FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Embryo transfer

Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. In vitro fertilisation[1] (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the womans womb. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ...

8-cell embryo for transfer 3 days after fertilization

Contents

Image File history File links 8-cell embryo, day 3 Courtesy: RWJMS IVF Program File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 8-cell embryo, day 3 Courtesy: RWJMS IVF Program File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Fresh versus frozen

== Embryos can be either "fresh" from fertilized egg cells of the same menstrual cycle, or "frozen", that is they have been generated in a preceding cyle, cryopreserved, and are thawn just prior to the transfer. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes in the females of some animal species that is associated with reproductive fertility. ...


Uterine preparation

In the human, the uterine lining (endometrium) needs to be appropriately prepared so that the embryo(s) can implant. In a natural or stimulated cycle, the embryo transfer takes place in the luteal phase at a time where the lining is appropriately developed in relation to the status of the embryo. In a cycle where a "frozen" embryo is transferred, the recipient woman could be given first estrogen preparations (about 2 weeks), then a combination of estrogen and progesterone so that the lining becomes receptive for the embryo. The time of receptivity is the "implantation window". The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... The luteal phase is the latter phase of the estrous cycle in animals. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ...

 == 

science exams suck


Timing

In stimulated cycles in human IVF, embryos are typically transferred 3 days after fertilization and may then be at the eight-cell stage, or they are transferred 2 to 3 days later when they have reached the blastocyst stage. Embryos who reach the day 3 cell stage can be tested for chromosal or specific genetic defects prior to possible transfer by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Categories: Biology stubs ... The blastocyst is the structure formed in early mammalian embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocele, but before implantation. ... In medicine and (clinical) genetics preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a method to test oocytes prior to fertilization or embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. ... PGD may refer to: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis PhpGmailDrive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Procedure

The procedure of embryo transfer is performed by a physician, often with the aid of ultrasound to allow for precise placement. The catheter loaded with one or more embryos is advanced through the cervix into the uterine cavity and the embryo(s) are released into the cavity. Anesthesia is generally not required. Schematic frontal view of female anatomy The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ...


Embryo number

A major issue is how many embryos should be transferred. Placement of multiple embryos carries the risk of multiple pregnancy. In the past, physicans have often placed too many embryos in the hope to establish a pregnancy. However, the rise in multiple pregnancies has led to a reassessment of this approach. Professional societies and in many countries, the legislature, have issued guidelines or laws to curtail a practice of placing too many embryos in an attempt to reduce multiple pregnancies.


Follow-up

After embryo transfer patients are kept on estrogen and progesterone medication; pregnancy testing is done typically two weeks


Third-party reproduction

It is not necessary that the embryo transfer be performed on the female who provided the eggs. Thus another female whose uterus is appropriately prepared can receive the embryo and carry the pregnancy. This situation may apply for a woman who has eggs but no uterus and wants to have a biologic baby; she would require the help of a gestational carrier to carry the pregnancy. Also, a woman who has no eggs but a uterus may resort to egg donor IVF, in which case another woman would provide eggs for fertilization and the resulting embryos are placed into the uterus of the patient. Third party reproduction is controversial and regulated in many countries. A gestational carrier is a woman who carries a pregnancy for another woman. ... An egg donor is a woman who provides usually several eggs (ova, oocytes) for another person or couple who want to have a child. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Embryo transfer (1075 words)
The success rate of the embryo transfer depends upon many different factors but it is mostly related to the fertility and age of the donor and recipient mare, synchrony between donor and recipient mare and semen quality of the stallion.
The embryos of subfertile mares are affected by the poor uterine environment between arrival in the uterus on day five and embryo flush on day seven or eight.
Embryo recovery from donor mares bred with frozen semen is usually lower than that for donor mares bred with fresh or cooled semen.
Embryo Transfer (747 words)
Embryos are generally transferred back to the woman's uterus at the 2 - 8 cell stage, which occurs 48 - 72 hours after the retrieval.
During the two weeks after the embryo transfer while a couple is anxiously awaiting the outcome of their IVF cycle, the time will pass more slowly and stressfully if a woman confines herself to bed.
Embryos that are not transferred may be frozen for use in subsequent cycles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m