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Encyclopedia > Emergence
A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature.
A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature.

In philosophy, systems theory and the sciences, emergence refers to the way complex systems and patterns, such as those that form a hurricane, arise out of relatively simple interactions. Like intelligence in the field of AI, or agents in distributed artificial intelligence, emergence is central to the physics of complex systems and yet very controversial. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 703 KB) Summary Photo taken and supplied by Brian Voon Yee Yap. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 703 KB) Summary Photo taken and supplied by Brian Voon Yee Yap. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are invisible, and a group of eusocial insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order, Isoptera. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ... In computer science, a software agent is an abstraction, a logical model that describes software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency. ... Distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) was a subfield of Artificial intelligence research dedicated to the development of distributed solutions for complex problems regarded as requiring intelligence. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ...

"Perhaps the most elaborate recent definition of emergence was provided by Jeffrey Goldstein in the inaugural issue of Emergence.(Goldstein 1999) To Goldstein, emergence refers to "the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems." The common characteristics are: (1) radical novelty (features not previously observed in systems); (2) coherence or correlation (meaning integrated wholes that maintain themselves over some period of time); (3) A global or macro "level" (i.e. there is some property of "wholeness"); (4) it is the product of a dynamical process (it evolves); and (5) it is "ostensive" - it can be perceived. For good measure, Goldstein throws in supervenience -- downward causation." (Corning 2002) In philosophy, supervenience is a well-defined dependency relation between higher-level (. mental) and lower-level (. physical) properties. ...

The term "emergent" was coined by the pioneer psychologist G. H. Lewes who wrote: George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ...

"Every resultant is either a sum or a difference of the cooperant forces; their sum, when their directions are the same -- their difference, when their directions are contrary. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, because these are homogeneous and commensurable. It is otherwise with emergents, when, instead of adding measurable motion to measurable motion, or things of one kind to other individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. The emergent is unlike its components in so far as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference." (Lewes 1875, p. 412)(Blitz 1992)

However, the concept behind the term has been in use since at least the time of Aristotle.[1] John Stuart Mill[2] and Julian Huxley[3] are just some of the historic luminaries who have written on the concept. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ...

Contents

Strong vs. Weak Emergence

Emergence may be generally divided into two perspectives, that of "weak emergence" and "strong emergence". Weak emergence describes new properties arising in systems as a result of the interactions at an elemental level. Emergence, in this case, is merely part of the language, or model that is needed to describe a system's behavior. Weak Emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is reducible to its individual constituents. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents physical, biological or social processes, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ...


But if, on the other hand, systems can have qualities not directly traceable to the system's components, but rather to how those components interact, and one is willing to accept that a system supervenes on its components, then it is difficult to account for an emergent property's cause. These new qualities are irreducible to the system's constituent parts (Laughlin 2005). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This view of emergence is called strong emergence. Some fields in which strong emergence is more widely used include etiology, epistemology and ontology. System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek sustēma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component. ... In philosophy, supervenience is a well-defined dependency relation between higher-level (. mental) and lower-level (. physical) properties. ... Irreducibility, in philosophy, has the sense that a complete account of an entity will not be possible at lower levels of explanation. ... Strong Emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is irreducible to its individual constituents. ... Strong Emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is irreducible to its individual constituents. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ...


Regarding strong emergence, Mark A. Bedau observes: Strong Emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is irreducible to its individual constituents. ...

"Although strong emergence is logically possible, it is uncomfortably like magic. How does an irreducible but supervenient downward causal power arise, since by definition it cannot be due to the aggregation of the micro-level potentialities? Such causal powers would be quite unlike anything within our scientific ken. This not only indicates how they will discomfort reasonable forms of materialism. Their mysteriousness will only heighten the traditional worry that emergence entails illegitimately getting something from nothing."(Bedau 1997)

However, "the debate about whether or not the whole can be predicted from the properties of the parts misses the point. Wholes produce unique combined effects, but many of these effects may be co-determined by the context and the interactions between the whole and its environment(s)." (Corning 2002) Along that same thought, Arthur Koestler stated, "it is the synergistic effects produced by wholes that are the very cause of the evolution of complexity in nature" and used the metaphor of Janus to illustrate how the two perspectives (strong or holistic vs. weak or reductionistic) should be treated as perspectives, not exclusives, and should work together to address the issues of emergence.(Koestler 1969) Further,

"The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe..The constructionist hypothesis breaks down when confronted with the twin difficulties of scale and complexity. At each level of complexity entirely new properties appear. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry. We can now see that the whole becomes not merely more, but very different from the sum of its parts."(Anderson 1972)

Objective or Subjective Quality

The properties of complexity and organization of any system are considered by Crutchfield to be subjective qualities determined by the observer. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...

"Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities. Despite the difficulties, these problems can be analyzed in terms of how model-building observers infer from measurements the computational capabilities embedded in nonlinear processes. An observer’s notion of what is ordered, what is random, and what is complex in its environment depends directly on its computational resources: the amount of raw measurement data, of memory, and of time available for estimation and inference. The discovery of structure in an environment depends more critically and subtlely, though, on how those resources are organized. The descriptive power of the observer’s chosen (or implicit) computational model class, for example, can be an overwhelming determinant in finding regularity in data."(Crutchfield 1994)

On the other hand, Peter Corning argues "Must the synergies be perceived/observed in order to qualify as emergent effects, as some theorists claim? Most emphatically not. The synergies associated with emergence are real and measurable, even if nobody is there to observe them." (Corning 2002) Peter A. Corning, Ph. ...


Emergence in Philosophy

In philosophy, emergence is often understood to be a much stronger claim about the etiology of a system's properties. An emergent property of a system, in this context, is one that is not a property of any component of that system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole. Nicolai Hartmann, one of the first modern philosophers to write on emergence, termed this categorial novum (new category). Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... Nicolai Hartmann (February 20, 1882 – October 9, 1950) was a German philosopher. ...


Emergent properties

An emergent behavior or emergent property can appear when a number of simple entities (agents) operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective. If emergence happens over disparate size scales, then the reason is usually a causal relation across different scales. In other words there is often a form of top-down feedback in systems with emergent properties. These are two of the major reasons why emergent behavior occurs: intricate causal relations across different scales and feedback. The property itself is often unpredictable and unprecedented, and may represent a new level of the system's evolution. The complex behavior or properties are not a property of any single such entity, nor can they easily be predicted or deduced from behavior in the lower-level entities: they are irreducible. No physical property of an individual molecule of air would lead one to think that a large collection of them will transmit sound. The shape and behavior of a flock of birds or shoal of fish are also good examples. An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ...


One reason why emergent behavior is hard to predict is that the number of interactions between components of a system increases combinatorially with the number of components, thus potentially allowing for many new and subtle types of behavior to emerge. For example, the possible interactions between groups of molecules grows enormously with the number of molecules such that it is impossible for a computer to even count the number of arrangements for a system as small as 20 molecules. Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ...


On the other hand, merely having a large number of interactions is not enough by itself to guarantee emergent behavior; many of the interactions may be negligible or irrelevant, or may cancel each other out. In some cases, a large number of interactions can in fact work against the emergence of interesting behavior, by creating a lot of "noise" to drown out any emerging "signal"; the emergent behavior may need to be temporarily isolated from other interactions before it reaches enough critical mass to be self-supporting. Thus it is not just the sheer number of connections between components which encourages emergence; it is also how these connections are organised. A hierarchical organisation is one example that can generate emergent behavior (a bureaucracy may behave in a way quite different to that of the individual humans in that bureaucracy); but perhaps more interestingly, emergent behavior can also arise from more decentralized organisational structures, such as a marketplace. In some cases, the system has to reach a combined threshold of diversity, organisation, and connectivity before emergent behavior appears.


Unintended consequences and side effects are closely related to emergent properties. Luc Steels writes: "A component has a particular functionality but this is not recognizable as a subfunction of the global functionality. Instead a component implements a behavior whose side effect contributes to the global functionality [...] Each behavior has a side effect and the sum of the side effects gives the desired functionality" (Steels 1990). In other words, the global or macroscopic functionality of a system with "emergent functionality" is the sum of all "side effects", of all emergent properties and functionalities. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Luc Steels is Director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and is heading the SONY Computer Science Laboratory in Paris. ...


Systems with emergent properties or emergent structures may appear to defy entropic principles and the second law of thermodynamics, because they form and increase order despite the lack of command and central control. This is possible because open systems can extract information and order out of the environment. Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamics meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...


Emergence helps to explain why the fallacy of division is a fallacy. According to an emergent perspective, intelligence emerges from the connections between neurons, and from this perspective it is not necessary to propose a "soul" to account for the fact that brains can be intelligent, even though the individual neurons of which they are made are not. A fallacy of division occurs when someone reasons logically that something that is true of a thing must also be true of its constituents. ...


Emergent structures in nature

Emergent structures are patterns not created by a single event or rule. Nothing commands the system to form a pattern. Instead, the interaction of each part with its immediate surroundings causes a complex chain of processes leading to some order. One might conclude that emergent structures are more than the sum of their parts because the emergent order will not arise if the various parts are simply coexisting; the interaction of these parts is central. Emergent structures can be found in many natural phenomena, from the physical to the biological domain. For example, the shape of weather phenomena such as hurricanes are emergent structures. This article is about weather phenomena. ...


It is useful to distinguish three forms of emergence structures. First-order emergence structures occurs as a result of shape interactions (for example, hydrogen bonds in water molecules lead to surface tension). Second-order emergence structures involves shape interactions played out sequentially over time (for example, changing atmospheric conditions as a snowflake falls to the ground build upon and alter its form). Finally, third-order emergence structures is a consequence of shape, time, and heritable instructions. For example, an organism's genetic code sets boundary conditions on the interaction of biological systems in space and time. Snapshot from a simulation of liquid water. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ...


Non-living, physical systems

In physics, emergence is used to describe a property, law, or phenomenon which occurs at macroscopic scales (in space or time) but not at microscopic scales, despite the fact that a macroscopic system can be viewed as a very large ensemble of microscopic systems. Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. ...


An emergent property need not be more complicated than the underlying non-emergent properties which generate it. For instance, the laws of thermodynamics are remarkably simple, even if the laws which govern the interactions between component particles are complex. The term emergence in physics is thus used not to signify complexity, but rather to distinguish which laws and concepts apply to macroscopic scales, and which ones apply to microscopic scales.


Some examples include:

  • Color: Elementary particles have no color; it is only when they are arranged in atoms that they absorb or emit specific wavelengths of light and can thus be said to have a color.
  • Friction: Forces between elementary particles are conservative. However, friction emerges when considering more complex structures of matter, whose surfaces can convert mechanical energy into heat energy when rubbed against each other. Similar considerations apply to other emergent concepts in continuum mechanics such as viscosity, elasticity, tensile strength, etc.
  • Classical mechanics: The laws of classical mechanics can be said to emerge as a limiting case from the rules of quantum mechanics applied to large enough masses. This may be puzzling, because quantum mechanics is generally thought of as more complicated than classical mechanics.
  • Statistical mechanics was initially derived using the concept of a large enough ensemble that fluctuations about the most likely distribution can be all but ignored. However, small clusters do not exhibit sharp first order phase transitions such as melting, and at the boundary it is not possible to completely categorize the cluster as a liquid or solid, since these concepts are (without extra definitions) only applicable to macroscopic systems. Describing a system using statistical mechanics methods is much simpler than using a low-level atomistic approach.

Temperature is sometimes used as an example of an emergent macroscopic behavior. In classical dynamics, a snapshot of the instantaneous momenta of a large number of particles at equilibrium is sufficient to find the average kinetic energy per degree of freedom which is proportional to the temperature. For a small number of particles the instantaneous momenta at a given time are not statistically sufficient to determine the temperature of the system. However, using the ergodic hypothesis, the temperature can still be obtained to arbitrary precision by further averaging the momenta over a long enough time. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... The related Category:Units of viscosity has been nominated for deletion, merging, or renaming. ... Elasticity has meanings in two different fields: In physics and mechanical engineering, the theory of elasticity describes how a solid object moves and deforms in response to external stress. ... Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Classical mechanics is a branch of physics which studies the deterministic motion of objects. ... Fig. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... In mathematical physics, especially as introduced into statistical mechanics and thermodynamics by J. Willard Gibbs in 1878, an ensemble (also statistical ensemble or thermodynamic ensemble) is an idealization consisting of a large number of mental copies (possibly infinitely many) of a system, considered all at once, each of which represents... In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... Fig. ... In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis says that, over long periods of time, the time spent in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i. ...


In some theories of particle physics, even such basic structures as mass, space, and time are viewed as emergent phenomena, arising from more fundamental concepts such as the Higgs boson or strings. In some interpretations of quantum mechanics, the perception of a deterministic reality, in which all objects have a definite position, momentum, and so forth, is actually an emergent phenomenon, with the true state of matter being described instead by a wavefunction which need not have a single position or momentum. Most of the laws of physics themselves as we experience them today appear to have emerged during the course of time making emergence the most fundamental principle in the universe and raising the question of what might be the most fundamental law of physics from which all others emerged. Chemistry (including the evolution of both elements and molecules over time) can in turn be viewed as an emergent property of the laws of physics. Biology (including biological evolution) can be viewed as an emergent property of the laws of chemistry. Finally, psychology could at least theoretically be understood as an emergent property of biological laws. Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory String theory is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point... Fig. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ...


Living, biological systems

Life is a major source of complexity, and evolution is the major principle or driving force behind life. In this view, evolution is the main reason for the growth of complexity in the natural world. If we speak of the emergence of complex living beings and life-forms, we refer therefore to processes of sudden changes in evolution. For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Flocking is a well-known behavior in many animal species from swarming locusts to fish and birds. Emergent structures are a common strategy found in many animal groups: colonies of ants, mounds built by termites, swarms of bees, shoals/schools of fish, flocks of birds, and herds/packs of mammals. Flocking is a common demonstration of emergence and emergent behaviour, invented in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. ...


An example to consider in detail is an ant colony. The queen does not give direct orders and does not tell the ants what to do. Instead, each ant reacts to stimuli in the form of chemical scent from larvae, other ants, intruders, food and build up of waste, and leaves behind a chemical trail, which, in turn, provides a stimulus to other ants. Here each ant is an autonomous unit that reacts depending only on its local environment and the genetically encoded rules for its variety of ant. Despite the lack of centralized decision making, ant colonies exhibit complex behavior and have even been able to demonstrate the ability to solve geometric problems. For example, colonies routinely find the maximum distance from all colony entrances to dispose of dead bodies. An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live. ...


A broader example of emergent properties in biology is the combination of individual atoms to form molecules such as polypeptides, which in turn form organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, and communities[4]. In turn, all the biological communities in the world form the biosphere, the current known level of emergent properties. Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Look up Tissue on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word tissue has several meanings: Aerial tissu is an acrobatic art form, and is one of the circus arts. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A community usually refers to a sociological group in a large place or collections of plant or animal organisms sharing an environment. ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ...


Emergence in culture and engineering

Emergent processes or behaviors can be seen in many places, such as traffic patterns, cities, political systems of governance, cabal and market-dominant minority phenomena in politics and economics, organizational phenomena in computer simulations and cellular automata. Nighttime traffic captured by a camera over several seconds. ... A cabal is a number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote their private views and interests in a church, state, or other community by intrigue. ... A market-dominant minority, coined by Amy Chua in her 2001 book World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability, is an immigrant minority to a country that through means of facility, become disproportionately wealthy and powerful, as compared to the indigenous majority. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory and mathematics. ...


Economics

The stock market is an example of emergence on a grand scale. As a whole it precisely regulates the relative prices of companies across the world, yet it has no leader; there is no one entity which controls the workings of the entire market. Agents, or investors, have knowledge of only a limited number of companies within their portfolio, and must follow the regulatory rules of the market and analyze the transactions individually or in large groupings. Trends and patterns emerge which are studied intensively by technical analysts. According to Belgian technical analyst B.Leclere, a distinction has to be made between the stock market as an organization (stock exchange) and as a valuation term (stock prices/indexes). As a valuation term, the stock market, as a whole, has no emergence property. The reason is that financial models follow the chaos theory. This lack of emergence at the valuation level is the main source of crashes. Economic models, on the contrary, follow the thermodynamic theory. To provide the stock market (valuation) with an emergence property while, at the same time, preserving the stochastic process of its constituents, both (economic and financial) models should use a common ground for the measurement of volatility, i.e. nominal GDP growth. The details of a common volatility measure is provided in a model he called Profitip index [1]. A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... The price of one thing (usually a good) in terms of another; ie, the ratio of two prices. ... Technical analysis, also known as charting, is the study of the trading history (the price and volume over time) of any type of security (stocks, commodities, etc. ... A plot of the trajectory Lorenz system for values r = 28, σ = 10, b = 8/3 In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that under certain conditions exhibit a phenomenon known as chaos. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Stochastic, from the Greek stochos or goal, means of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural; random. ... A nominal is a word or a group of words that functions as a noun, i. ...


WWW

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a popular example of a decentralized system exhibiting emergent properties. There is no central organization rationing the number of links, yet the number of links pointing to each page follows a power law in which a few pages are linked to many times and most pages are seldom linked to. A related property of the network of links in the world wide web is that almost any pair of pages can be connected to each other through a relatively short chain of links. Although relatively well known now, this property was initially unexpected in an unregulated network. It is shared with many other types of networks called small-world networks. Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... See Also: Watt In physics, a power law relationship between two scalar quantities x and y is any such that the relationship can be written as where a (the constant of proportionality) and k (the exponent of the power law) are constants. ... In mathematics and physics, a small-world network is a class of random graphs where most nodes are also neighbors of one another, but every node can be reached from every other by a small number of hops or steps. ...


Architecture and cities

Emergent structures appear at many different levels of organization or as spontaneous order. Emergent self-organization appears frequently in cities where no planning or zoning entity predetermines the layout of the city. (Krugman 1996, pp. 9-29) The interdisciplinary study of emergent behaviors is not generally considered a homogeneous field, but divided across its application or problem domains. Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... The city of Chicago, as seen from the sky A city is an urban area that is differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of all input values to the function. ...


Often architects and landscapers will not design all the pathways of a complex of buildings. Instead they will let usage patterns emerge and then place pavement where pathways have become worn in.


The on-course action and vehicle progression of the 2007 Urban Challenge could possibly regarded as an example of cybernetic emergence. Patterns of road use, nondeterministic obstacle clearance times, etc. will work together to form a complex emergent pattern that can not be deterministically planned in advance. 2007 Urban Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ... Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ...


Mathematics

Although the above examples of emergence are often contentious, mathematics provides a rigorous basis for defining and demonstrating emergence. Alex Ryan shows that a Möbius strip has emergent properties (Ryan 2006). The Möbius strip is a one-sided, one-edged surface. Further, a Möbius strip can be constructed from a set of two-sided, three edged, triangular surfaces. Only the complete set of triangles is one-sided and one-edged: any subset does not share these properties. Therefore, the emergent property can be said to emerge precisely when the final piece of the Möbius strip is put in place. An emergent property is a spatially or temporally extended feature – it is coupled to a definite scope, and cannot be found in any component because the components are associated with a narrower scope. A Möbius strip made with a piece of paper and tape. ...


Pithily, emergent properties are those that are global, topological: properties of the whole. A Möbius strip, a surface with only one side and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ...


Games

Emergent behavior is also important in games and game design. For example, the game of poker, especially in no limit forms without a rigid betting structure, is largely driven by emergent behavior. For example, no rule requires that any player should fold, but usually many players do. Because the game is driven by emergent behavior, play at one poker table might be radically different from that at another, while the rules of the game are exactly the same. Variations of games that develop are examples of emergent metaplay, the predominant catalyst of the evolution of new games. Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ... A game of Texas holdem, the most popular form of poker, in progress. ... // Wikibooks Poker has more about this subject: Betting This article describes the common terms, rules, and procedures in the game, but does not cover the strategic impact of betting. ... Variation, in game design, is the process whereby the community of players, rather than any officiating authority, adapts the rules for informal play. ...


Fads and beliefs

An emergent concept (EC) is a slight variation on consensus reality that is accepted as plausible. The hallmarks of an emergent concept, as opposed to some categories of memes (urban myths, or viruses of the mind) are that EC are increasingly accepted as truth or possibility, based upon other empirical or anecdotal evidence in the mind of the believer or society (in its subsets) as a whole. EC can be viewed as fad, or common causal reality building. EC have no relationship to truth or fact, but are simply engines bringing individual concepts of truth into the mainstream. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Social constructionism. ... The term meme (IPA: , rhyming with theme. Commonly pronounced in the US as , rhyming with gem), coined in 1976[1] by the biologist Richard Dawkins, refers to a unit of cultural information which can propagate from one mind to another in a manner analogous to genes (i. ... Urban Legend is also the name of a 1998 movie. ... In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is the precursor molecule to FADH2. ...


Emergence in political philosophy

Economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek wrote about emergence in the context of law, politics, and markets. His theories are most fully developed in Law, Legislation and Liberty, which sets out the difference between cosmos or "grown order" (that is, emergence), and taxis or "made order". Hayek dismisses philosophies that do not adequately recognize the emergent nature of society, and which describe it as the conscious creation of a rational agent (be it God, the Sovereign, or any kind of personified body politic, such as Hegel's state or Hobbes's leviathan). The most important social structures, including the laws ("nomos") governing the relations between individual persons, are emergent, according to Hayek. While the idea of laws and markets as emergent phenomena comes fairly naturally to an economist, and was indeed present in the works of early economists such as Bernard Mandeville, David Hume, and Adam Smith, Hayek traces the development of ideas based on spontaneous-order throughout the history of Western thought, occasionally going as far back as the presocratics. In this, he follows Karl Popper, who blamed the idea of the state as a made order on Plato in The Open Society and its Enemies. Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Law, Legislation and Liberty is the 1973 magnum opus in three volumes by Nobel laureate economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... A taxis (plural taxes, pronounced takseez) is an innate behavioral response by an organism (or cell) to a directional stimulus (a stimulus from a particular direction) whereby an organism moves (orientation movement) either towards (positive taxis) or away from (negative taxis) the stimulus. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up Sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Destruction of Leviathan. 1865 engraving by Gustave Doré. This article is about the biblical creature. ... Nomos (plural: Nomoi) can refer to: the prefectures of Greece, the administrative division immediately below the peripheries of Greece (Greek: νομός, νομοί) the subdivisions of Ancient Egypt, see Nome (subnational division) law (Greek: νόμος, νόμοι). It is the origin of the suffix -onomy. ... Bernard de Mandeville (1670- January 19 or 21, 1733?), was a philosopher and satirist. ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... Adam Smith (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian born naturalized British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ...


See also

A plot of the trajectory Lorenz system for values r = 28, σ = 10, b = 8/3 In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that under certain conditions exhibit a phenomenon known as chaos. ... It has been suggested that symbiotic intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... Constructal design of a cooling system The constructal theory of global optimization under local constraints explains in a simple manner the shapes that arise in nature. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... An emergent algorithm is an algorithm that has the following characteristics: it achieves predictable global effects; it does not require global visibility; it does not assume any kind of centralized control; it is self-stabilizing. ... An epiphenomenon is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside a primary phenomenon. ... Emergent gameplay is the creative use of a game in ways unexpected by the game designers original intent. ... Flocking is a common demonstration of emergence and emergent behaviour, invented in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. ... The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... The Generative Sciences (or Generative Science) is the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary sciences that explore the natural world and its complex behaviours as a generative process. ... Holism (from holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... Interconnectedness is one of many concepts gaining popularity as part of the terminology of a worldview which sees a oneness in all things. ... The Law of Mass Action, first expressed by Waage and Guldberg in 1864 , states that the rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the probability that the reacting molecules will be found together in a small volume. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... This article or section should be merged with Society of Mind Marvin Minskys theory of the Society of Mind asserts that the mind is the product of the interaction of a vast society of distinct and individually simple processes known as agents. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behavior in decentralized, self-organized systems. ... Systems intelligence is a concept developed in the fields of engineering sciences and applied philosophy. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... System of Systems is a relatively new term that is being applied primarily to government projects for addressing large scale inter-disciplinary problems with multiple, heterogeneous, distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels and multiple domains. ... In the Marathon video game series by Bungie Studios, rampancy is an expansive growth of intelligence and self-awareness in a computer AI. The term was adapted by Greg Kirkpatrick, the Marathon storys writer, as a replacement for the word insane, as the term could be considered cliché and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A market-dominant minority, coined by Amy Chua in her 2001 book World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability, is an immigrant minority to a country that through means of facility, become disproportionately wealthy and powerful, as compared to the indigenous majority. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book H, 1045:8-10
  2. ^ "The chemical combination of two substances produces, as is well known, a third substance with properties different from those of either of the two substances separately, or of both of them taken together" (Mill 1843)
  3. ^ Julian Huxley: "now and again there is a sudden rapid passage to a totally new and more comprehensive type of order or organization, with quite new emergent properties, and involving quite new methods of further evolution" (Huxley 1947)
  4. ^ Cambell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 6th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002.

Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ...

References and Bibliography

  • Anderson, P.W. (1972), "More is Different: Broken Symmetry and the Nature of the Hierarchical Structure of Science", Science 177: 393-396
  • Bar-Yam, Y. (2004), "A Mathematical Theory of Strong Emergence using Multiscale Variety", Complexity 9:6: 15-24
  • Bateson, Gregory (1972), Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-226-03905-6
  • Bedau, Mark A. (1997), Weak Emergence
  • Blitz, David (1992), Emergent Evolution: Qualitative Novelty and the Levels of Reality, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
  • Bunge, Mario Augusto (2001), Emergence and Convergence
  • Chalmers, David J. (2002), Strong and Weak Emergence
  • Corning, Peter A. (2002), "The Re-Emergence of "Emergence": A Venerable Concept in Search of a Theory", Complexity 7(6): 18-30
  • Crutchfield, James P. (1994), "The Calculi of Emergence: Computation, Dynamics, and Induction", Physica D Special issue on the Proceedings of the Oji International Seminar: Complex Systems — from Complex Dynamics to Artificial Reality
  • Delsemme, Armand (1998), Our Cosmic Origins: From the Big Bang to the Emergence of Life and Intelligence, Cambridge University Press
  • De Wolf, Tom & Tom Holvoet (2005), "Emergence Versus Self-Organisation: Different Concepts but Promising When Combined", Engineering Self Organising Systems: Methodologies and Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 3464
  • Fromm, Jochen (2004), The emergence of complexity, Kassel University Press, ISBN 3-89958-069-9* Fromm, Jochen (2005a), Types and Forms of Emergence, arXiv
  • Fromm, Jochen (2005b), Ten Questions about Emergence, arXiv
  • Goodwin, Brian (2001), How the Leopard Changed Its Spots: The Evolution of Complexity, Princeton University Press
  • Goldstein, Jeffrey (1999), "Emergence as a Construct: History and Issues", Emergence: Complexity and Organization 1: 49-72
  • Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1979), Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, Harvester Press
  • Holland, John H. (1998), Emergence from Chaos to Order, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-7382-0142-1
  • Hopfield, John J. (1982), "Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 2554-2558
  • Huxley, Julian S. & Thomas Henry Huxley (1947), Evolution and Ethics: 1893-1943, London, 1947: The Pilot Press
  • Johnson, Steven Berlin (2001), Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software, Scribner's, ISBN 0-684-86876-8
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1993), The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195079515
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1995), At Home in the Universe, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Kelly, Kevin (1994), Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World, Perseus Books, ISBN 0-201-48340-8
  • Koestler, Arthur (1969), in A. Koestler & J. R. Smythies, Beyond Reductionism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences, London: Hutchinson
  • Korotayev, A.; A. Malkov & D. Khaltourina (2006), Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Compact Macromodels of the World System Growth, Moscow: URSS, ISBN 5-484-00414-4
  • Krugman, Paul (1996), The Self-organizing Economy, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 1-55786-698-8 and 0-87609-177-X
  • Laughlin, Robert (2005), A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-03828-X
  • Lewes, G. H. (1875), Problems of Life and Mind (First Series), vol. 2, London: Trübner
  • Lewin, Roger (2000), Complexity - Life at the Edge of Chaos (second ed.), University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226476545 & ISBN 0226476553
  • Mill, John Stuart (1843), A System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive (1872 ed.), London: John W. Parker and Son
  • Morowitz, Harold J. (2002), The Emergence of Everything: How the World Became Complex, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513513-X
  • Ryan, Alex J. (2006), "Emergence is Coupled to Scope, not Level", Complexity (to be submitted)
  • Schelling, Thomas C. (1978), Micromotives and Macrobehavior, W. W. Norton
  • Smith, John Maynard & Eörs Szathmáry (1997), The Major Transitions in Evolution, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-850294-X
  • Steels, Luc (1990), "Towards a Theory of Emergent Functionality", From Animals to Animats (Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior), Cambridge, MA & London, England: Bradford Books (MIT Press)
  • Wolfram, Stephen (2002), A New Kind of Science, ISBN 1-57955-008-8
  • Young, Louise B. (2002), The Unfinished Universe, ISBN ISBN 0-19-5080394

Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... David Blitz has been a faculty member at Central Connecticut State University since 1989. ... Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ... Peter A. Corning, Ph. ... Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American academic. ... GEB cover Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (commonly GEB) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Douglas Hofstadter, published in 1979 by Basic Books. ... Dr. John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929) is known as the father of genetic algorithms. ... John Joseph Hopfield (b. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Steven Berlin Johnson Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author. ... Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who has given much thought to the origin of life on Earth. ... Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who has given much thought to the origin of life on Earth. ... Kevin Kelly Kevin Kelly is the founding executive editor of Wired magazine, and former publisher of the Whole Earth Catalog. ... Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ... Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ... Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an economist who has written several books, and since 2000 has written a twice-weekly op-ed column for The New York Times. ... Robert Betts Laughlin (born November 1, 1950) is an American theoretical physicist who, with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui, was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in physics for his explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. ... George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Thomas Crombie Schelling (born 14 April 1921) is an American economist and professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland College Park. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... Luc Steels is Director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and is heading the SONY Computer Science Laboratory in Paris. ... Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959 in London) is a scientist known for his work in theoretical particle physics, cellular automata, complexity theory, and computer algebra, and is the creator of the computer program Mathematica. ... A New Kind of Science is a controversial book by Stephen Wolfram, published in 2002. ...

External links

Specialized wikis
  • DCS-Wiki
  • NECSI Wiki
  • Shalizi's Notebooks
Robotics
  • "Designing Emergent Behaviors: From Local Interactions to Collective Intelligence", Maja J. Mataric, From Animals to Animats 2; Meyer, J-A., etal (eds)
  • "Towards a Theory of Emergent Functionality", Luc Steels, From Animals to Animats 1, Meyer, J-A. & Wilson, S. (eds)

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory, mathematics, and theoretical biology. ... Gospers Glider Gun creating gliders. The Game of Life is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. ... The building interior near the entrance The MIT Media Lab in the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology engages in education and research in the digital technology used for expression and communication. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Emergence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3102 words)
Emergence is the process of complex pattern formation from more basic constituent parts or behaviors.
It may, however, be profitable to consider the "emergence" of the texture of the cake as a relatively complex result of the baking process and the mixture of ingredients.
In physics, emergence is used to describe a property, law, or phenomenon which occurs at macroscopic scales (in space or time) but not at microscopic scales, despite the fact that a macroscopic system can be viewed as a very large ensemble of microscopic systems.
EXPLAINING EMERGENCE:- towards an ontology of levels (13523 words)
The recent approaches to emergence and their implications for the ontology and epistemology of the concept of emergence will be considered in detail in a separate paper, but the general implications for explaining emergent phenomena seems to be clear and shall be considered briefly.
Thus 'emergence' is a genuine phenomenon, but we can conceive of an explanation in the form of a scenario or a sequence of plausible events, each contributing to increase the complexity of the constituent sub-systems (macromolecules and their chemical reactions) and ending up with full-fledged cells.
Emergence as a single process does not constitute levels but only entities; the emergence of primary levels are a combination of entity constitution and subsequent level constitution, by generation of relations between the entities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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