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Encyclopedia > Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo

1st President of the Philippines
President of the 1st Republic
In office
January 23, 1899 – April 1, 1901
Vice President(s)   Mariano Trias
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Manuel L. Quezon (position abolished 1901-1935)

Born March 22, 1869
Cavite El Viejo (Kawit), Cavite
Died February 6, 1964
Quezon City, Metro Manila
Political party None
Spouse (1) Hilaria del Rosario-died
(2) Maria Agoncillo
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature Image:Aguinaldo Sig.png

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role in Philippine independence, essentially in the Philippine Revolution against Spain, as well as in the Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. Image File history File linksMetadata Gen_Aguinaldo. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mariano Trias y Closas (October 12, 1868 – February 22, 1914) was the first Vice President of the First Philippine Republic. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Kawit (formerly Cavite El Viejo) is a 1st class urban municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. ... CAVITE is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Quezon City P (Filipino: Lungsod Quezon), is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. ... For the article on the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Hilaria del Rosario Aguinaldo (1877-March 6, 1921) was the first wife of General Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines (1898-1901). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in leap years). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was a conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought independence for the Filipinos. ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,000 Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ...


In the Philippines, Aguinaldo is considered to be the country's first and the youngest Philippine President, though his government failed to obtain any foreign recognition. The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ...

Contents

Early life and career

The seventh of eight children of Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy, he was born into a Chinese-mestizo family on March 22, 1869 in Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit), Cavite province. His father was gobernadorcillo (town head), and, as members of the Chinese-mestizo minority, they enjoyed relative wealth and power. Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... Kawit (formerly Cavite El Viejo) is a 1st class urban municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. ... CAVITE is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. ... Map of the Philippines showing all the regions and their provinces. ...


As a young boy, Aguinaldo received basic education from his great-aunt and later attended the town's elementary school. In 1880, he took up his secondary course education at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, which he quit on his third year to return home instead to help his widowed mother manage their farm. Colegio de San Juan de Letran (CSJL) (also as San Juan de Letran College (SJLC), Letran College (LC) or simply Letran), was founded in 1620. ...


At the age of 17, Emilio was elected cabeza de barangay of Binakayan, the most progressive barrio of Cavite El Viejo. He held this position serving for his town-mates for eight years. He also engaged in inter-island shipping, travelling as far south as the Sulu Archipelago. A barangay (Tagalog: baranggay , pronounced as ba-rang-gai, gai as in guy), also known by its former name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ...


In 1893, the Maura Law was passed to reorganize town governments with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous, changing the designation of town head from gobernadorcillo to capitan municipal effective 1895. On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo was elected town head, becoming the first person to hold the title of capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo. The Maura Law was a law that laid the basic foundations for municipal government in the Philippines. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Family

His first marriage was in 1896 with Hilaria Del Rosario (1877-1921), and they had five children (Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., Maria and Cristina). His second wife was Maria Agoncillo.


Philippine Revolution

Emilio Aguinaldo c. 1898
Emilio Aguinaldo c. 1898

In 1895, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan brotherhood, a secret organization then led by Andrés Bonifacio dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence for the Philippines. He joined as a lieutenant under Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo and rose to the rank of general in a few months. With the Katipunan, he helped the Philippines erupt in revolt against the Spaniards in 1896. He won major victories in Cavite Province, temporarily driving the Spanish out of the area. However, renewed Spanish military pressure compelled the rebels to restructure their forces in a more cohesive manner. The insulated fragmentation that had aided the Katipunan's secrecy had outlived its usefulness. In open war, unified leadership was required. photo of Emilio Aguinaldo, c. ... photo of Emilio Aguinaldo, c. ... The Katipunan was a secret society founded in the Philippines by Andrés Bonifacio aimed towards liberating the country from the Spanish colonizers. ... Andrés Bonifacio Andrés Bonifacio (November 30, 1863 - May 10, 1897) was a leader in the revolution of the Philippines against Spanish colonial rule, the first revolution in Asia against European colonial rule. ... Baldomero Aguinaldo (February 27, 1869—February 4, 1915) was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. ... CAVITE is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. ...


Bonifacio presided over a Convention in Tejeros (deep in Aguinaldo territory) to elect an independent Filipino government. Away from his power base, Bonifacio expectedly lost the leadership to Aguinaldo, and was elected instead to the office of Secretary of the Interior. Even this was questioned by an Aguinaldo supporter, claiming Bonifacio had not the necessary schooling for the job. Insulted, Bonifacio declared the Convention null and void, and sought to return to his power base in Rizal. Bonifacio was charged, tried and found guilty of treason (in absentia) by a Cavite military tribunal. Bonifacio was sentenced to death. He and his party were intercepted by Aguinaldo's men, with violence that left Bonifacio mortally wounded. Aguinaldo confirmed the death sentence, and the dying Bonifacio was hauled to the mountains of Maragondon in Cavite, and executed on May 10, 1897, even as Aguinaldo and his forces were retreating in the face of Spanish assault. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Biak na Bato

Spanish pressure intensified, eventually forcing Aguinaldo's forces to retreat to the mountains. On December 14, 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was concluded. Under the pact, Aguinaldo agreed to end hostilities and to exile himself and the revolutionary leadership, in exchange for amnesty and cash 'indemnities' in the amount of 800,000 pesos. Aguinaldo took the money offered and, along with 34 other leaders of the rebellion, exiled himself in Hong Kong. The following were the officers of the Supreme Council that oversaw the pact. Emilio Aguinaldo was President and Mariano Trias, the Vice President. Other officials included Antonio Montenegro for Foreign Affairs, Isabelo Artacho for the Interior, Baldomero Aguinaldo for the Treasury, and Emiliano Riego de Dios for War. December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 7. ...


However, thousands of other Katipuneros continued to fight the Revolution against Spain for a sovereign nation. Unlike Aguinaldo who came from a priveldged background, the bulk of these fighters were peasants and workers who were not willing to settle for 'indemnities.'


In early 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States. Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines in May 1898. He immediately resumed revolutionary activities against the Spaniards, now receiving verbal encouragement from emissaries of the United States.

General Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the Assembly of Representatives that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina on Jan. 21st 1899
General Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the Assembly of Representatives that passed the Constitución Política de la República Filipina on Jan. 21st 1899

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1188x951, 256 KB) Summary General Emilio Aguinaldo Description: General Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the Assembly of Representatives that passes the Constitución Política de la República Filipina on Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1188x951, 256 KB) Summary General Emilio Aguinaldo Description: General Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the Assembly of Representatives that passes the Constitución Política de la República Filipina on Jan. ...

Spanish-American War

In 1898, the Spanish-American War started and Aguinaldo contacted American officials in hopes that they would aid in his struggle for independence. He initially received mixed signals, but fought in alliance with the Americans to oust the Spanish, including turning over 15,000 captured Spanish troops over to Admiral Dewey. However, relations with the Americans became increasingly strained when they showed no desire to recognize Philippine independence and sovereignty, and instead began occupying the country as the Spanish had. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence on June 12, 1898 [1]. The Philippine Constitutional Convention elected him President on January 1, 1899, leading to his inauguration on January 23. Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place... George Dewey (December 26, 1837 – January 16, 1917) was an admiral of the United States Navy, best known for his victory (without the loss of a single life of his own forces) at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. ... The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898 in the Philippines where Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines first Republican President) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain after the latter was defeated at... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Philippine-American War

On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry as he crossed the San Juan bridge. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another. February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,000 Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ...


Aguinaldo led resistance to the American occupation, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail. On June 2, 1899, a telegram from Aguinaldo was received by Gen. Antonio Luna, an arrogant but brilliant general and looming rival in the military hierarchy, ordering him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. However, treachery was afoot, as Aguinaldo felt the need to rid himself of this new threat to power. Three days later (June 5), when Luna arrived, he learned Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. As Gen. Luna was about to depart, he was shot, then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. Luna was later buried in the churchyard, and Aguinaldo made no attempt to punish or even discipline Luna's murderers. Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... // Gen. ...


Less than two years later, after the famous Battle of Tirad Pass and the death of his last most trusted general Gregorio del Pilar, Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901 by US General Frederick Funston, with the help of Macabebe trackers [who saw Aguinaldo as a bigger problem than the Americans]. The American task force gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners. Combatants United States Philippines Commanders Major P.C. March Gregorio del Pilar Strength 500 60 Casualties 2 dead and 9 wounded 52 dead and wounded The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the Philippine Thermopylae was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899... Gregorio del Pilar was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine-American War. ... Palanan is a remote municipality in the province of Isabela in the Philippines. ... Isabela is a province of the Philippines located in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Brig. ...


Funston later noted Aguinaldo's "dignified bearing", "excellent qualities," and "humane instincts." Of course, Funston was writing this after Aguinaldo had volunteered to swear fealty to the United States, if only his life was spared. Aguinaldo pledged allegiance to America on April 1, 1901, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. Nevertheless, many others (like Miguel Malvar and Macario Sakay) continued to resist the American occupation. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a leader in the Philippine Revolution (1896—1898). ... Katagalugan is the short lived republic in the mountains of Southern Luzon founded in 1902 by members of the Filipino Katipunan. ...


Presidency of the First Republic of the Philippines

Official Malacanang Portrait of General Aguinaldo
Official Malacanang Portrait of General Aguinaldo

Aguinaldo appointed two premiers in his tenure. These were Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. Official portrait of Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo. ... Official portrait of Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo. ... The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official position of the head of the government of the Philippines. ... Apolinario Mabini Apolinario Mabini (July 23, 1864—May 13, 1903) was a Filipino theoretician who wrote the constitution for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first premier in 1899. ... Pedro Alejandro Paterno (February 27, 1858—March 11, 1911) was a Filipino statesman as well as a poet and writer. ...

Aguinaldo cabinet

President Aguinaldo had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the war situation resulted in his ruling by decree.

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Emilio Aguinaldo 1899–1901
Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini January 21 - May 7, 1899
Pedro Paterno May 7 - November 13, 1899
Minister of Finance Mariano Trias January 21 - May 7, 1899
Hugo Ilagan May 7 - November 13, 1899
Minister of the Interior Teodoro Sandico January 21 - May 7, 1899
Severino de las Alas May 7 - November 13, 1899
Minister of War Baldomero Aguinaldo January 21 - May 7, 1899
Mariano Trias May 7 - November 13, 1899
Minister of Welfare Gracio Gonzaga January 21 - May 7, 1899
Minister of Foreign Affairs Apolinario Mabini January 21 - May 7, 1899
Felipe Buencamino May 7 - November 13, 1899
Minister of Public Instruction Aguedo Velarde 1899
Minister of Public Works and Communications Maximo Paterno 1899
Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce Leon Ma. Guerrero May 7 - November 13, 1899

The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official position of the head of the government of the Philippines. ... Apolinario Mabini Apolinario Mabini (July 23, 1864—May 13, 1903) was a Filipino theoretician who wrote the constitution for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first premier in 1899. ... Pedro Alejandro Paterno (February 27, 1858—March 11, 1911) was a Filipino statesman as well as a poet and writer. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... Mariano Trias y Closas (October 12, 1868 – February 22, 1914) was the first Vice President of the First Philippine Republic. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Baldomero Aguinaldo (February 27, 1869—February 4, 1915) was a leader of the Philippine Revolution. ... Mariano Trias y Closas (October 12, 1868 – February 22, 1914) was the first Vice President of the First Philippine Republic. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... Apolinario Mabini Apolinario Mabini (July 23, 1864—May 13, 1903) was a Filipino theoretician who wrote the constitution for the first Philippine republic of 1899-1901, and served as its first premier in 1899. ...

U.S. Occupation

During the United States occupation, Aguinaldo organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución (Association of Veterans of the Revolution), which worked to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government.


When the American government finally allowed the Philippine flag to be displayed in 1919, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution and the declaration of Independence. His home still stands, and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine. The Aguinaldo Shrine is a national shrine of the Philippines, located in Kawit, Cavite. ...


Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president but lost by a landslide to fiery Spanish mestizo Manuel L. Quezon. The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence. Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ...


Aguinaldo again retired to private life, until the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in World War II. He cooperated with the Japanese, making speeches, issuing articles and infamous radio addresses in support of the Japanese — including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Corregidor to surrender in order to spare the innocence of the Filipino youth. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964) was an American general and Medal of Honor recipient, who was Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific Area during World War II. He lost the Philippines, but led the defense of Australia, and the recapture of New Guinea, the... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ...


After the Americans retook the Philippines, Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese. He was held in Bilibid prison for months until released by presidential amnesty. In his trial, it was eventually deemed that his collaboration with the Japanese was probably made under great duress, and he was released.


Aguinaldo lived to see independence granted to the Philippines July 4, 1946, when the United States Government marked the full restoration and recognition of Philippine sovereignty. During the independence parade at the Luneta, the 77-year old general carried the flag he raised in Kawit on June 12, 1898, the date he believed to be the true Independence Day. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Post-American era

Emilio Aguinaldo is depicted on the front of the 5-peso bill (to be phased out but will still be a legal tender).
Emilio Aguinaldo is depicted on the front of the 5-peso bill (to be phased out but will still be a legal tender).

In 1950, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' interests and welfare. Front side of the 5-Philippine peso bill. ... Front side of the 5-Philippine peso bill. ... Philippine peso bills are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) for circulation in the Philippines. ... Elpidio Quirino Elpidio Quirino (November 16, 1890—February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. ...


In 1962, when the United States rejected Philippine claims for the destruction wrought by American forces in World War II, president Diosdado Macapagal changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. Aguinaldo rose from his sickbed to attend the celebration of independence 64 years after he declared it. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... For the airport, see Diosdado Macapagal International Airport Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was a Filipino politician who served as the 9th President of the Philippines. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ...


Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964 of coronary thrombosis at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. He was 95 years old. His remains are buried at the Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite. When he died, he was the last surviving non-royal head of state to have served in the 19th century. February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Quezon City P (Filipino: Lungsod Quezon), is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. ... The Aguinaldo Shrine is a national shrine of the Philippines, located in Kawit, Cavite. ... Kawit (formerly Cavite El Viejo) is a 1st class urban municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. ... CAVITE is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. ...


See also

Flag ratio: 1:2 The national flag of the Philippines features an eight-rayed sun and three stars, all in gold, on a white equilateral triangle on the mast. ... The history of the Philippines begins with the arrival of the first humans in the Philippines by land bridges at least 30,000 years ago. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was a conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought independence for the Filipinos. ... The Katipunan was a secret society founded in the Philippines by Andrés Bonifacio aimed towards liberating the country from the Spanish colonizers. ... Hilaria del Rosario Aguinaldo (1877-March 6, 1921) was the first wife of General Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines (1898-1901). ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba First Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 379 U.S. dead; considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish-American War took place... Combatants United States Philippines Commanders William McKinley Emilio Aguinaldo Strength 126,000 soldiers 80,000 soldiers Casualties 4,324 U.S. soldiers dead 2,000 Philippine Constabulary 16,000 soldiers killed est. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Aguinaldo Shrine is a national shrine of the Philippines, located in Kawit, Cavite. ... Former Philippine Prime Minister Cesar E.A. Virata Cesar Emilio Aguinaldo Virata (b. ...

External links

  • The Philippine Presidency Project
  • Filipinos in History - Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Works by Emilio Aguinaldo at Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

References

  • Aguinaldo, Emilio (1964). Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.
Preceded by:
(none) - Governor General of the Philippines Diego de los Ríos
President of the Philippines
1898–1901
Succeeded by:
abolished


The Governor-General of the Philippines was the chief political executive of the Philippines from 1901 to 1935, during the period when they were governed by the United States of America. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ...

Presidents of the Philippines - List
Seal of the President of the Philippines
  Aguinaldo | Quezon | Osmeña | Laurel | Roxas | Quirino | Magsaysay  
  Garcia | Macapagal | Marcos | Aquino | Ramos | Estrada | Arroyo   

The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... This a complete list of Presidents of the Philippines that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (793x792, 592 KB)[1] This logo is an official seal of a government or one of its government agencies, and may be subject to copyright, trademark, and/or other restrictions on its reproduction, especially in commercial contexts. ... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... Sergio Osmeña (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was the second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ... Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. ... Elpidio Quirino Elpidio Quirino (November 16, 1890—February 29, 1956) was the sixth President of the Philippines. ... Ramón Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) was the third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death. ... Carlos Polestico Garcia (November 4, 1896–June 14, 1971) was the 8th president of the Philippines (1957-1961). ... For the airport, see Diosdado Macapagal International Airport Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was a Filipino politician who served as the 9th President of the Philippines. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth president of the Philippines, serving from 1965 to 1986. ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco–Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. ... José Marcelo Ejército a. ... The young Gloria Macapagal (far right) and her family; when this picture was taken, her father Diosdado was the President of the Philippines. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Seal of the Vice President of the Philippines The Vice President of the Philippines is the second highest executive official of the Philippine government. ... This a complete list of Presidents of the Philippines that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by date of birth that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents by date of death that consists of the 10 heads of state in the history of the Philippines that already passed away. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents by age at assumption of office, not election to the Presidency, that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by time in office that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Presidents of the Philippines by first name that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents by middle name, listed in alphabetical order by middle name, that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents by last name, listed in alphabetical order by last name, that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by nicknames that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents by college education that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by province that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a list of the occupations of Philippine Presidents by previous occupation that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by religious affiliations that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Philippine Presidents by political affiliation that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a list of the occupations of Philippine Presidents by political occupation before they became Presidents, that consists of the 14 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is inaugurated in front of the Cebu Provincial Capitol last June 30, 2004. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents who served one term or less during their presidency, that consists of the 9 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents who served more than one term during their presidency, that consists of the 5 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Presidents who served by currency appearances, that consists of the 7 heads of state in the history of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of Vice Presidents of the Philippines. ... This is a complete list of current and former Vice Presidents of the Philippines by date of birth. ... This is a complete list of Philippine Vice Presidents by date of death that consists of the 9 vice presidents in the history of the Philippines that already passed away. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


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Emilio Aguinaldo (312 words)
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born into the local elite of Cavite on the Island of Luzon in the Philippines.
That same year Aguinaldo joined the secret, nationalist brotherhood Katipunan founded by Andrés Bonifacio.
After the U.S. declared war on Spain, Aguinaldo saw a possibility that the Philippines might achieve its independence; the U.S. hoped instead that Aguinaldo would lend his troops to its effort against Spain.
Emilio Aguinaldo information - Search.com (1681 words)
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869—February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader.
Aguinaldo initially commuted the sentence but was eventually prevailed upon by his officers who carried out Bonifacio's execution on May 10, 1897.
Emilio Aguinaldo was President and Mariano Trias, the Vice President.
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