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Encyclopedia > Emiliano Zapata
Emiliano Zapata Salazar

General Emiliano Zapata.
Date of birth: August 8, 1879(1879-08-08)
Place of birth: Flag of Mexico Anenecuilco, Morelos
Date of death: April 10, 1919 (aged 39)
Place of death: Flag of Mexico Chinameca, Morelos
Major organizations: Liberation Army of the South

Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879April 10, 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the president Porfirio Díaz. He formed and commanded an important revolutionary force, the Liberation Army of the South. Emiliano Zapata may refer to: Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879–April 10, 1919), a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution Emiliano Zapata (film), a 1970 film Category: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (390x602, 35 KB)Source: [1] This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_(1823-1864,_1867-1968). ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico_(1917-1934). ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The Ejército Libertador del Sur (ELS) was an army formed and led by General Emiliano Zapata in 1910 in the southern Mexican state of Morelos, thus starting the Mexican Revolution. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... The Ejército Libertador del Sur (ELS) was an army formed and led by General Emiliano Zapata in 1910 in the southern Mexican state of Morelos, thus starting the Mexican Revolution. ...

Contents

Biography

Background

Emiliano Zapata (right) and his brother Cesar Augusto Zapata
Emiliano Zapata (right) and his brother Cesar Augusto Zapata

Zapata was born to Gabriel Zapata and Cleofas Salazar in the small central state of Morelos, in the village of Anenecuilco (modern-day Ayala municipality). He was the ninth out of ten children. He had to care for his family because his father died when Zapata was 17. He was of mestizo ancestry. At that time, Mexico was ruled by a dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz, who had seized power in 1876. The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or Mexico) comprises 31 states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Ciudad Ayala is a city in the Mexican state of Morelos. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The social system of the time was a sort of proto-capitalist feudal system, with large landed estates (haciendas) controlling more and more of the land and squeezing out the independent communities of Native Americans and mestizos, who were then subsequently forced into debt slavery (peonaje) on the haciendas. Díaz ran local elections to pacify the people and run a government that they could argue was self-imposed. Under Díaz, close confidantes and associates were given offices in districts throughout Mexico. These offices became the enforcers of "land reforms" that actually concentrated the haciendas into fewer hands. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ... Look up peon, peón in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1...


Zapata's family, although not wealthy, still retained its independence. Like most of the families in Anenecuilco, they were always in danger of poverty, although avoiding peonage and maintaining their own land (rancho). In fact, the family had in previous generations been porfirista, that is, supporters of Díaz. Zapata himself always had a reputation for being a fancy dresser, appearing at bullfights and rodeos in his elaborate charro (cowboy) costume. Though his flashiness would usually have associated him with the rich hacendados who controlled the lands, he seems to have retained the admiration and even adoration of the people of his village, Anenecuilco, so that by the time he was 30, he was the head of the defense committee of the village, a post which made him the spokesman for the village's interests. He was directly elected to this position during the autumn of 1909, just a year before the start of the revolution. The word peon, derived from the Spanish peón, in its root connoting a person who is on foot rather than mounted (see caballero), and the derivation peonage are English words which have a variety of related meanings: In Spanish-speaking countries, especially those in Latin America, where the hacienda... Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the bull itself; these maneuvers are performed at... For the Spanish entertainer whose full name is Maria Rosario Pilar Martinez Molina Baeza, see Charo. ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

Zapata became a leading figure in the village of Anenecuilco, where his family had lived for many generations, and he became involved in struggles for the rights of the campesinos of Morelos. He was able to oversee the redistribution of the land from some haciendas peacefully, but had problems with others. He observed numerous conflicts between villagers and hacendados over the constant theft of village land, and in one instance, saw the hacendados torch an entire village. Image File history File links Zapataandvilla. ... Image File history File links Zapataandvilla. ... For the Filipino boxer, see Francisco Guilledo. ...


For many years, he campaigned steadfastly for the rights of the villagers, first establishing via ancient title deeds their claims to disputed land, and then pressing the recalcitrant governor of Morelos into action. Finally, disgusted with the slow response from the government and the overt bias towards the wealthy plantation owners, Zapata began making use of armed force, simply taking over the land in dispute. Title is a legal term for an owners interest in a piece of property. ...


Revolution against Huerta and Carranza

General Emiliano Zapata in Cuernavaca (April 1911)
General Emiliano Zapata in Cuernavaca (April 1911)

Madero was soon overthrown by Victoriano Huerta, a former porfirista general, who granted amnesty to Díaz and suppressed resistance to land reforms. General Huerta murdered Madero in February of 1913. In May, Huerta closed the House of the World Worker, which was largely made up of intellectual radicals including Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama. The peasant reaction to this increased the size of Zapata's forces considerably, and also gave rise to a new group in the north: the Villistas under Pancho Villa. The Villistas were mainly composed of Madero supporters. Zapata at first was hesitant to meet with Villa, after Villa vehemently rejected the Plan de Ayala when a Zapatista introduced him to the concept in prison. Image File history File links Emiliano_Zapata_en_la_ciudad_de_Cuernavaca. ... Image File history File links Emiliano_Zapata_en_la_ciudad_de_Cuernavaca. ... Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (December 23, 1850 – January 13, 1916) was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... General Pancho Villa José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878 – July 20, 1923) — better known by his nom de guerre Francisco Villa or, in its diminutive form, Pancho Villa — was one of the foremost generals of the Mexican Revolution. ... For the Filipino boxer, see Francisco Guilledo. ...


Opposition to Huerta coalesced under Venustiano Carranza, who led a Constitutionalist faction with which both Villa and Zapata eventually allied. These forces proved too much for Huerta and he was quickly deposed. Following his defeat, the Constitutionalists set up a convention to decide the form of the new government. Zapata refused to attend the convention, pointing out that none of the attendees had been elected. Instead, the chiefs in Morelos sent a delegation to present the Plan de Ayala for consideration and observe the convention. Venustiano Carranza Garza (December 29, 1859 – May 21, 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. ...


Soon thereafter Carranza had himself made head of the government, which sparked further outrage. Initially, Carranza commanded the loyalty of Emiliano Álvaro Obregón, who suppressed the Villista guerrillas. The Zapatistas, however, remained mobilised, but grew increasingly fractured after many long years of campaigning, in which Gen. Pablo González, appointed by Carranza in 1916 to recover the State of Morelos from Zapata's control, hanged many peasants and destroyed property all over the state, with no effect since Zapata's forces continued to fight, even recovering the city of Cuernavaca by mid-1917. General Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. ... Pablo González may refer to: Pablo González del Amo, Spanish film editor Pablo González Casanova, Mexican sociologist, UNAM rector Pablo González Couñago, Spanish footballer Pablo González Garza, Constitutionalist general in the Mexican Revolution Pablo González (cyclist), Chilean competitive cyclist Pablo González (football...


The Carranza regime ultimately put a bounty on Zapata's head, expecting disenfranchised Zapatistas to betray him. It also attempted to entice away the other chiefs in the Zapatista army; neither action proved successful.


Death

Zapatas dead body on display in Cuautla on the day he died.
Zapatas dead body on display in Cuautla on the day he died.

Although government forces could never completely defeat Zapata in battle, he fell victim to a carefully staged ambush by Gen. Pablo González and his lieutenant, Col. Jesús Guajardo. Pablo González may refer to: Pablo González del Amo, Spanish film editor Pablo González Casanova, Mexican sociologist, UNAM rector Pablo González Couñago, Spanish footballer Pablo González Garza, Constitutionalist general in the Mexican Revolution Pablo González (cyclist), Chilean competitive cyclist Pablo González (football...


Guajardo proposed González feign a defection to Zapata's forces. González agreed, and to make the defection appear sincere, he arranged for Guajardo to attack a Federal column, killing 57 soldiers. Zapata subsequently agreed to receive a messenger from Guajardo, to arrange a meeting to speak about Guajardo's defection.


On April 10, 1919, Guajardo invited Zapata to a meeting, intimating that he intended to defect to the revolutionaries. However, when Zapata arrived at the Hacienda de San Juan, in Chinameca, Ayala municipality, Guajardo's men riddled him with bullets. They then took his body to Cuautla to claim the bounty, where they are reputed to have been given only half of what was promised. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ciudad Ayala is a city in the Mexican state of Morelos. ... Cuautla is a city and its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Morelos. ...


Following Zapata's death, the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart, although Zapata's heir apparent Gildardo Magaña and many other Zapata adherents went on to political careers as representatives of Zapatista causes and positions in the Mexican army and government. Some of his former generals like Genovevo de la O allied with Obregón while others eventually disappeared after Carranza was deposed. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Mexican revolutionary and politician Born 1891 in Zamora, Michoacán, to a Liberal trading family and was sent to study economy in the U.S. Back in Mexico he was involved in the anti-reelectionist movement and had to flee to the insurrectionary Zapatista country people in Morelos in 1911. ... Genovevo de la O (3 January 1876 - 12 June 1952) was an important figure of the Mexican Revolution. ...


Legacy

Zapata's influence, however, lasts to this day, particularly in revolutionary tendencies in south Mexico. Most notably, a revolutionary movement of indigenous peoples that emerged in the state of Chiapas in 1994 gave themselves the name Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional or EZLN in Spanish) in honor of Zapata and are colloquially known as "the Zapatistas". Location within Mexico Municipalities of Chiapas Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - Total 74,211 km² (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


In the folklore of the people of Morelos, there is a widespread belief that Zapata did not die, that the corpse was that of a friend posing as Zapata, and that Zapata fled to some foreign land where he later died of old age.


Modern activists in Mexico frequently make reference to Zapata in their campaigns, his image is commonly seen on banners and many chants invoke his name: Si Zapata viviera con nosotros andaría, "If Zapata lived, he would walk with us." Zapata vive, la lucha sigue, "Zapata lives; the struggle continues."


Zapata is considered to be one of the outstanding national heroes of Mexico; many popular organizations, including the Zapatistas, a current revolutionary movement based in the state of Chiapas, take their name from him. Towns, streets, and housing developments called "Emiliano Zapata" are common across the country and he has, at times, been depicted on Mexican banknotes. ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ...


There are controversies on the portrayal of Emiliano Zapata and his followers, on whether they were bandits or revolutionaries. But in modern times Zapata is one of the most revered national heroes of Mexico. To many Mexicans, specifically the peasant and indigenous citizens, Zapata was a practical revolutionary who sought the implementation of liberties and agrarian rights outlined in the Plan of Ayala. He was a realist with the goal of achieving political and economic emancipation of the peasants in southern Mexico, and leading them out of severe poverty. A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution The Plan of Ayala (Spanish: Plan de Ayala) was a document drafted by revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata during the Mexican Revolution. ...


Zapata has in the last few decades been recast as a quasi-religious icon as well, mostly within indigenous or Zapatista communities, where he is called "Votán Zapata". Votán (Wotán in modern Mayan spelling) is a Mayan god, who with his twin brother Ik'al was said to have descended from the mountains to teach the people to defend themselves. A part of Our Word is Our Weapon by Subcomandante Marcos of the EZLN is dedicated to Votán Zapata. The Mayan languages are a family of related languages spoken from South-Eastern Mexico through northern Central America as far south as Honduras. ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN... The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


In popular culture

Zapata has been depicted in comics, books, music, movies and more. . ...


Aliases

  • "El Tigre del Sur"- Tiger of the South
  • "El Tigre"- The Tiger
  • "El Tigrillo"- Little Tiger
  • "El Caudillo del Sur"- Caudillo of the South
  • "El Atila del Sur"- The Atilla of the South

Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ...

Quotes

  • Los que no tengan miedo que pasen a firmar, (Translation: Those who have no fear should step forward to sign this) said when calling on people to sign the Plan de Ayala.
  • ¡Tierra y Libertad! (Translation: Land and Liberty)
  • Ignorance and obscurantism have never produced anything other than flocks of slaves for tyranny. (A letter to Pancho Villa)
  • The quote Es mejor morir de pie que vivir un siglo de rodillas. (Translation: It is better to die standing than to live a century on your knees.)

The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Tierra y Libertad was a slogan used during the Mexican Revolution. ... The Slogan: Land and Liberty The Mexican Revolution was fought over land rights. ...

Sources

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/spanish/seriemilenio01.htm
  • Villa and Zapata by Frank Mclynn
  • Fernando Horcasitas, De Porfirio Díaz a Zapata, memoria náhuatl de Milpa Alta,. UNAM, México DF.,1968 (eye and ear-witness account of Zapata speaking Nahuatl)
  • John Womack, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (NY: Vintage), 1970
  • Enrique Krauze, Zapata: El amor a la tierra, in the Biographies of Power series.

John Womack is a historian of Mexico, particularly of Zapata. ...

External links

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Emiliano Zapata
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Emiliano Zapata
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For the Filipino boxer, see Francisco Guilledo. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... Viva Zapata! is a 1952 biographical drama film directed by Elia Kazan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
EMILIANO ZAPATA BIOGRAPHY (409 words)
Emiliano Zapata was born on Aug. 8, 1879 in Anenecuilco, Mexico to a peasant family.
Zapata was an orphan by the age of 17 and began taking care of his brothers and sisters.
Zapata created a commission to distribute land and formed the Rural Loan Bank, which was Mexico's first organization to give credit to farmers.
Emiliano Zapata (1092 words)
Emiliano Zapata (August 8, 1879-April 9, 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 against the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz.
Zapata was born in the small Mexican state of Morelos (just north of Chiapas) in the village of Anenecuilco[?].
Zapata's introduction to anarchism came via a local schoolteacher, Otilio Montano[?], who exposed Zapata to the works of Peter Kropotkin and Flores Magon at the same time as Zapata was observing and beginning to participate in the struggles of the peasants for the land.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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