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Encyclopedia > Emergency department

The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and requiring immediate attention. Emergency departments developed during the 20th century in response to an increased need for rapid assessment and management of critical illnesses. In some countries, emergency departments have become important entry points for those without other means of access to medical care. For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Upon arrival in the ED, people typically undergo a brief triage, or sorting, interview to help determine the nature and severity of their illness. Individuals with serious illnesses are then seen by a physician more rapidly than those with less severe symptoms or injuries. After initial assessment and treatment, patients are either admitted to the hospital, stabilized and transferred to another hospital for various reasons, or discharged. The staff in emergency departments not only includes doctors, but physician assistants (PAs) and nurses with specialized training in emergency medicine and in house Paramedics and/or emergency medical technicians, respiratory therapists, radiology technicians, Healthcare Assistants (HCAs), volunteers, and other support staff who all work as a team to treat emergency patients and provide support to anxious family members. The emergency departments of most hospitals operate around the clock, although staffing levels are usually much lower at night. Since a diagnosis must be made by an attending physician, the patient is initially assigned a chief complaint rather than a diagnosis. This is usually a symptom: headache, nausea, loss of consciousness. The chief complaint remains a primary fact until the attending physician makes a diagnosis. Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ... In the United States, a Physician Assistant (PA) is a health care professional licensed to practice medicine with the supervision of a licensed physician (either an M.D. or D.O.) [1] PAs are not to be confused with medical assistants, who perform administrative and clinical tasks in hospitals and... This article is about the occupation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ...

Contents

Department layout

The emergency department entrance at Mayo Clinic's Saint Marys Hospital. The red-and-white emergency sign is clearly noticeable.
The emergency department entrance at Mayo Clinic's Saint Marys Hospital. The red-and-white emergency sign is clearly noticeable.

A typical emergency department has several different areas, each specialized for patients with particular severities or types of illness. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x342, 218 KB) Summary Image cropped from the GNU image here [1] which is Mayo Clinics St Marys Hospital, Emergency Department entrance. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (858x342, 218 KB) Summary Image cropped from the GNU image here [1] which is Mayo Clinics St Marys Hospital, Emergency Department entrance. ... Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ... Saint Marys Hospital. ...


In the triage area, patients are seen by a triage nurse who completes a preliminary evaluation, before transferring care to another area of the ED or a different department in the hospital. Patients with life or limb-threatening conditions may bypass triage and to be seen directly by a physician. Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...


The resuscitation area is a key area of an emergency department. It usually contains several individual resuscitation bays, usually with one specially equipped for paediatric resuscitation. Each bay is equipped with a defibrillator, airway equipment, oxygen, intravenous lines and fluids, and emergency drugs. Resuscitation areas also have ECG machines, and often limited X-ray facilities to perform chest and pelvis films. Other equipment may include non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and portable ultrasound devices. CPR redirects here. ... Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... Sonography redirects here. ...


The majors, or general medical, area is for stable patients who still need to be confined to bed (note that a "bed" in the ED context is almost always a gurney or trolley rather than a full hospital bed). This area is often very busy, filled with many patients with a wide range of medical and surgical problems. Many will require further investigation and possible admission. Patients who are not in need of immediate treatment are sent to the minors area. Such patients may still have been found to have significant problems, including fractures, dislocations, and lacerations requiring suturing. Medical personnel using a stretcher-type gurney. ... A fractured bone in a living person is typically treated by restoring the fractured pieces of bone to their natural positions (if necessary), and maintaining those positions while the bone heals. ... Dislocation (joint dislocation) occurs when bones at a joint move from their normal position. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ...


A paediatric area for the treatment of children has recently become standard, to dedicate separate waiting areas and facilities for children. Some departments employ a play therapist whose job is to put children at ease to reduce the anxiety caused by visiting the emergency department, as well as provide distraction therapy for simple procedures. Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ...


Very few EDs have a dedicated area for obstetrics nowadays. In most cases, a pregnant woman who presents to the ED is sent immediately to the obstetrics/maternity ward or the Labour and Delivery suite, unless she has another medical condition that requires treatment first. Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ...


Many hospitals have a separate area for evaluation of psychiatric problems. These are often staffed by psychiatrists and mental health nurses and social workers. There is typically at least one room for people who are actively a risk to themselves or others (e.g. suicidal). A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Emergency departments may also have a separately streamed service for minor and rapidly treatable conditions, such as minor injuries. The fast track may be staffed by emergency nurse practitioners, Physician Assistants and/or physicians, and special consultation rooms are specifically designated for this purpose. This system allows for quicker treatment of patients who may otherwise be forced to wait for more pressing cases to resolve. This part of the department may be called by several names e.g. Urgent Care Centre, Fast Track Unit or Primary Care Suite depending on the local emphasis. Where this type of service is provided on a separate site from the local ED it is called a Minor Injuries Unit or an Urgent Care Clinic. In the United States, a Physician Assistant (PA) is a health care professional licensed to practice medicine with the supervision of a licensed physician (either an M.D. or D.O.) [1] PAs are not to be confused with medical assistants, who perform administrative and clinical tasks in hospitals and... A Minor Injuries Unit, in the United Kingdom is a department largely staffed by emergency nurse practitioners (ENPs) working autonomously who look after minor injuries such as lacerations and fractures, and have access to X-ray facilites. ...


Signage

An example of California hospital signage
An example of California hospital signage

A hospital with an emergency department usually has prominent signage reading Emergency or Accident and Emergency (often in white text on a red background) and an arrow to indicate where patients should proceed. Some American states closely regulate the design and content of such signs, and require wording such as "Comprehensive Emergency Medical Service" and "Physician On Duty"[1], to prevent persons in need of critical care from presenting to facilities that are not fully equipped and staffed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x917, 187 KB) A roadside sign at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x917, 187 KB) A roadside sign at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, California. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Nomenclature

Commonwealth nations and Ireland

In Australia the department is usually referred to as the emergency department or the ED. In New Zealand, it is always referred to as "A & E" in speech (ie Accident and Emergency. (A & E In the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Singapore and Ireland it is usually called the accident and emergency department (A&E). The popular term casualty is no longer considered appropriate by emergency physicians in Australia, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Leading journals including the Annals of Emergency Medicine, published by the American College of Emergency Physicians and the Emergency Medicine Journal (emj), journal of the British Association for Emergency Medicine (BAEM), consistently use the term Emergency department. A casualty is a person who is the victim of an accident, injury, or trauma. ... The Annals of Emergency Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal. ... The American College of Emergency Physicians is the largest organization of emergency medicine physicians in the United States. ... Emergency Medicine Journal (EMJ), formerly the Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal. ... The British Association for Emergency Medicine (BAEM) is the representative body for Emergency Physicians in the United Kingdom. ...


In Canada, a slang word for the emergency department is "emerge".


In Malaysia the patients are triaged -one, two, three and four according to the patients status and then seen according to the triage.(HUKM).Emergency Medicine is quite well developed in Kuala Lumpur, post graduate studies are available in various medical schools. Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ...


United States

In the United States an emergency department is often referred to by laypeople as an emergency room (ER). Medical professionals typically call it whatever its name is within their specific hospitals, or simply "Emergency." The term "emergency room" is a misnomer, as a modern hospital's emergency facilities consist of dozens of rooms. The ED interacts with every other department in the hospital and often represents a significant percentage of the hospital's work load and finances. It is common for emergency department doctors to work for a company hired by the hospital to provide emergency services.


During the 1990s, an effort was made to change to the more accurate term emergency department (ED), which is a term increasingly used by members of the specialty internationally. The effort failed and ED never caught on among the U.S. public, perhaps because of the popularity of the TV show ER, and the heavy marketing of the euphemism "ED" for erectile dysfunction by pharmaceutical companies. However, the term does have some circulation among emergency medicine staff. Individual hospitals may also refer to the department by different names, such as emergency ward, emergency center, emergency unit, etc. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ...


A smaller facility that may provide assistance in medical emergencies is known as a clinic. Larger communities often have walk-in clinics where people with medical problems that would not be considered serious enough to warrant an emergency department visit can be seen. These clinics often do not operate on a 24 hour basis, and visiting them is sometimes less expensive than going to the ED. A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ...


In 1986 congress passed a law commonly referred to as EMTALA (Federal Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, also known as the Patient Anti-Dumping Law) to address a growing concern that EDs were refusing to treat patients based on their inability to pay. This law requires every ED to provide a minimal level of care to all comers regardless of their ability to pay. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (, EMTALA) is a United States Act of Congress passed in 1986 as part of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. ...


The EMTALA act was passed by congress in 1986. Under this law, any person presenting to an Emergency Department is entitled by law to a Medical Screening Exam. The purpose of that exam is to determine if any illness or injury is present that without immediate intervention, could have serious consequences if treatment is delayed more than 24 hours. In practice, doing so often requires a full evaluation of all patients presenting to an Emergency Department. Only after that exam is fully complete may patients be referred to an outpatient clinic or their primary care physician if their condition and/or diagnosis allows it. According to a May 2003 American Medical Association (AMA) study, emergency physicians annually provide, on average, $138,300 of uncompensated care under the aegis of EMTALA.

A&E sign common in the UK.
A&E sign common in the UK.

United Kingdom

Most teaching hospitals and district general hospitals (DGHs) have an Accident & Emergency department. The largest such department in the UK is in St Thomas' Hospital. Traditionally, waits for assessment in A&E were very long in some areas of the UK. In October 2002, the Department of Health introduced a policy that forced departments to assess and treat patients within four hours of arrival, with referral and assessment by other departments if deemed necessary [1]. This triggered the introduction of the Acute Assessment Unit. Present policy is that 98% of all patients do not "breach" this four-hour wait. Saint Thomas’ Hospital. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... An Acute Assessment Unit, or Acute Admissions Unit, often abbreviated to AAU is a department in a UK hopsital which is part of the A&E department. ...


In other countries without this policy (such as Ireland and Australia), patients may be faced with prolonged waits of hours or even days on trolleys for hospital beds.


In many hospitals, the Acute Assessment Unit, also known as the Medical Assessment Unit works alongside the department. Throughout the UK, the department is known as "A&E" - Accident & Emergency. Some hospitals choose to use the term "ED" - Emergency Deparment, and drop the "Accident" from the title. This is considered appropriate by some hospitals due to people turning up with minor injuries after an accident, rather than a real emergency. Although some hospitals use the term "ED", all road signs to the department still read "A&E". An Acute Assessment Unit, or Acute Admissions Unit, often abbreviated to AAU is a department in a UK hopsital which is part of the A&E department. ...


Patient experience

Patients arrive at emergency departments in two main ways: by ambulance or independently. The ambulance crew notifies the hospital beforehand of the patient's condition and begins Advanced Life Support measures as needed. Depending on the patient's condition, the emergency department physician may direct the ambulance crew to begin specific interventions while still en route. These patients are taken to the emergency department's resuscitation area, where they are met by a team with the expertise to deal with the patients' conditions. For example, patients with major trauma are seen by a trauma team consisting of emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, a surgeon, and an anestheologist. Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... A Trauma team is a group of healthcare workers who attend to seriously ill or injured casualties who arrive at a hospital emergency department. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Patients arriving independently or by ambulance are typically triaged by a nurse with training in emergency medicine. Patients are seen in order of medical urgency, not in order of arrival. Patients are triaged to the resuscitation area, majors area, or minors area. Emergency/Accident and Emergency departments usually have one entrance with a lobby and a waiting room for patients with less-urgent conditions, and another entrance reserved for ambulances. A lobby is a room in a building which is used for entry from the outside. ... Queue at US Air Force station in Iraq, for food at a birthday celebration. Queue areas are areas in which people queue (first in, first out), that is they wait in line for something. ...


Critical conditions handled

Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest may occur in the ED/A&E or a patient may be transported by ambulance to the emergency department already in this state. Treatment is basic and advanced life support as taught in the Advanced Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support courses. This is an immediately life-threatening condition which requires immediate action in salvageable cases. Basic life support (BLS) is a specific level of prehospital medical care provided by trained responders, including emergency medical technicians, in the absence of advanced medical care. ... Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... Advanced cardiac life support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions. ...


Heart attack

See main article: Myocardial infarction

Patients arriving to the emergency department with a myocardial infarction (heart attack) are likely to be triaged to the resuscitation area. They will receive oxygen and monitoring and have an early ECG; aspirin will be given if not contraindicated or not already administered by the ambulance team; morphine or diamorphine will be given for pain; sublingual (under the tongue) or buccal (between cheek and upper gum) glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) (GTN or NTG) will be given, unless contraindicated by the presence of other drugs, such as drugs that treat erectile disfunction. Heart attack redirects here. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... This article is about the drug. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ... This article is about the drug. ... Heroin or diamorphine (INN) (colloquially referred to as junk, babania, horse, golden brown, smack, black tar, big H, lady H, dope, skag, juice, diesel, etc. ... Pain redirects here. ... Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the pharmaceutical name for nitroglycerin. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... Erectile dysfunction, also known as impotence, is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ...


An ECG that reveals ST segment elevation or new left bundle branch block suggests complete blockage of one of the main coronary arteries. These patients require immediate reperfusion (re-opening) of the occluded vessel. This can be achieved in two ways: thrombolysis (clot-busting medication) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Both of these are effective in reducing significantly the mortality of myocardial infarction. Many centers are now moving to the use of PTCA as it is somewhat more effective than thrombolysis if it can be administered early. This may involve transfer to a nearby facility with facilities for angioplasty. “QRS” redirects here. ... Bundle branch block refers to a disorder of the hearts electrical conducting system. ... Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) by pharmacological means, of blood clots. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Trauma

See main article: Physical trauma

Major trauma, the term for patients with multiple injuries, often from a road traffic accident or a fall, is treated by a trauma team who have been trained using the principles taught in the internationally recognized Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course of the American College of Surgeons. Some other international training bodies have started to run similar courses based on the same principles. In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... A Trauma team is a group of healthcare workers who attend to seriously ill or injured casualties who arrive at a hospital emergency department. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ... The American College of Surgeons, located in Chicago, Illinois is a scientific and educational association of surgeons in the United States that was founded in 1913 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice. ...


The services that are provided in an emergency department can range from simple x-rays and the setting of broken bones to those of a full-scale trauma center. A patient's chance of survival is greatly improved if the patient receives definitive treatment (i.e. surgery or reperfusion)within one hour of an accident (such as a car accident) or onset of acute illness (such as a heart attack). This critical time frame is commonly known as the "golden hour." A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... In emergency medicine the golden hour is the first sixty minutes after the occurrence of multi-system trauma. ...


Some emergency departments in smaller hospitals are located near a helipad which is used by helicopters to transport a patient to a trauma center. This inter-hospital transfer is often done when a patient requires advanced medical care unavailable at the local facility. In such cases the emergency department can only stabilize the patient for transport. An Atlas Oryx helicopter touches down on a helipad onboard the High Speed Vessel Swift (HSV 2) ship. ... Stabilization is a process to help prevent shock in sick or injured people. ...


Mental Illness

Some patients arrive at an emergency department for a complaint of mental illness. In many jurisdictions (including many U.S. states), patients who appear to be mentally ill and to present a danger to themselves or others may be brought against their will to an emergency department by law enforcement officers for psychiatric examination. From the emergency department, patients thought to be mentally ill may be transferred to a psychiatric unit (in many cases involuntarily)..


Asthma and COPD

Acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are assessed as emergencies and treated with oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, steroids or theophylline, have an urgent chest X-ray and arterial blood gases and are referred for intensive care if necessary. Non invasive ventilation in the ED has reduced the requirement for intubation in many cases of severe exacerbations of COPD. For COPD occuring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Frontal chest X-ray. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ... mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Special facilities, training, and equipment

An ED requires different equipment and different approaches than most other hospital divisions. Patients frequently arrive with unstable conditions, and so must be treated quickly. They may be unconscious, and information such as their medical history, allergies, and blood type may be unavailable. ED staff are trained to work quickly and effectively even with minimal information.


ED staff must also interact efficiently with pre-hospital care providers such as EMTs, paramedics, and others who are occasionally based in an ED. The pre-hospital providers may use equipment unfamiliar to the average physician, but ED physicians must be expert in using (and safely removing) specialized equipment, since devices such as Military Anti-Shock Trousers ("MAST") and traction splints require special procedures. Among other reasons, given that they must be able to handle specialized equipment, physicians can now specialize in emergency medicine, and EDs employ many such specialists. An emergency medical technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services (EMS) to the critically ill and injured. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ... Military Anti-Shock Trousers are medical devices used to treat severe blood loss. ... A traction splint is used to treat severe bone fractures by holding the broken bone immobile and by applying pressure along its length. ...


ED staff have much in common with ambulance and fire crews, combat medics, search and rescue teams, and disaster response teams. Often, joint training and practice drills are organized to improve the coordination of this complex response system. Busy EDs exchange a great deal of equipment with ambulance crews, and both must provide for replacing, returning, or reimbursing for costly items. An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... This article is about the profession. ... Medical team at work during the Battle of Normandy. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... The UK organisation for the provision of Disaster Response by Radio amateurs is called RAYNET. More information on RAYNET and the services it provides can be found at http://www. ...


Cardiac arrest and major trauma are relatively common in EDs, so defibrillators, automatic ventilation and CPR machines, and bleeding control dressings are used heavily. Survival in such cases is greatly enhanced by shortening the wait for key interventions, and in recent years some of this specialized equipment has spread to pre-hospital settings. The best-known example is defibrillators, which spread first to ambulances, then in an automatic version to police cars, and most recently to public spaces such as airports, office buildings, hotels, and even shopping malls. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... CPR redirects here. ... This article is about traditional meanings of the word office. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ...


Because time is such an essential factor in emergency treatment, EDs typically have their own diagnostic equipment to avoid waiting for equipment installed elsewhere in the hospital. Nearly all have an X-ray room, and many now have full radiology facilities including CT scanners and ultrasonography equipment. Laboratory services may be handled on a priority basis by the hospital lab, or the ED may have its own "STAT Lab" for basic labs (blood counts, blood typing, toxicology screens, etc) that must be returned very rapidly.


Non-emergency use

Emergency departments around the world are increasingly being used for non-emergency care because of overburdened healthcare systems. Many people, afflicted by minor injuries or illnesses late at night or at times when their doctor's office is closed, are forced to resort to attending the ED. This is especially true for conditions with distressing symptoms, such as a child's ear infection. People in lower socioeconomic classes are more likely to use the ED for primary care services, as they typically find it inconvenient or impossible to miss work for a visit to the General Practitioner (GP). Otitis media (also known as glue ear) is an inflammation of the middle ear, usually associated with a buildup of fluid. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ...


In the United Kingdom, it has become more popular to visit the A&E since it became mandatory for patients to be fully treated and discharged from the department within four hours of arrival. Also, the introduction of the new contract for primary care doctors in that country decreased the accessibility of GP services. Under this contract GPs can opt out of on-call cover, and patients sometimes present instead to the A&E.


In many Primary Care Trusts there may be out of hours doctor services sometimes known as Keydoc or something similar (varying by area) provided by volunteer General Practitioners. Many services in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom are provided by NHS Trusts. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ...


Resident physicians

Resident physicians, in specialty training for the specialty of Emergency Medicine, provide a large portion of the medical care in university hospital ED's. They are supervised by ABEM board certified attending physicians. The chief resident (chosen by the university faculty) is often the best all-around resident, universally thought of as the most talented resident physician. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


Academic resources

  • Academic Emergency Medicine, ISSN: 1069-6563, Elsvier

Citations

  1. ^ Title 22, California Code of Regulations, Section 70453(j).

References

  • John B Bache, Carolyn Armitt, Cathy Gadd, Handbook of Emergency Department Procedures, ISBN 0-7234-3322-4
  • Swaminatha V Mahadevan, An Introduction To Clinical Emergency Medicine: Guide for Practitioners in the Emergency Department, ISBN 0-521-54259-6

See also

In France, there are two types of emergency rooms: the specialized services (called SAU) and the proximity units (called Upatou). ... An Acute Assessment Unit, or Acute Admissions Unit, often abbreviated to AAU is a department in a UK hopsital which is part of the A&E department. ...

External links

  • Jacobi/Montefiore Emergency Departments affiliated with Albert Einstein Medical School US Emergency Dept Residency
  • Stony Brook University Emergency Dept US Emergency Dept
  • St. Luke's-Roosevelt Emergency Department Emergency Rooms in New York City
  • Narrative of an ED nurse (AUS)
  • ED visits (US)
  • ED wait times (Canada)
  • Group dedicated to improving A&E departments in East Kent (UK)
  • Overuse of Emergency Departments Among Insured Californians(US)
  • emergencyroom at PS1
Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Advanced cardiac life support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions. ... Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ... Basic life support (BLS) is a specific level of prehospital medical care provided by trained responders, including emergency medical technicians, in the absence of advanced medical care. ... CPR redirects here. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) is a system of Advanced Life Support applied to infants and children. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... Level I trauma center provides the highest level of Surgical care to trauma patients. ... In the United States a Level II trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I trauma center. ... A Level III trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I or a Level II trauma center. ... A Level IV trauma center provides the stabilization and treatment of severely injured patients in remote areas where no alternative care is available. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A disposable BVM Resuscitator A bag valve mask (also known as a BVM or Ambu bag) is a hand-held device used to provide ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of the bone. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients. ... For other uses, see Basics. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agent. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... In emergency medicine the golden hour is the first sixty minutes after the occurrence of multi-system trauma. ... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ... Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Newton-Wellesley Hospital set to open new emergency department - Daily Business Update - The Boston Globe (190 words)
The hospital said the number of annual visits to its emergency department was 35,000 in 1999, and that number is projected to rise to 55,000 visits by 2008.
The 35,000-square-foot pavilion includes 36 treatment bays and is three times the size of the old emergency department, the hospital said.
Newton-Wellesley's new emergency department under construction earlier this year.
Emergency department - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3235 words)
The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident and emergency (AandE) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and requiring immediate attention.
Emergency departments developed during the 20th century in response to an increased need for rapid assessment and management of critical illnesses.
Some emergency departments in smaller hospitals are located near a helipad which is used by helicopters to transport a patient to a trauma center.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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kikoko
26th July 2010
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