FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Emil August Fieldorf
This article is part
of the series:
Polish Secret State

History of Poland


Emil August Fieldorf (1895-1953) was a Polish Brigadier-General. He was Deputy Commander in Chief of the Polish Home Army during World War II. He was the Commander of KeDyw. He gave the order to execute German police General Franz Kutschera. The Operation Kutschera was conducted on February 2, 1944 by Grupy Szturmowe of Szare Szeregi. Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.svg‎ pl: Flaga Armi Krajowej en: Flag of the Armia Krajowa File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polish contribution to World War II Armia Krajowa History of Poland (1939–1945... Main article: Polish government in exile On 1 September 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Kedyw (acronym for Kierownictwo Dywersji, Polish Directorate of Sabotage and Diversion; probably also a play on the Turkish khedive, which translates into Polish as kedyw): a Polish World War II Armia Krajowa organization that specialized in active and passive sabotage, propaganda and armed action against German forces and collaborators. ... Franz Kutschera (born 22 February 1904 in Oberwaltersdorf in Lower Austria; died 1 February 1944 in Warsaw, Poland) was an SS general and Gauleiter of Carinthia. ... Szare Szeregi (Polish for Grey Ranks) was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association (ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II. The organisation was created on September 27, 1939, in Warsaw and largely contributed to all resistance actions of the Polish Secret State and its members were among... Szare Szeregi (Polish for Grey Ranks) was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association (ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II. The organisation was created on September 27, 1939, in Warsaw and largely contributed to all resistance actions of the Polish Secret State and its members were among...

Contents

Biography

Youth

General Fieldorf's ancestors were partially of German origin. Born 20th March 1895 in Cracow. There finished men's college of St. Nicholaas and later the Men's Seminary. In 1910 he joined the Shooters' Union, becoming a full member in 1912. He finished non-commissioned officer school there.


World War 1

On 6th August 1914 volunteered for the newly formed 1st Brigade of the Legions. With them he set out to the Russian Front, where he served in the rank of second-in-charge of an infantry platoon. In 1916 he was promoted to sergeant, and in 1917 directed to officer school.


After the oath crisis he was inducted into the Austrian Army and moved to the Italian front. He deserted and in August 1918 volunteered at the Polish Military Organisation in his home city of Cracow. The Oath crisis (Polish Kryzys przysięgowy) refers to a political conflict between the Austro-Hungarian Army command and the Józef Piłsudski-led Polish Legions. ...


Formation of a New Polish State

From november 1918 in the ranks of the Polish Army, initially as a platoon commander, and from March 1919 commanding a heavy machine gun company. In the years 1919-1920 he took part in the campaign to join the Vilnius region into Poland proper. After the commencement of the Polish-Bolshevik war as a company commander he participated in liberating Dyneburg, Zytomierz and in the Kiyev Expedition.


From 1919 he was married to Janina Kobylinska, with whom he had two daughters: Krystyna and Maria.


Interwar Years

Remaining on active duty after the war, he was promoted to Major and posted to the 1st Infantry Regiment, as battalion commander. In 1935 Fieldorf was given command of the independent battalion of the Border Protection Corps "Troki". A year later he became Lt. Colonel.


Shortly before the outbreak of World War 2 he was made commander of the 51st Rifles Regiment on the eastern fringes of Poland, within the 21st Division. He commanded the unit during the September Campaign.


World War 2

In the Defensive War he fought along the war path of the 12th Infantry Division. After the Division's defeat, in the night of 8-9th September he broke through in civilian dress to his native Cracow. From there he would attempt to make it to France, however being stopped on the Slovak border he was interned. Several weeks later he fled the internment camp and made it to the West through Hungary, where he joined with the newly forming Polish forces in-exile.


In France he completed staff coursesand was made full-colonel in may 1940. In September that year he was smuggled back to the now occupied Poland as the first emissary of the forces-in-exile. Initially operating in the Warsaw Armed Combat Union, from 1941 in Vilnius and Bialystok. A year later he was given command of the Kedyw (Special Forces) of the Home Army, where he served until 1944 and his accession to the deputy command of the entire Home Army under General Leopold Okulicki. It was on his order that the infamous SS General Franz Kutschera was assassinated in February 2, 1944 by Grupy Szturmowe of Szare Szeregi.


Shortly before the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising on 28th September 1944, he was promoted to Brigadier-General with an order from Supreme Commander Kazimierz Sosnkowski. Also he was nominated for future command of the NIE Organisation, which was formed from the cadre of the Home Army with intention of fighting under a future presumed Soviet occupation.


Postwar Years and Death

On the 7th March 1945 Fieldord was arrested by the NKVD in Milanowek. He was misidentified under the name Walenty Gdanicki and sent to a work camp in the Urals. After serving his penance he returned to Poland, now irretrievably under firm Communist control. He settled in Biala Podlaska under his assumed name. He did not return to conspiratorial activities. Moving between Warsaw and Cracow, he eventually settled in Lodz.


The Communist government, which was persecuting those former fighters who had been loyal to the Government-in-exile instead of the communist resistance, Offered an amnesty to them in 1948. Not knowing the amnesty was a sham, Fieldorf outed himself to the authorities. He was placed under investigatory arrest in Warsaw. Later housed in prison, he refused collaboration with the new security services, even under torture.


He was accused by prosecutor Helena Wolinska of having ordered the shooting of Soviet partisans while serving in the Home Army. After a kangaroo court he was sentenced to death on 16th April 1952 by the presiding judge Maria Gurowska. An appeal to a higher court failed, and the family's plea for a pardon was denied. The then President Boleslaw Bierut refused clemency. Furthermore, he was accused of being a "fascist-Hitlerite criminal" (i.e., a non-communist). Helena Wolińska in Polish Army uniform Helena Wolińska-Brus (born 1919 of Jewish parentage as Fajga Mindla Danielak) is a former military prosecutor from Poland, involved in Stalinist regime show trials of the 1950s. ...


The verdict was carried out by hanging on 24th February 1953 at 3:00pm in the Mokotow prison in Warsaw. The remains were buried in a to-this-day unknown location.

Symbolic grave of August Emil Fieldorf at Powązki Cemetery

In 1958 the Prosecutor's Office discontinued any further investigations. In 1972 a statue was erected on his symbolic grave. In 1989 following the collapse of Communism Fieldorf was rehabilitated. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... PowÄ…zki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz PowÄ…zkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. ...


In 2006 the President Lech Kaczynski posthomously granded to Fieldorf the Order of the White Eagle.


Search for Justice

His daughter Maria Fieldorf Czarska have pushed for the procecutor being responsible for the murder of her father, Helena Wolinska-Brus (who is now living in England), being brought to justice in Poland. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On December 3, 1999 a military district court ruled that Helena Wolinska be remanded in custody. Wolinska, now 79, was a military prosecutor in the 1950s and is accused of aiding in an investigation and trial that resulted in the execution of General August Fieldorf. A legendary commander of the Polish underground Home Army, during WW II, Fieldorf was accused of collaborating with the Nazis. Wolinska signed Fieldorf's arrest warrant and extended his detention several times, although she was perfectly aware—prosecutors claim—of his innocence. Fieldorf was executed on February 24, 1953, after a one-day show trial. (A 1956 report issued by the communist authorities concluded that Wolinska had violated the rule of law and was involved in biased investigations and show trials that frequently resulted in executions.) Wolinska, however, is not being tried under the judicial-screening law. The charges against her were initiated by the Commission for Investigating Crimes against the Polish Nation, which claims that Wolinska is an "accessory to a court murder," classified as a Stalinist crime and a crime of genocide, and is punishable by up to ten years in prison. The case has attracted international attention (East European Constitutional Review, 1999).


External links

  • Old BBC news story
  • Investigation against Ms. Helena Wolińska-Brus
  • East European Constitutional Review, New York University Law School 1999

 
 

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