 1,007 pixels, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Two poems by Emily Dickinson (uncredited) published in The Springfield Republican in 1862 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it...

Original wording
I taste a liquor never brewed –
From Tankards scooped in Pearl –
Not all the Frankfort Berries
Yield such an Alcohol!

Republican version[108]
I taste a liquor never brewed –
From Tankards scooped in Pearl –
Not Frankfort Berries yield the sense
Such a delirious whirl!

In 1864, several poems were altered and published in Drum Beat, to raise funds for medical care for Union soldiers in the war.[110] Another appeared in April 1864 in the Brooklyn Daily Union. [111] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


In the 1870s, Higginson showed Dickinson's poems to Helen Hunt Jackson, who had coincidentally been at the Academy with Dickinson when they were girls.[112] Jackson was deeply involved in the publishing world, and managed to convince Dickinson to publish her poem "Success is counted sweetest" anonymously in a volume called A Masque of Poets.[112] The poem, however, was altered to agree with contemporary taste. It was the last poem published during Dickinson's lifetime. Thomas Wentworth Higginson (December 22, 1823 - May 9, 1911) was an American author, abolitionist, and soldier. ... Helen Hunt Jackson Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (October 18, 1830 - August 12, 1885) was an American writer best known as the author of Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern California. ...


Posthumous

After Dickinson's death, Vinnie Dickinson kept her promise and burned most of the poet's correspondence. Significantly though, Dickinson had left no instructions about the forty notebooks and loose sheets gathered in a locked chest.[113] Vinnie recognized the poems' worth and became obsessed with seeing them published.[114] She turned first to her brother's wife and then to Mabel Loomis Todd, her brother's mistress, for assistance.[115] A feud ensued, with the manuscripts divided between the Todd and Dickinson houses, preventing complete publication of Dickinson's poetry for more than half a century.[116]

Publication – is the Auction
Of the Mind of Man –
Poverty – be justifying
For so foul a thing
...


In the Parcel – Be the Merchant
Of the Heavenly Grace –
But reduce no Human Spirit
To Disgrace of Price

Emily Dickinson, c. 1863[117]

The first volume of Dickinson's Poems, edited jointly by Mabel Loomis Todd and T. W. Higginson, appeared in November 1890.[118] Although Todd claimed that only essential changes were made, the poems were extensively edited to match punctuation and capitalization to late 19th-century standards, with occasional rewordings to reduce Dickinson's obliquity.[119] The first 115-poem volume was a critical and financial success, going through eleven printings in two years.[118] Poems: Second Series followed in 1891, running to five editions by 1893; a third series appeared in 1896. One reviewer, in 1892, wrote: "The world will not rest satisfied till every scrap of her writings, letters as well as literature, has been published".[120] Two years later, two volumes of Dickinson's letters, heavily edited, appeared. In parallel, Susan Dickinson placed a few of Dickinson's poems in literary magazines such as Scribner's Magazine and The Independent. Scribners Magazine is a magazine. ...


Between 1914 and 1929, Dickinson's niece, Martha Dickinson Bianchi, published a new series of collections, including many previously unpublished poems, with similarly normalized punctuation and capitalization. Other volumes edited by Todd and Bianchi followed through the 1930s, gradually making more previously unpublished poems available.


The first scholarly publication came in 1955 with a complete new three-volume set edited by Thomas H. Johnson. It formed the basis of all later Dickinson scholarship. For the first time, the poems were printed very nearly as Dickinson had left them in her manuscripts.[121] They were untitled, only numbered in an approximate chronological sequence, strewn with dashes and irregularly capitalized, and often extremely elliptical in their language.[122] Three years later, Johnson edited and published, along with Theodora Ward, a complete collection of Dickinson's letters. Elliptical may refer to: Ellipse: a shape and mathematical construct Elliptical trainer: an exercise machine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Poetry

See: Emily Dickinson at Wikisource for complete poetic works

Dickinson's poems generally fall into three distinct periods, the works in each period having certain general characters in common.

  • Pre-1861. These are often conventional and sentimental in nature.[123] Thomas H. Johnson, who later published The Poems of Emily Dickinson, was able to date only five of Dickinson's poems before 1858.[124] Two of these are mock valentines done in an ornate and humorous style, and two others are conventional lyrics, one of which is about missing her brother Austin. The fifth poem, which begins "I have a Bird in spring", conveys her grief over the feared loss of friendship and was sent to her friend Sue Gilbert.[124]
  • 1861–1865. This was her most creative period—these poems are more vigorous and emotional. Johnson estimated that she composed 86 poems in 1861, 366 in 1862, 141 in 1863, and 174 in 1864. He also believed that this is when she fully developed her themes of life and death.[125]
  • Post-1866. It is estimated that two-thirds of the entire body of her poetry was written before this year.[125]

Sentimentalism (literally, appealing to the sentiments), as a literary and political discourse, has occurred much in the literary traditions of all regions in the world, and is central to the traditions of Indian literature, Chinese literature, and Vietnamese literature (such as Ho Xuan Huong). ...

Structure and syntax

Dickinson's handwritten manuscript of her poem "Wild Nights – Wild Nights!"
Dickinson's handwritten manuscript of her poem "Wild Nights – Wild Nights!"

The extensive use of dashes and unconventional capitalization in Dickinson's manuscripts, and the idiosyncratic vocabulary and imagery, combine to create a body of work that is "far more various in its styles and forms than is commonly supposed".[126][2] She did not write in traditional iambic pentameter (a convention of English-speaking poetry for centuries), and did not even use a five-foot line. Her line lengths vary from four syllables or two feet to often eight syllables or four feet.[127] Her frequent use of approximate or slant rhyme attracted attention since her work first appeared in print.[127] Her poems typically begin with a declaration or definition in the first line ("The fact that Earth is Heaven"), which is followed by a metaphorical change of the original premise in the second line ("Whether Heaven is Heaven or not").[128] Dickinson's poems can easily be set to music because of the frequent use of rhyme and free verse. Written for the most part in common meter, they can also be set to songs that use the same alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter.[129] Dickinson scholar Anthony Hecht finds resonances not only with songs but also with psalms and riddles, citing the following example: "Who is the East? / The Yellow Man / Who may be Purple if he can / That carries the Sun. / Who is the West? / The Purple Man / Who may be Yellow if He can / That lets Him out again."[126] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,324 × 1,872 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,324 × 1,872 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Dash (disambiguation). ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... In verse, many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their description of the underlying rhythm of a poem. ... Half rhyme, sometimes called slant, sprung, lose or near rhyme, and less commonly eye rhyme (a term covering a broader phenomenon), is consonance on the final consonants of the words involved. ... For the software company, see Freeverse. ... Common metre, abbreviated C. M., is an iambic metre consisting of four lines of length 8,6,8,6. ... Iambic tetrameter is a meter in poetry. ... Iambic trimeter is an ancient metre consisting of three iambic metra (each consisting of two iambi) used in the spoken verses of the Greek tragedy and comedy. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ...


Late 20th-century scholars are "deeply interested" by Dickinson's highly individual use of punctuation and lineation (line lengths and line breaks).[113] Following the publication of one of the few poems that appeared in her lifetime – "A narrow Fellow in the Grass", published as "The Snake" in the Republican – Dickinson complained that the edited punctuation (an added comma and full stop) altered the meaning of the entire poem.[108]

Original wording
A narrow Fellow in the Grass
Occasionally rides –
You may have met Him – did you not
His notice sudden is –

Republican version[108]
A narrow Fellow in the Grass
Occasionally rides –
You may have met Him – did you not,
His notice sudden is.

As Farr points out, "snakes instantly notice you"; Dickinson's version captures the "breathless immediacy" of the encounter; and The Republican's punctuation renders "her lines more commonplace".[113] With the increasingly close focus on Dickinson's structures and syntax has come a growing appreciation that they are "aesthetically based".[113] Although Johnson's landmark 1955 edition of poems was relatively unaltered from the original, later scholars critiqued it for deviating from the style and layout of Dickinson's manuscripts. Meaningful distinctions, these scholars assert, can be drawn from varying lengths and angles of dash, and differing arrangements of text on the page.[130] Several volumes have attempted to render Dickinson's handwritten dashes using many typographic symbols of varying length and angle. R. W. Franklin's 1998 variorum edition of the poems provided alternate wordings to those chosen by Johnson, in a more limited editorial intervention. Franklin also used typeset dashes of varying length to approximate the manuscripts' dashes more closely.[121]


Major themes

Dickinson left no formal statement of her aesthetic intentions and, because of the variety of her themes, her work does not fit conveniently into any one genre. She has been regarded, alongside Emerson (whose poems Dickinson admired), as a Transcendentalist.[131] However, Farr disagrees with this analysis saying that Dickinson's "relentlessly measuring mind ... deflates the airy elevation of the Transcendental".[132] Apart from the major themes discussed below, Dickinson's poetry frequently utilizes humor, puns, irony and satire.[133] Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Ironic redirects here. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

  • Flowers and gardens. Farr notes that Dickinson's "poems and letters almost wholly concern flowers" and that allusions to gardens often refer to an "imaginative realm ... wherein flowers [are] often emblems for actions and emotions".[134] She associates some flowers, like gentians and anemones, with youth and humility; others with prudence and insight.[134] Her poems were often sent to friends with accompanying letters and nosegays.[134] Farr notes that one of Dickinson's earlier poems, written about 1859, appears to "conflate her poetry itself with the posies": "My nosegays are for Captives – / Dim – long expectant eyes – / Fingers denied the plucking, / Patient till Paradise – / To such, if they sh'd whisper / Of morning and the moor – / They bear no other errand, / And I, no other prayer".[134]
  • The Master poems. Dickinson left a large number of poems addressed to "Signor", "Sir" and "Master", who is characterized as Dickinson's "lover for all eternity".[135] These confessional poems are often "searing in their self-inquiry" and "harrowing to the reader" and typically take their metaphors from texts and paintings of Dickinson's day.[135] The Dickinson family themselves believed these poems were addressed to actual individuals but this view is frequently rejected by scholars. Farr, for example, contends that the Master is an unattainable composite figure, "human, with specific characteristics, but godlike" and speculates that Master may be a "kind of Christian muse".[135]
  • Morbidity. Dickinson's poems reflect her "early and lifelong fascination" with illness, dying and death.[136] Perhaps surprisingly for a New England spinster, her poems allude to death by many methods: "crucifixion, drowning, hanging, suffocation, freezing, premature burial, shooting, stabbing and guillotinage". [136] She reserved her sharpest insights into the "death blow aimed by God" and the "funeral in the brain", often reinforced by images of thirst and starvation. Dickinson scholar Vivian Pollak considers these references an autobiographical reflection of Dickinson's "thirsting-starving persona", an outward expression of her needy self-image as small, thin and frail.[136] Dickinson's most psychologically complex poems explore the theme that the loss of hunger for life causes the death of self and place this at "the interface of murder and suicide".[136]
  • Gospel poems. Throughout her life, Dickinson wrote poems reflecting a preoccupation with the teachings of Jesus Christ and, indeed, many are addressed to him.[137] She stresses the Gospels' contemporary pertinence and recreates them, often with "wit and American colloquial language".[137] Scholar Dorothy Oberhaus finds that the "salient feature uniting Christian poets ... is their reverential attention to the life of Jesus Christ" and contends that Dickinson's deep structures place her in the "poetic tradition of Christian devotion" alongside Hopkins, Eliot and Auden.[137] In a Nativity poem, Dickinson combines lightness and wit to revisit an ancient theme: "The Savior must have been / A docile Gentleman – / To come so far so cold a Day / For little Fellowmen / The Road to Bethlehem / Since He and I were Boys / Was leveled, but for that twould be / A rugged billion Miles –".[137]
  • The Undiscovered Continent. Academic Suzanne Juhasz considers that Dickinson saw the mind and spirit as tangible visitable places and that for much of her life she lived within them.[138] Often, this intensely private place is referred to as the "undiscovered continent" and the "landscape of the spirit" and embellished with nature imagery. At other times, the imagery is darker and forbidding—castles or prisons, complete with corridors and rooms—to create a dwelling place of "oneself" where one resides with one's other selves.[138] An example that brings together many of these ideas is: "Me from Myself – to banish – / Had I Art – / Impregnable my Fortress / Unto All Heart – / But since myself—assault Me – / How have I peace / Except by subjugating / Consciousness. / And since We're mutual Monarch / How this be / Except by Abdication – / Me – of Me?".[138]

Species See text. ... This article is about the flower. ... Nosegay may also refer to the name of an anteater in the video game Animal Crossing. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ...

Reception

Dickinson wrote and sent this poem ("A Route to Evanescence") to Thomas Higginson in 1880.
Dickinson wrote and sent this poem ("A Route to Evanescence") to Thomas Higginson in 1880.

The surge of posthumous publication gave Dickinson's poetry its first public exposure. Backed by Higginson and with a favorable notice from William Dean Howells, an editor of Harper's Magazine, the poetry received mixed reviews after it was first published in 1890. Higginson himself stated in his preface to the first edition of Dickinson's published work that the poetry's quality "is that of extraordinary grasp and insight".[139] Maurice Thompson, who was literary editor of The Independent for twelve years, noted in 1891 that her poetry had "a strange mixture of rare individuality and originality".[140] Some critics hailed Dickinson's effort, but disapproved of her unusual non-traditional style. Andrew Lang, a British writer, dismissed Dickinson's work, stating that "if poetry is to exist at all, it really must have form and grammar, and must rhyme when it professes to rhyme. The wisdom of the ages and the nature of man insist on so much".[141] Thomas Bailey Aldrich, a poet and novelist, equally dismissed Dickinson's poetic technique in The Atlantic Monthly in January 1892: "It is plain that Miss Dickinson possessed an extremely unconventional and grotesque fancy. She was deeply tinged by the mysticism of Blake, and strongly influenced by the mannerism of Emerson ... But the incoherence and formlessness of her — versicles are fatal ... an eccentric, dreamy, half-educated recluse in an out-of-the-way New England village (or anywhere else) cannot with impunity set at defiance the laws of gravitation and grammar".[142] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Howells. ... Harpers redirects here. ... Maurice Thompson (born September 9, 1844; died February 15, 1901) was an American novelist. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... Thomas Bailey Aldrich Thomas Bailey Aldrich (born 11th November 1836, died 19th March 1907) was a poet and novelist born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA. When he was but a child his father moved to New Orleans, but after ten years the boy was sent back to Portsmouth--the Rivermouth... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the word itself. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...


Critical attention to Dickinson's poetry was meager from 1897 to the early 1920s.[143] By the start of the 20th century, interest in her poetry became broader in scope and some critics began to consider Dickinson as essentially modern. Rather than seeing Dickinson's poetic styling as a result of lack of knowledge or skill, modern critics believed the irregularities were consciously artistic.[144] In a 1915 essay, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant called the poet's inspiration "daring" and named her "one of the rarest flowers the sterner New England land ever bore".[145] With the growing popularity of modernist poetry in the 1920s, Dickinson's failure to conform to 19th-century poetic form was no longer surprising nor distasteful to new generations of readers. Dickinson was suddenly referred to by various critics as a great woman poet, and a cult following began to form.[146] R. P. Blackmur, in an attempt to focus and clarify the major claims for and against the poet's greatness, wrote in a landmark 1937 critical essay: "... she was a private poet who wrote as indefatigably as some women cook or knit. Her gift for words and the cultural predicament of her time drove her to poetry instead of antimacassars ... She came, as Mr. Tate says, at the right time for one kind of poetry: the poetry of sophisticated, eccentric vision."[147] For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... Richard Palmer Blackmur (January 21, 1904 – February 2, 1965) was an American literary critic and poet. ... An antimacassar is a small cloth placed over the backs or arms of chairs, or the head or cushions of a sofa, to prevent soiling of the permanent fabric. ...


The second wave of feminism created greater cultural sympathy for her as a female poet. In the first collection of critical essays on Dickinson from a female perspective, she is heralded as the greatest woman poet in the English language.[148] Biographers and theorists of the past tended to separate Dickinson's roles as a woman and a poet. For example, George Whicher wrote in his 1952 book This Was a Poet: A Critical Biography of Emily Dickinson, "Perhaps as a poet [Dickinson] could find the fulfillment she had missed as a woman." Feminist criticism, on the other hand, declares that there is a necessary and powerful conjunction between Dickinson being a woman and a poet.[149] Adrienne Rich theorized in "Vesuvius at Home: The Power of Emily Dickinson" (1976) that Dickinson's identity as a woman poet brought her power, making her "neither eccentric nor quaint; she was determined to survive, to use her powers, to practice necessary economics."[150] Similarly, some scholars question the poet's sexuality, theorizing that the numerous letters and poems that were dedicated to Susan Gilbert Dickinson indicate a lesbian romance, and speculating about how this may have influenced her poetry.[151] A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


Legacy

Emily Dickinson is now considered a powerful and persistent figure in American culture.[152] Although much of the early reception concentrated on Dickinson's eccentric and secluded nature, she has become widely acknowledged as an innovative pre-modernist poet.[153] As early as 1891, William Dean Howells wrote that "If nothing else had come out of our life but this strange poetry we should feel that in the work of Emily Dickinson, America, or New England rather, had made a distinctive addition to the literature of the world, and could not be left out of any record of it."[154] Twentieth-century critic Harold Bloom has placed her alongside Walt Whitman, Wallace Stevens, Robert Frost, T. S. Eliot and Hart Crane as a major American poet.[3] Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... Robert Lee Frost (March 26, 1874 – January 29, 1963) was an American poet. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ...

The Dickinson Homestead as it appears today. In 2003 it was made into the Emily Dickinson Museum.
The Dickinson Homestead as it appears today. In 2003 it was made into the Emily Dickinson Museum.

Dickinson is taught in American literature and poetry classes in the United States from middle school to college. Her poetry is frequently anthologized and has been used as texts for art songs by composers such as Aaron Copland, Nick Peros, John Adams and Michael Tilson Thomas.[155] Several schools, such as the Emily Dickinson Elementary School in Bozeman, Montana,[156] have been established in her name. A few literary journals—including The Emily Dickinson Journal, the official publication of the Emily Dickinson International Society—have been founded to examine her work.[157] The Amherst Jones Library's Special Collections department has an Emily Dickinson Collection consisting of approximately seven thousand items, including original manuscript poems and letters, family correspondence, scholarly articles and books, newspaper clippings, theses, plays, photographs and contemporary artwork and prints.[158] Dickinson's herbarium, which is now held in the Houghton Library at Harvard University, was published in 2006 as Emily Dickinson's Herbarium by Harvard University Press. In 1965, in recognition of Dickinson's growing stature as a poet, the Homestead was purchased by Amherst College. It opened to the public for tours, and also served as a faculty residence for many years. The Emily Dickinson Museum was created in 2003 when ownership of the Evergreens, which had been occupied by Dickinson family heirs until 1988, was transferred to the college.[159] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dickinson Homestead, located at 280 Main Street, Amherst, Massachusetts, was the home of poet Emily Dickinson, and currently is the site of a museum dedicated to her. ... The Emily Dickinson Museum is a museum owned by Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts and is a member of Museums10. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Nick Peros (born March 17, 1963) is a Canadian classical composer with an extensive catalogue of works that includes symphonic, orchestral, choral, vocal and chamber genres. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ... Bozeman is a city in southwestern Montana, USA. It is the county seat of Gallatin County. ... The Emily Dickinson Journal is an academic journal founded in 1991 and is the official publication of the Emily Dickinson International Society. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Emily Dickinson Museum is a museum owned by Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts and is a member of Museums10. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ Sources differ as to the number of poems that were published during Emily Dickinson's lifetime, but most put it between seven and ten.
  2. ^ a b McNeil (1986), 2.
  3. ^ a b Bloom (1999), 9; Ford (1966), 122.
  4. ^ Sewall (1974), 321.
  5. ^ Sewall (1974), 17–18.
  6. ^ Sewall (1974), 337; Wolff (1998), 19–21.
  7. ^ Wolff (1998), 14.
  8. ^ Wolff (1998), 36.
  9. ^ Sewall (1974), 324.
  10. ^ Habegger (2001), 85.
  11. ^ a b Sewall (1974), 337.
  12. ^ Farr (2005), 1.
  13. ^ Sewall (1974), 335.
  14. ^ Wolff (1998), 45.
  15. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 129.
  16. ^ Sewall (1974) 322.
  17. ^ Johnston (1960), 302.
  18. ^ Habegger (2001). 142.
  19. ^ Habegger (2001), 148.
  20. ^ Ford (1966), 18.
  21. ^ Habegger (2001), 172.
  22. ^ Wolff (1998), 77.
  23. ^ Ford (1966), 55.
  24. ^ Ford, 47–48.
  25. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 168.
  26. ^ Ford (1966), 37.
  27. ^ Johnston (1960), 153.
  28. ^ a b Sewall (1974), 341.
  29. ^ Ford (1966), 46.
  30. ^ Sewall (1974), 368.
  31. ^ Sewall (1974), 358.
  32. ^ Habegger (2001), 211.
  33. ^ a b Pickard (1967), 19.
  34. ^ Habegger (2001), 213.
  35. ^ Habegger (2001), 216.
  36. ^ Sewall (1974), 401.
  37. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 221.
  38. ^ Habegger (2001), 218.
  39. ^ Knapp (1989), 59.
  40. ^ a b Ford (1966), 18.
  41. ^ Sewall (1974), 683.
  42. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 226.
  43. ^ Sewall (1974), 700–701.
  44. ^ Sewall (1974), 340.
  45. ^ Pickard (1967), 21.
  46. ^ Habegger (2001), 338.
  47. ^ Gura (2004).
  48. ^ Sewall (1974), 444.
  49. ^ Sewall (1974), 447.
  50. ^ Habegger (2001), 330.
  51. ^ Walsh (1971), 87.
  52. ^ a b c Habegger (2001). 342.
  53. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 353.
  54. ^ Sewall (1974), 463.
  55. ^ Sewall (1974), 473.
  56. ^ Habegger (2001: 376); McNeil (1986: 33)
  57. ^ Ford (1966), 39.
  58. ^ Habegger (2001), 405.
  59. ^ Johnston (1960), v.
  60. ^ Sewall (1974), 541.
  61. ^ Habegger (2001), 453.
  62. ^ Johnston (1960), vii.
  63. ^ Habegger (2001), 455.
  64. ^ Black (1964), 45.
  65. ^ Habegger (2001), 456.
  66. ^ Sewall (1974), 554–555.
  67. ^ Wolff (1998), 254.
  68. ^ Wolff (1998), 258.
  69. ^ Habegger (2001), 498.
  70. ^ Habegger (2001), 501.
  71. ^ Habegger (2001), 502.
  72. ^ Johnston (1960), 123–124.
  73. ^ Habegger (2001), 517.
  74. ^ Habegger (2001), 516.
  75. ^ Habegger (2001), 540.
  76. ^ Habegger (2001), 548.
  77. ^ Habegger (2001), 541.
  78. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 547.
  79. ^ Habegger (2001), 521.
  80. ^ Habegger (2001), 523.
  81. ^ Habegger (2001), 524.
  82. ^ a b c Farr (2005), 3–6.
  83. ^ Habegger (2001), 154.
  84. ^ a b c Parker, G9.
  85. ^ Habegger (2001), 562.
  86. ^ Habegger (2001), 566.
  87. ^ Habegger (2001), 569.
  88. ^ Johnston (1960), 661.
  89. ^ Habegger (2001: 587); Sewall (1974), 642.
  90. ^ Sewall (1974), 651.
  91. ^ Sewall (1974), 652.
  92. ^ Habegger (2001), 592; Sewall (1974), 653.
  93. ^ Habegger (2001), 591.
  94. ^ Habegger (2001), 597.
  95. ^ Habegger (2001), 604.
  96. ^ Walsh (1971), 26.
  97. ^ Habegger (2001), 612.
  98. ^ Habegger (2001), 607.
  99. ^ Habegger (2001), 615.
  100. ^ Habegger (2001), 623.
  101. ^ Habegger (2001), 625.
  102. ^ Wolff (1998), 534.
  103. ^ a b Habegger (2001), 627.
  104. ^ Habegger (2001), 622.
  105. ^ Wolff (1998), 535.
  106. ^ McNeil (1986), 33.
  107. ^ Habegger (2001), 389.
  108. ^ a b c d Ford (1966), 32.
  109. ^ Wolff (1998), 245.
  110. ^ Habegger (2001), 402–403.
  111. ^ Habegger (2001), 403.
  112. ^ a b Sewall (1974), 580–583.
  113. ^ a b c d Farr (1996), 3.
  114. ^ Pickard (1967), xv.
  115. ^ Wolff (1998), 535.
  116. ^ Wolff (1998), 6
  117. ^ Johnston (1960), 348–349.
  118. ^ a b Wolff (1998), 537.
  119. ^ McNeil (1986), 34; Black (1964), 42.
  120. ^ Buckingham (1989), 194.
  121. ^ a b Martin (2002), 17.
  122. ^ McNeil (1986), 35.
  123. ^ Ford (1966), 68.
  124. ^ a b Pickard (1967), 20.
  125. ^ a b Johnston (1960), viii.
  126. ^ a b Hecht (1996), 153–155.
  127. ^ a b Ford (1966), 63.
  128. ^ McNeil (1986), 11.
  129. ^ Wolff (1998), 186.
  130. ^ Crumbley (1997), 14.
  131. ^ Bloom (1998), 18.
  132. ^ Farr (1996), 13.
  133. ^ Wolff (1998), 171.
  134. ^ a b c d Farr (2005), 1–7.
  135. ^ a b c Farr (1996), 7–8.
  136. ^ a b c d Pollak (1996), 62–65.
  137. ^ a b c d Oberhaus (1996), 105–119
  138. ^ a b c Juhasz (1996), 130–140.
  139. ^ Black (1964), 12.
  140. ^ Black (1964), 28.
  141. ^ Black (1964), 37.
  142. ^ Black (1964), 55.
  143. ^ Black (1964), vi.
  144. ^ Wells (1929), 243–259.
  145. ^ Black (1964), 89.
  146. ^ Black (1964), 202.
  147. ^ Black (1964), 223.
  148. ^ Juhasz (1983), 1.
  149. ^ Juhasz (1983), 9.
  150. ^ Juhasz (1983), 10.
  151. ^ Martin (2002), 58
  152. ^ Martin (2002), 1.
  153. ^ Martin (2002), 2.
  154. ^ Black (1964), 24.
  155. ^ "Emily Dickinson". Emily Ezust's Lied and Art Song Texts website. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  156. ^ "Mission Statement". Emily Dickinson School website, Bozeman, Montana. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
  157. ^ "The Emily Dickinson Journal". The Johns Hopkin University Press website, Baltimore. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  158. ^ "Emily Dickinson Collection". Jones Library, Inc. website, Amherst, Massachusetts. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  159. ^ "History of the Museum". Emily Dickinson Museum website, Amherst, Massachusetts. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Editions of poetry

  • Franklin, R. W. (ed). 1999. The Poems of Emily Dickinson. Cambridge: Belknap Press. ISBN 0674676246
  • Johnston, Thomas H. (ed). 1960. The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Secondary sources

  • Bianchi, Martha Dickinson. 1970. Emily Dickinson Face to Face: Unpublished Letters with Notes and Reminiscences. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books.
  • Blacke, Caesar R. (ed). 1964. The Recognition of Emily Dickinson: Selected Criticism Since 1890. Ed. Caesar R. Blake. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Bloom, Harold. 1999. Emily Dickinson. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0791051064.
  • Buckingham, Willis J. (ed). 1989. Emily Dickinson's Reception in the 1890s: A Documentary History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0822936046.
  • Crumbley, Paul. 1997. Inflections of the Pen: Dash and Voice in Emily Dickinson. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 081311988x.
  • Farr, Judith (ed). 1996. Emily Dickinson: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice Hall International Paperback Editions. ISBN 978-0130335241.
  • Farr, Judith. 2005. The Gardens of Emily Dickinson. Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674018297.
  • Ford, Thomas W. 1966. Heaven Beguiles the Tired: Death in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson. University of Alabama Press.
  • Gura, Philip F. 2004. "How I Met and Dated Miss Emily Dickinson: An Adventure on eBay", Common-place, The Interactive Journal of Early American Life, Inc. 4( 2). Retrieved: June 23, 2008.
  • Habegger, Alfred. 2001. My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0679449867.
  • Hecht, Anthony. 1996. "The Riddles of Emily Dickinson" in Farr (1996) 149–162.
  • Juhasz, Suzanne (ed). 1983. Feminist Critics Read Emily Dickinson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253321700.
  • Juhasz, Suzanne. 1996. "The Landscape of the Spirit" in Farr (1996) 130–140.
  • Knapp, Bettina L. 1989. Emily Dickinson. New York: Continuum Publishing.
  • Martin, Wendy (ed). 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Emily Dickinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521001188.
  • McNeil, Helen. 1986. Emily Dickinson. London: Virago Press. ISBN 0394747666
  • Oberhaus, Dorothy Huff. 1996. " 'Tender pioneer': Emily Dickinson's Poems on the Life of Christ" in Farr (1996) 105–119.
  • Parker, Peter. 2007. "New Feet Within My Garden Go: Emily Dickinson's Herbarium", The Daily Telegraph, June 29, 2007. Retrieved: January 18, 2008.
  • Pickard, John B. 1967. Emily Dickinson: An Introduction and Interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Pollak, Vivian R. 1996. "Thirst and Starvation in Emily Dickinson's Poetry" in Farr (1996) 62–75.
  • Sewall, Richard B.. 1974. The Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux. ISBN 0674530802.
  • Smith, Martha Nell. 1992. Rowing in Eden: Rereading Emily Dickinson. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292776667
  • Stocks, Kenneth. 1988. Emily Dickinson and the Modern Consciousness: A Poet of Our Time. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Walsh, John Evangelist. 1971. The Hidden Life of Emily Dickinson. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Wells, Anna Mary. 1929. "Early Criticism of Emily Dickinson", American Literature, Vol. 1, No. 3. (Nov., 1929).
  • Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. 1998. Emily Dickinson. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0394544188.

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard B. Sewall (1908-16 April 2003) was a professor of English at Yale University, and author of the influential works The Life of Emily Dickinson and The Vision of Tragedy. ...

External links

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Emily Dickinson
Persondata
NAME Dickinson, Emily
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Dickinson, Emily Elizabeth
SHORT DESCRIPTION Poet
DATE OF BIRTH December 10, 1830
PLACE OF BIRTH Amherst, Massachusetts, United States
DATE OF DEATH May 15, 1886
PLACE OF DEATH Amherst, Massachusetts, United States

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Emily Dickinson - MSN Encarta (865 words)
Dickinson’s simply constructed yet intensely felt, acutely intellectual writings take as their subject issues vital to humanity: the agonies and ecstasies of love, sexuality, the unfathomable nature of death, the horrors of war, God and religious belief, the importance of humor, and musings on the significance of literature, music, and art.
Dickinson’s first editors molded their descriptions of her and her work to conform to 19th-century stereotypes of women writers and to downplay qualities that did not match the conventional conception.
Dickinson’s method of binding about 800 of her poems into 40 manuscript books and distributing several hundred of them in letters is now widely recognized as her particular form of self-publication.
Emily Dickinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2095 words)
Emily Dickinson, sometime around 1850, (supposed to be) the second and only other known photo of her.
Emily Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a prominent family well known for their political and educational influence.
Dickinson lived most of her life in the family's houses in Amherst, which have been preserved as the Emily Dickinson Museum.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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